Table of Contents
date title user score
2022-05-14 08:43:46 Can we make a black hole? And if we could, what could we do with it? nsoonhui 133
2022-05-14 13:18:21 DNS over Dedicated QUIC Connections mooreds 2
2022-05-13 05:57:58 Twitter Deal Temporarily on Hold palebluedot 629
2022-05-09 14:27:05 Show HN: – Live search for Python documentation danosull 74
2022-05-08 22:08:15 Colleges where everyone works and there's no tuition bale 186
2022-05-04 09:27:42 What are your most used self-hosted applications? geeked 735
2022-05-04 00:17:23 Sqldiff: SQLite Database Difference Utility thunderbong 210
2022-04-30 14:17:18 GitBOM: Enabling universal artifact traceability in software supply chains todsacerdoti 26
2022-04-26 07:05:34 Compostable fungi-based replacement for styrofoam gruuya 202
2022-04-24 13:30:52 Evolution is not a tree of life but a fuzzy network ALee 100
2022-04-23 10:53:06 U.S. interest rates have soared everywhere but savings accounts mgh2 237
2022-04-20 11:57:01 Changing std:sort at Google’s scale and beyond ashvardanian 557
2022-04-13 04:41:13 Deep Learning Poised to ‘Blow Up’ Famed Fluid Equations takiwatanga 54
2022-04-16 01:56:26 Gigahertz topological valley Hall effect in NEMS phononic crystals westurner 2
2022-04-16 01:54:48
2022-04-14 10:13:22 Doing small network scientific machine learning in Julia faster than PyTorch adgjlsfhk1 178
2022-04-13 09:56:37 Logarithms yearning to be free _Microft 75
2022-04-12 08:49:34 Show HN: Monocle – bidirectional code generation library lucasluitjes 148
2022-04-12 16:11:52 Organization Discussions – GitHub Changelog judge2020 37
2022-04-08 23:04:23 Fossil of dinosaur killed in asteroid strike found, scientists claim Hooke 225
2022-04-07 01:08:26 We’ve got a science opportunity overload: Launching the Wolfram Institute nsoonhui 255
2022-04-06 23:13:22 Wind Turbine Blades Can’t Be Recycled, So They’re Piling Up in Landfills (2020) mizzao 13
2022-04-06 06:59:47 GhostSCAD: Marrying OpenSCAD and Golang ljan 54
2022-04-06 13:01:46 The existence of true one-way functions depends on Kolmogorov complexity theafh 439
2022-04-06 09:58:09 Language of fungi derived from their electrical spiking activity T-A 239
2022-04-02 09:35:52 Lifetime Annotations for C++ akling 184
2022-04-03 23:43:51 Learn about Concept Maps Tomte 83
2022-04-03 21:09:20 The Personal Security Checklist mcrump 253
2022-04-03 16:40:09 Study Tips from Richard Feynman takiwatanga 196
2022-04-02 11:21:44 Minimodem – general-purpose software audio FSK modem marcodiego 152
2022-04-01 08:02:11 Ask HN: Why don't PCs have better entropy sources? bloopernova 127
2022-04-01 02:58:02 Postgres wire compatible SQLite proxy ithkuil 288
2022-04-01 11:12:05 Show HN: Redo – Command line utility for quickly creating shell functions silentprog 124
2022-04-01 03:50:13 Rustc_codegen_GCC can now bootstrap rustc bestouff 197
2022-03-29 11:17:56 Black Holes Shown to Act Like Quantum Particles theafh 36
2022-03-30 12:00:10 Dagger: a new way to build CI/CD pipelines shykes 395
2022-03-30 09:13:14 Grafana Mimir – Horizontally scalable long-term storage for Prometheus devsecopsify 261
2022-03-27 20:00:26 Physicists Build Circuit That Generates Clean, Limitless Power from Graphene (2020) joak 51
2022-03-28 06:54:35 Recommendations when publishing a WASM library comagoosie 39
2022-03-25 09:54:28 A statically typed scripting language that transpiles to Posix sh TaKO8Ki 251
2022-03-24 07:46:33 If you’re not using SSH certificates you’re doing SSH wrong (2019) noyesno 459
2022-03-23 14:32:44 Google's Certificate Transparency Search page to be discontinued May 15th, 2022 TheBrokenRail 79
2022-03-23 16:08:39 Implementing a toy version of TLS 1.3 jfarmer 224
2022-03-22 13:34:54 The quantum technology ecosystem explained sblank 70
2022-03-19 16:54:56 Debugging with GDB ingve 194
2022-03-22 22:52:06 Researchers store a quantum bit for a record-breaking 20 milliseconds westurner 8
2022-03-22 01:09:24 Arpchat – Text your friends on the same network using just ARP calmingsolitude 88
2022-03-17 11:42:25 'Quantum hair’ could resolve Hawking’s black hole paradox, say scientists monkey_monkey 2
2022-03-19 14:57:20 A Primer on Proxies jgrahamc 142
2022-03-21 14:34:03 Ask HN: Tools to generate coverage of user documentation for code tstack 6
2022-03-19 12:47:27 Show HN: `Git add -p` with multiple buckets aleclm 94
2022-03-17 04:25:09 Beavers back in London after 400-year absence zeristor 179
2022-03-17 15:48:41 Show HN: A Graphviz Implementation in Rust Q26124 182
2022-03-10 21:10:47 How to record data for reinforcement learning agent from any Linux game (2020) mooreds 58
2022-03-14 17:10:10 Podman can transfer container images without a registry kukx 149
2022-03-14 21:58:34 Light exposure during sleep impairs cardiometabolic function sndean 275
2022-03-14 13:34:33 Show HN: Instantly create a GitHub repository to take screenshots of a web page simonw 214
2022-03-13 12:20:31 Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity (2018) gkfasdfasdf 224
2022-03-12 11:12:14 Lasers could cut lifespan of nuclear waste from a million years to 30 minutes metaph6 235
2022-03-12 14:09:35 Show HN: Hubfs – File System for GitHub billziss 160
2022-03-09 11:10:12 Physicists steer chemical reactions by magnetic fields and quantum interference wrycoder 103
2022-03-08 10:01:48 White noise improves learning by modulating activity in midbrain regions (2014) Friday_ 219
2022-03-10 15:27:51 Show HN: Prepform – AI and spaced-repetition to optimize learning techmowgli 50
2022-03-08 21:20:08 Why tensors? A beginner's perspective mfn 173
2022-03-09 11:28:43 Booting ARM Linux the standard way MartijnBraam 139
2022-03-09 02:20:30 PipeWire: A year in review and a look ahead pabs3 262
2022-03-07 17:30:40 How does database indexing work? (2008) luu 253
2022-03-08 09:53:43 WebGPU – All of the cores, none of the canvas jasim 393
2022-03-07 19:14:42 Command-line Tools can be 235x Faster than your Hadoop Cluster (2014) graderjs 360
2022-03-03 14:21:56 CPython, C standards, and IEEE 754 jwilk 119
2022-03-03 10:43:26 Ask HN: Books recommendations on developing critical thinking? jackallis 29
2022-02-23 18:00:29 Web Share API jka 2
2022-02-22 12:13:02 Ask HN: Is Kubernetes the only alternative for being cloud agnostic? taylodl 37
2022-02-21 09:17:07 Bootloader Basics mooreds 104
2022-02-21 01:35:17 Automerge: A JSON-like data structure (a CRDT) that can be modified concurrently yamrzou 274
2022-02-17 09:18:48 A 13-year-old used my artificial nose to diagnose pneumonia kartben_ 324
2022-02-20 17:43:21 Lit-up fishing nets reduce catch of unwanted sharks, rays and squid: study bryanrasmussen 82
2022-02-17 09:50:14 Design of a rapid transit to Mars mission using laser-thermal propulsion nixass 55
2022-02-17 03:41:39 WebGL 2.0 Achieves Pervasive Support from All Major Web Browsers nkjoep 220
2022-02-17 09:25:13 Uniting the Linux random-number devices h1x 125
2022-02-11 15:44:37 Carbon Robotics new LaserWeeder with 30 lasers to autonomously eradicate weeds rmason 19
2022-02-09 11:16:05 Launch HN: Pelm (YC W22) – Plaid for Utilities drewkim 101
2022-02-07 08:31:11 Show HN: SHA-256 explained step-by-step visually manceraio 1241
2022-02-06 14:36:54 Frank Rosenblatt's perceptron paved the way for AI 60 years too soon (2019) ilamont 184
2022-02-04 06:52:18 1999 Repeal of Glass-Steagall was the worst deregulation enacted in US history consumer451 135
2022-02-01 16:20:25 America’s Covid job-saving programme gave most of its cash to the rich pseudolus 526
2022-02-03 10:13:55 Ask HN: Do you use TLA+? riddleronroof 49
2022-02-02 13:53:21 New material that can absorb and release enormous amounts of energy prostoalex 189
2022-02-01 14:01:08 WebVM: Server-less x86 virtual machines in the browser AshleysBrain 350
2022-01-29 15:48:54 Plant-based epoxy enables recyclable carbon fiber kungfudoi 174
2022-01-30 08:04:36 Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C to better understand Python? Takizawamura 54
2022-01-30 04:16:16 GDPR penalty for passing on of IP address to Google by using Google Fonts sitting_duck 389
2022-01-26 17:53:35 Rancher Desktop 1.0 vyskocilm 152
2022-01-25 07:56:27 Systemd by Example Foxboron 496
2022-01-25 15:05:09 Pwnkit: Local Privilege Escalation in polkit's pkexec (CVE-2021-4034) todsacerdoti 268
2022-01-19 22:48:12 MicroShift wallflower 122
2022-01-18 05:31:08 Systemd service sandboxing and security hardening (2020) capableweb 293
2022-01-16 16:27:55 Why isn't there a universal data format for résumés? ColinWright 427
2022-01-15 08:18:25 LAN-port-scan forbidder, browser addon to protect private network gry_gh 48
2021-12-18 01:26:35 Ask HN: What are the best books for professional effectiveness? arikr 107
2021-11-19 14:49:08 HTTP Message Signatures mooreds 58
2021-11-29 15:43:15 Asmrepl: REPL for x86 Assembly Language tekkertje 230
2021-11-26 11:17:29 On yak shaving and <md-block>, a new HTML element for Markdown feross 118
2021-11-21 15:51:49 Thoughts on “E-Readers” (2009) ctoth 56
2021-11-07 12:48:12 Ask HN: Why don’t startups share their cap table and/or shares outstanding? axg11 2
2021-11-02 13:16:45 Toxiproxy is a framework for simulating network conditions taf2 213
2021-11-01 15:38:12 Report on Stablecoins [pdf] TheAlchemist 654
2021-11-01 10:03:38 Intel Extension for Scikit-Learn privong 182
2021-10-29 11:57:36 The Metaverse Was Lame Even Before Facebook coffeefirst 39
2021-10-26 11:13:21 Is college worth it? A return-on-investment analysis paulpauper 146
2021-10-26 16:05:00 Notes from the Meeting on Python GIL Removal Between Python Core and Sam Gross rbanffy 248
2021-10-14 14:54:06 Show HN: OtterTune – Automated Database Tuning Service for RDS MySQL/Postgres apavlo 164
2021-10-24 10:14:11 Despite having just 5.8% sales, over 38% of bug reports come from Linux otreblan 1290
2021-10-24 16:26:23 Arrow DataFusion includes Ballista, which does SIMD and GPU vectorized ops westurner 2
2021-10-21 02:51:09 Parsing gigabytes of JSON per second signa11 139
2021-10-21 15:14:23 Fed to ban policymakers from owning individual stocks awb 577
2021-10-21 10:52:11 Hardened wood as a renewable alternative to steel and plastic Tomte 315
2021-10-20 03:27:50 Investors use AI to analyse CEOs’ language patterns and tone pseudolus 109
2021-10-09 19:15:34 Graph of Keybase commits pre and post Zoom acquisition 0des 348
2021-10-19 17:57:29 Single sign-on: What we learned during our identity alpha open-source-ux 145
2021-10-19 14:23:13 Five things we still don’t know about water Anon84 305
2021-10-19 19:45:09 New Optical Switch Up to 1000x Faster Than Transistors ofou 267
2021-10-17 21:00:38 Show HN: I built a sonar into my surfboard foobarbecue 332
2021-10-15 18:29:05 Cortical Column Networks RageoftheRobots 49
2021-10-05 07:30:30 Startup Ideas luu 223
2021-10-05 13:15:42 It is easier to educate a Do-er than to motivate the educated tosh 448
2021-09-30 09:59:40 Are software engineering “best practices” just developer preferences? floverfelt 316
2021-09-30 10:50:30 Major Quantum Computing Strategy Suffers Serious Setbacks elsewhen 90
2021-09-29 09:27:45 Attempts to scientifically “rationalize” policy may be damaging democracy anarbadalov 235
2021-09-29 04:18:46 Response to 'Call for Review: Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) v1.0' lorn3 86
2021-09-29 18:01:08 Apple didn't revolutionize power supplies; new transistors did (2012) Rondom 208
2021-09-27 18:02:51 What does my engineering manager do all day? mooreds 187
2021-09-23 12:29:15 Using two keyboards at once for pain relief ruffrey 349
2021-09-22 10:52:56 Waydroid – Run Android containers on Ubuntu pabs3 684
2021-09-16 11:36:55 Biologists Rethink the Logic Behind Cells’ Molecular Signals theafh 104
2021-09-16 23:47:13 The Shunting-yard algorithm converts infix notation to RPN westurner 2
2021-09-16 23:46:10
2021-09-13 20:13:29 How should logarithms be taught? raviparikh 34
2021-09-15 12:12:35 Automatic cipher suite ordering in Go’s crypto/tls FiloSottile 122
2021-09-14 04:50:14 Scikit-Learn Version 1.0 m3at 260
2021-09-14 09:11:22 Signed Exchanges on Google Search oedmarap 5
2021-09-11 17:43:17 AlphaGo documentary (2020) [video] rdli 248
2021-09-11 11:16:26 Interpretable Model-Based Hierarchical RL Using Inductive Logic Programming YeGoblynQueenne 66
2021-09-13 07:41:02 Ship / Show / Ask: A modern branching strategy NicoJuicy 157
2021-09-13 13:38:02 Show HN: TweeView – A Tree Visualisation of Twitter Conversations edent 55
2021-09-11 15:07:03 Wireless Charging Power Side-Channel Attacks tosh 68
2021-09-11 15:07:11 How We Proved the Eth2 Deposit Contract Is Free of Runtime Errors michaelsbradley 179
2021-09-12 08:36:03 Physics-Based Deep Learning Book Anon84 195
2021-09-10 03:38:41 Ask HN: Books that teach you programming languages via systems projects? Foe 204
2021-09-04 16:40:30 How you can track your personal finances using Python siddhant 140
2021-09-09 17:22:35 CISA Lays Out Security Rules for Zero Trust Clouds CrankyBear 6
2021-09-09 07:53:55 Show HN: Heroku Alternative for Python/Django apps appliku 183
2021-09-09 13:33:54 SPDX Becomes Internationally Recognized Standard for Software Bill of Materials warp 10
2021-09-07 03:35:39 Show HN: on IPFS hugoroussel 238
2021-09-04 13:46:05 New Texas Abortion Law Likely to Unleash a Torrent of Lawsuits Against Education gamontserrat 118
2021-09-02 20:25:43 DARPA grant to work on sensing and stimulating the brain noninvasively [video] grawprog 83
2021-09-02 19:55:58 New Ways to Be Told That Your Python Code Is Bad nickdrozd 102
2021-09-03 05:14:58 Web-based editor pjmlp 564
2021-09-03 06:48:06 GitHub Copilot Generated Insecure Code in 40% of Circumstances During Experiment elsombrero 261
2021-09-01 10:00:44 AAS Journals Will Switch to Open Access sohkamyung 215
2021-08-30 23:46:28 White House Launches US Digital Corps elsewhen 160
2021-08-25 08:13:52 Launch HN: Litnerd (YC S21) – Teaching kids to read with the help of live actors Anisa_Mirza 127
2021-08-27 12:20:28 Nimforum: Lightweight alternative to Discourse written in Nim ducktective 172
2021-08-21 12:21:58 An Opinionated Guide to Xargs todsacerdoti 402
2021-08-20 21:41:10 Enhanced Support for Citations on GitHub chenzhekl 80
2021-08-18 17:51:46 Canada calls screen scraping ‘unsecure,’ sets Open Banking target for 2023 exotree 349
2021-08-13 09:03:22 Interactive Linear Algebra (2019) natemcintosh 365
2021-08-12 16:12:15 Git password authentication is shutting down judge2020 440
2021-08-12 10:33:42 A future for SQL on the web rasmusfabbe 925
2021-08-01 11:34:17 Show HN: Python Source Code Refactoring Toolkit via AST treesciencebot 110
2021-08-03 09:27:50 Emacs' org-mode gets citation support NeutralForest 234
2021-08-03 11:55:43 NSA Kubernetes Hardening Guidance [pdf] kennethko 635
2021-07-31 02:56:35 Hosting SQLite Databases on GitHub Pages isnotchicago 567
2021-07-22 23:42:24 Ask HN: Any good resources on how to be a great technical advisor to startups? _009 21
2021-07-11 21:23:27 Teaching other teachers how to teach CS better robfig 156
2021-07-06 12:15:22 Ask HN: Best online speech / public speaking course? i_am_not_elon 33
2021-06-30 21:39:31 Google sunsets the APK format for new Android apps kevin_thibedeau 142
2021-06-22 12:30:43 A from-scratch tour of Bitcoin in Python yigitdemirag 1187
2021-06-13 17:33:23 An Omega-3 that’s poison for cancer tumors elorant 255
2021-06-08 19:09:39 Discover and Prevent Linux Kernel Zero-Day Exploit Using Formal Verification vzaliva 3
2021-06-04 13:28:44 Anatomy of a Linux DNS Lookup belter 168
2021-05-29 02:59:45 JupyterLite – WASM-powered Jupyter running in the browser ahurmazda 205
2021-05-26 16:05:11 Accenture, GitHub, Microsoft and ThoughtWorks Launch the GSF scottcha 4
2021-05-27 14:21:55 DRAM Alternative Developed: 4X Higher Density at Higher Speed and Lower Power billyharris 14
2021-05-27 11:07:44 Rocky Linux releases its first release candidate sparcpile 147
2021-05-26 06:09:46 USB-C is about to go from 100W to 240W, enough to power beefier laptops Tomte 427
2021-05-25 12:02:06 Half-Double: New hammering technique for DRAM Rowhammer bug fqazi 189
2021-05-20 15:20:29 Setting up a Raspberry Pi with 2 Network Interfaces as a simple router geerlingguy 126
2021-05-19 03:20:31 What to do about GPU packages on PyPI? polm23 123
2021-05-18 17:17:39 Markdown Notes VS Code extension: Navigate notes with [[wiki-links]] julienreszka 2
2021-05-11 14:07:44 Ask HN: Choosing a language to learn for the heck of it bsg75 13
2021-05-10 11:53:54 Show HN: Django SQL Dashboard simonw 202
2021-05-06 13:33:00 Interactive IPA Chart Jeud 243
2021-05-06 16:15:29 Google Dataset Search abraxaz 386
2021-05-04 20:09:49 Ask HN: Cap Table Service Recommendations Ankaios 1
2021-05-02 12:43:15 Hosting SQLite databases on GitHub Pages or any static file hoster phiresky 1808
2021-04-23 13:11:53 Wasm3 compiles itself (using LLVM/Clang compiled to WASM) theBashShell 178
2021-04-24 01:18:52 Remote code execution in Homebrew by compromising the official Cask repository spenvo 387
2021-04-22 12:51:22 Semgrep: Semantic grep for code ievans 415
2021-04-10 09:05:03 Ask HN: What to use instead of Bash / Sh for scripting? lordgroff 52
2021-04-09 13:11:27 Estonian Electronic Identity Card and Its Security Challenges [pdf] IndrekR 72
2021-04-08 20:49:08 Systemd makes life miserable, again, this time by breaking DNS bcrl 5
2021-04-08 21:35:57 Ask HN: How bad is proof-of-work blockchain energy consumption? furrowedbrow 2
2021-03-30 17:42:22 What does a PGP signature on a Git commit prove? JNRowe 147
2021-03-30 06:40:47 Breakthrough for ‘massless’ energy storage reimertz 233
2021-03-25 10:08:52 OpenSSL Security Advisory arkadiyt 327
2021-03-26 14:15:06 How much total throughput can your wi-fi router really provide? giuliomagnifico 84
2021-03-23 17:28:53 The Most Important Scarce Resource Is Legitimacy ve55 119
2021-03-19 11:31:14 A few notes on message passing srijan4 151
2021-03-11 13:41:42 Duolingo's language notes all on one page rococode 265
2021-03-11 12:19:20 Ask HN: The easiest programming language for teaching programming to young kids? simplerman 25
2021-03-07 10:09:22 Raspberry Pi for Kill Mosquitoes by Laser ColinWright 342
2021-03-07 10:16:33 Donate Unrestricted razin 288
2021-03-02 09:55:02 Bitcoin Is Time taylorwc 442
2021-02-28 06:34:44 Foundational Distributed Systems Papers mastabadtomm 253
2021-02-28 21:46:20 Low-Cost Multi-touch Whiteboard using the Wiimote (2007) [video] jstrieb 49
2021-02-27 21:56:01 How to Efficiently Choose the Right Database for Your Applications gesaint 80
2021-02-21 17:26:02 A Data Pipeline Is a Materialized View nchammas 144
2021-02-18 06:17:14 There’s no such thing as “a startup within a big company” isolli 635
2021-02-18 03:21:39 Ask HN: Keyrings: per-package/repo; commit, merge, and release keyrings? westurner 1
2021-02-13 01:42:16 Threat Actors Now Target Docker via Container Escape Features pizza 134
2021-02-11 23:09:15 Ask HN: What security is in place for bank-to-bank EFT? andrewon 1
2021-02-11 09:06:18 Podman: A Daemonless Container Engine lobo_tuerto 320
2021-02-10 07:54:05 Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index apples_oranges 979
2021-02-10 13:41:55 Bitcoin's fundamental value is negative given its environmental impact martinlaz 134
2021-02-05 13:41:13 Ask HN: What are some books where the reader learns by building projects? Shosty123 53
2021-02-05 09:05:57 Is it wrong to demand features in open-source projects? theabbie 8
2021-02-02 09:43:58 CompilerGym: A toolkit for reinforcement learning for compiler optimization azhenley 139
2021-01-24 07:17:14 Turning desalination waste into a useful resource thereare5lights 42
2021-01-26 17:41:26 Evcxr: A Rust REPL and Jupyter Kernel batterylow 170
2021-01-24 16:51:25 Ask HN: What is the cost to launch a SaaS business MVP mikesabbagh 16
2021-01-23 17:03:11 Cryptocurreny crime is way ahead of regulators and law enforcement dgellow 114
2021-01-22 14:39:19 Ask HN: Why aren't micropayments a thing? wppick 106
2021-01-21 18:34:43 Elon Musk announces $100M carbon capture prize tito 11
2021-01-11 08:20:39 Tim Berners-Lee wants to put people in control of their personal data IvanSologub 238
2021-01-11 07:08:49 Governments spurred the rise of solar power jakozaur 133
2021-01-05 07:50:03 Termux no longer updated on Google Play martinlaz 362
2021-01-01 16:57:02 Ask HN: What should go in an Excel-to-Python equivalent of a couch-to-5k? etothepii 9
2020-12-28 08:06:01 Scientists turn CO2 into jet fuel vanburen 61
2020-12-27 14:16:01 Show HN: Stork: A customizable, WASM-powered full-text search plugin for the web jil 137
2020-12-27 14:14:42 Upptime – GitHub-powered open-source uptime monitor and status page fahrradflucht 301
2020-12-26 11:31:47 Show HN: Simple-graph – a graph database in SQLite dpapathanasiou 236
2020-12-24 10:54:18 In CPython, types implemented in C are part of the type tree todsacerdoti 108
2020-12-16 08:15:03 Experiments on a $50 DIY air purifier that takes 30s to assemble dyno-might 292
2020-12-13 06:07:56 Goodreads plans to retire API access, disables existing API keys buttscicles 869
2020-12-11 16:33:14 Turing Tumble Simulator tobias2014 2
2020-11-30 07:53:34 Python Pip 20.3 Released with new resolver groodt 224
2020-11-23 14:39:50 Convolution Is Fancy Multiplication ubac 397
2020-11-18 10:09:55 How to better ventilate your home arunbahl 101
2020-11-06 13:01:34 Quantum-computing pioneer Peter Shor warns of complacency over Internet security headalgorithm 2
2020-11-05 01:11:47 CERN Online introductory lectures on quantum computing from 6 November limist 277
2020-11-03 19:31:07 A Manim Code Template HaoZeke 2
2020-10-21 20:28:21 Startup Financial Modeling: What is a Financial Model? (2016) aaronbski 229
2020-10-16 18:23:29 At what grade level do presidential candidates debate? the_afonseca 51
2020-10-11 14:30:27 ElectricityMap – Live CO₂ emissions of electricity production and consumption jka 221
2020-10-09 02:53:03 Bash Error Handling sohkamyung 287
2020-10-09 18:37:09 A Customer Acquisition Playbook for Consumer Startups jcs87 129
2020-10-06 02:34:07 Gathering all open and sustainable technology projects protontypes 3
2020-10-05 11:50:57 Jupyter Notebooks Gallery jeffnotebook 101
2020-10-03 16:33:30 NestedText, a nice alternative to JSON, YAML, TOML nestedtext 302
2020-10-04 12:21:50 Algorithm discovers how six molecules could evolve into life’s building blocks gmays 390
2020-10-02 14:16:05 Physicists build circuit that generates clean, limitless power from graphene westurner 42
2020-09-29 17:37:53 Mozilla shuts project Iodide: Datascience documents in browsers ritwiksaikia 46
2020-09-27 07:18:50 Ask HN: What are good life skills for people to learn? smarri 254
2020-09-23 22:04:25 Four Keys Project metrics for DevOps team performance westurner 3
2020-09-19 09:13:45 Ask HN: Resources to encourage teen on becoming computer engineer? tomrod 111
2020-09-18 14:10:34 CadQuery: A Python parametric CAD scripting framework based on OCCT OJFord 134
2020-09-17 01:31:25 Array Programming with NumPy hardmaru 289
2020-09-17 16:38:37 Do you like the browser bookmark manager? andyware 6
2020-09-17 12:58:46 NIST Samate – Source Code Security Analyzers animationwill 71
2020-09-17 04:19:49 A Handwritten Math Parser in 100 lines of Python gnebehay 64
2020-09-15 06:25:51 PEP – An open source PDF editor for Mac threcius 191
2020-09-12 10:49:38 The Unix timestamp will begin with 16 this Sunday dezmou 452
2020-09-11 07:36:54 Redox: Unix-Like Operating System in Rust bpierre 242
2020-09-11 09:31:37 Ask HN: How are online communities established? jayshua 127
2020-09-10 20:19:41 Python Documentation Using Sphinx keyboardman 1
2020-09-10 07:18:54 Traits of good remote leaders sfg 356
2020-09-09 22:07:59 Show HN: Eiten – open-source tool for portfolio optimization hydershykh 200
2020-09-08 09:51:43 Ask HN: Any well funded tech companies tackling big, meaningful problems? digitalmaster 97
2020-09-07 17:50:02 Column Names as Contracts MaysonL 55
2020-09-06 00:49:07 Graph Representations for Higher-Order Logic and Theorem Proving (2019) brzozowski 104
2020-09-04 22:37:14 Show HN: Linux sysadmin course, eight years on snori74 780
2020-09-03 05:12:02 Software supply chain security mayakacz 82
2020-09-01 13:53:23 Mind Emulation Foundation gk1 93
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2020-07-24 19:37:41 Ask HN: Recommendations for Books on Writing? wwright 5
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2020-04-23 16:19:24 Google ditched tipping feature for donating money to sites caution 2
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2020-03-27 18:45:26 Ask HN: What's the Equivalent of 'Hello, World' for a Quantum Computer? simonblack 2
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2020-01-14 06:07:53 BlackRock CEO: Climate Crisis Will Reshape Finance vo2maxer 13
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2019-12-21 07:55:04 Free and Open-Source Mathematics Textbooks vo2maxer 321
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2019-10-10 23:35:35 Python Alternative to Docker gilad 3
2019-10-09 00:17:45 $6B United Nations Agency Launches Bitcoin, Ethereum Crypto Fund zed88 8
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2019-10-07 22:29:21 Supreme Court allows blind people to sue retailers if websites aren't accessible justadudeama 743
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2019-09-23 16:43:51 Scott’s Supreme Quantum Supremacy FAQ xmmrm 600
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2019-09-22 17:32:04 Entropy can be used to understand systems acgan 3
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2019-08-22 16:27:43 Things to Know About GNU Readline matt_d 204
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2019-08-21 17:34:53 Ask HN: Let's make an open source/free SaaS platform to tackle school forms busymichael 12
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2019-08-17 10:58:03 You May Be Better Off Picking Stocks at Random, Study Finds Vaslo 146
2019-08-12 08:15:23 Root: CERN's scientific data analysis framework for C++ z3phyr 137
2019-08-13 02:09:30 MesaPy: A Memory-Safe Python Implementation based on PyPy (2018) ospider 119
2019-08-11 16:22:30 Ask HN: Configuration Management for Personal Computer? jacquesm 197
2019-08-08 13:11:06 GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories dstaheli 680
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2019-05-23 12:59:05 YC's request for startups: Government 2.0 simonebrunozzi 194
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2019-05-19 16:01:51 Congress should grow the Digital Services budget, it more than pays for itself rmason 68
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2019-04-28 14:50:29 Show HN: Debugging-Friendly Tracebacks for Python cknd 121
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2019-03-22 17:18:44 Maybe You Don't Need Kubernetes ra7 500
2019-03-21 08:04:34 Quantum Machine Appears to Defy Universe’s Push for Disorder biofox 78
2019-03-21 12:45:42 Pytype checks and infers types for your Python code mkesper 4
2019-03-20 21:56:26 How I'm able to take notes in mathematics lectures using LaTeX and Vim tambourine_man 674
2019-03-21 05:18:51 LHCb discovers matter-antimatter asymmetry in charm quarks rbanffy 269
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2019-03-15 18:23:21 Experimental rejection of observer-independence in the quantum world lisper 186
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2019-02-26 11:24:41 The most popular docker images each contain at least 30 vulnerabilities vinnyglennon 562
2019-02-24 22:39:39 Tinycoin: A small, horrible cryptocurrency in Python for educational purposes MrXOR 4
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2019-02-16 14:49:30 Why CISA Issued Our First Emergency Directive ca98am79 211
2019-02-14 23:22:11 Chrome will Soon Let You Share Links to a Specific Word or Sentence on a Page kumaranvpl 359
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2019-02-07 12:03:47 Superalgos and the Trading Singularity ciencias 2
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2019-02-04 20:03:28 U.S. Federal District Court Declared Bitcoin as Legal Money obilgic 12
2019-01-30 12:42:06 Post Quantum Crypto Standardization Process – Second Round Candidates Announced dlgeek 2
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2019-01-20 20:29:25 Steps to a clean dataset with Pandas NicoJuicy 4
2019-01-19 19:38:48 Reahl – A Python-only web framework kim0 165
2019-01-12 19:56:20 Ask HN: How can you save money while living on poverty level? ccdev 8
2019-01-11 14:46:52 A DNS hijacking wave is targeting companies at an almost unprecedented scale Elof 112
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2018-12-28 16:25:15 The U.S. is spending millions to solve mystery sonic attacks on diplomats johnshades 5
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2018-11-24 15:33:08 Time to break academic publishing's stranglehold on research joeyespo 692
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2018-09-30 22:11:07 Justice Department Sues to Stop California Net Neutrality Law jonburs 201
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2018-08-29 02:27:58 Scientists Warn the UN of Capitalism's Imminent Demise westurner 1
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2018-06-29 23:17:31 Wind, solar farms produce 10% of US power in the first four months of 2018 toomuchtodo 85
2018-06-25 16:57:46 FDA approves first marijuana-derived drug and it may spark DEA rescheduling mikece 150
2018-06-21 10:22:43 States Can Require Internet Tax Collection, Supreme Court Rules uptown 541
2018-06-18 08:26:23 William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech zjacobi 71
2018-06-17 18:13:13 Ask HN: Do you consider yourself to be a good programmer? type0 27
2018-06-17 11:00:59 Handles are the better pointers ingve 194
2018-06-14 14:13:13 Neural scene representation and rendering johnmoberg 540
2018-06-17 20:19:20 New US Solar Record – 2.155 Cents per KWh prostoalex 4
2018-06-10 18:04:07 Ask HN: Is there a taxonomy of machine learning types? ljw1001 3
2018-05-22 16:22:43 Senator requests better https compliance at US Department of Defense [pdf] anigbrowl 168
2018-05-22 23:15:18 Banks Adopt Military-Style Tactics to Fight Cybercrime petethomas 3
2018-04-12 13:13:10 No, Section 230 Does Not Require Platforms to Be “Neutral” panarky 6
2018-04-11 14:28:06 Ask HN: Do battery costs justify “buy all sell all” over “net metering”? westurner 1
2018-04-09 21:17:43 Portugal electricity generation temporarily reaches 100% renewable mgdo 234
2018-04-06 19:16:25 GPU Prices Drop ~25% in March as Supply Normalizes merqurio 2
2018-04-09 23:51:08 Apple says it’s now powered by renewable energy worldwide iamspoilt 272
2018-03-18 13:13:15 Hackers Are So Fed Up with Twitter Bots They’re Hunting Them Down Themselves CrankyBear 271
2018-03-02 08:21:41 “We’re committing Twitter to increase the health and civility of conversation” dankohn1 147
2018-03-01 02:06:42 Gitflow – Animated in React v33ra 3
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2018-02-27 09:47:40 After rising for 100 years, electricity demand is flat aaronbrethorst 629
2018-02-27 10:37:54 A framework for evaluating data scientist competency schaunwheeler 3
2018-02-27 18:28:01 Levi Strauss to use lasers instead of people to finish jeans e2e4 3
2018-02-27 18:24:45 Chaos Engineering: the history, principles, and practice austingunter 2
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2018-02-22 15:35:51 Ask HN: Thoughts on a website-embeddable, credential validating service? estroz 28
2018-02-21 05:03:58 Ask HN: What's the best algorithms and data structures online course? zabana 272
2018-02-20 15:14:40 Using Go as a scripting language in Linux neoasterisk 8
2018-02-18 12:09:07 Guidelines for enquiries regarding the regulatory framework for ICOs [pdf] paulsutter 23
2018-02-16 00:16:09 The Benjamin Franklin method for learning more from programming books nancyhua 566
2018-02-10 20:41:21 Avoiding blackouts with 100% renewable energy ramonvillasante 2
2018-02-10 11:25:54 Ask HN: What are some common abbreviations you use as a developer? yagamidev 3
2018-02-09 19:42:21 There Might Be No Way to Live Comfortably Without Also Ruining the Planet SirLJ 43
2018-02-08 22:52:44 Multiple GWAS finds 187 intelligence genes and role for neurogenesis/myelination gwern 2
2018-02-08 20:33:49 Could we solve blockchain scaling with terabyte-sized blocks? gwern 4
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2018-02-03 14:36:02 Ask HN: How to understand the large codebase of an open-source project? maqbool 186
2018-02-03 13:56:30 What is the best way to learn to code from absolute scratch? eliotpeper 8
2018-02-02 04:35:58 Tesla racing series: Electric cars get the green light – Roadshow rbanffy 77
2018-02-02 13:40:19 What happens if you have too many jupyter notebooks? tvorogme 4
2018-02-01 00:49:46 Cancer ‘vaccine’ eliminates tumors in mice jv22222 942
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2018-01-29 17:11:55 This Biodegradable Paper Donut Could Let Us Reforest the Planet westurner 2
2018-01-29 16:44:35 Drones that can plant 100k trees a day artsandsci 147
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2018-01-25 17:41:24 Multiple issue and pull request templates clarkbw 17
2018-01-25 17:38:38 Five myths about Bitcoin’s energy use nvk 10
2018-01-23 18:41:16 Ask HN: Which programming language has the best documentation? siquick 3
2018-01-18 06:36:07 Ask HN: Recommended course/website/book to learn data structure and algorithms strikeX 3
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2018-01-18 19:51:30 Kimbal Musk is leading a $25M mission to fix food in US schools rmason 2
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2018-01-10 14:02:09 Git is a blockchain Swizec 13
2018-01-07 12:06:03 Show HN: Convert Matlab/NumPy matrices to LaTeX tables tpaschalis 4
2018-01-02 10:48:10 A Year of Spaced Repetition Software in the Classroom misiti3780 4
2017-12-27 08:32:39 NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 1 Submissions sohkamyung 130
2018-01-01 21:38:58 What are some good resources to learn about Quantum Computing? nmehta21 3
2017-12-29 15:53:06 Gridcoin: Rewarding Scientific Distributed Computing trueduke 134
2017-12-26 12:37:07 Power Prices Go Negative in Germany kwindla 485
2017-12-21 14:30:35 Mathematicians Find Wrinkle in Famed Fluid Equations digital55 240
2017-12-20 10:43:31 Bitcoin is an energy arbitrage js4 51
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2017-12-17 07:32:06 Show HN: An educational blockchain implementation in Python jre 412
2017-12-16 08:12:44 MSU Scholars Find $21T in Unauthorized Government Spending sillypuddy 137
2017-12-13 04:59:42 Universities spend millions on accessing results of publicly funded research versteegen 624
2017-12-11 19:49:44 An Interactive Introduction to Quantum Computing kevlened 254
2017-12-12 12:34:46 Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them (ECDSA, SHA256) westurner 2
2017-12-10 17:50:44 Project Euler vinchuco 792
2017-12-12 10:17:39 Who’s Afraid of Bitcoin? The Futures Traders Going Short thisisit 54
2017-12-11 19:21:38 Statement on Cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings corbinpage 811
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2017-12-08 10:53:49 A Hacker Writes a Children's Book arthurjj 171
2017-12-11 18:17:52 Ask HN: Do ISPs have a legal obligation to not sell minors' web history anymore? westurner 2
2017-12-11 11:58:38 Tech luminaries call net neutrality vote an 'imminent threat' kjhughes 279
2017-12-06 18:55:25 Ask HN: Can hashes be replaced with optimization problems in blockchain? pacavaca 3
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2017-12-04 04:59:08 How much energy does Bitcoin mining really use? trueduke 3
2017-12-02 00:27:40 The Actual FCC Net Neutrality Repeal Document. TLDR: Read Pages 82-87 [pdf] croatoan 3
2017-12-01 21:55:26 The 5 most ridiculous things the FCC says in its new net neutrality propaganda pulisse 164
2017-12-01 13:15:47 FCC's Pai, addressing net neutrality rules, calls Twitter biased joeyespo 13
2017-12-01 05:49:25 A curated list of Chaos Engineering resources dastergon 51
2017-12-01 11:24:06 Technology behind Bitcoin could aid science, report says digital55 13
2017-11-30 15:07:26 Git hash function transition plan vszakats 215
2017-11-30 22:04:20 Vintage Cray Supercomputer Rolls Up to Auction ohjeez 3
2017-11-30 21:21:09 Google is officially 100% sun and wind powered – 3.0 gigawatts worth rippsu 163
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2017-11-28 16:01:32 Vanguard Founder Jack Bogle Says ‘Avoid Bitcoin Like the Plague’ dionmanu 105
2017-11-29 11:22:54 Nasdaq Plans to Introduce Bitcoin Futures knwang 416
2017-11-28 17:49:07 Ask HN: Where do you think Bitcoin will be by 2020? rblion 10
2017-11-28 18:03:11 Ask HN: Why would anyone share trading algorithms and compare by performance? westurner 1
2017-11-25 06:28:39 Ask HN: CS papers for software architecture and design? avrmav 513
2017-11-15 10:24:27 Keeping a Lab Notebook [pdf] Tomte 327
2017-10-28 08:12:53 How to teach technical concepts with cartoons Tomte 170
2017-10-22 16:43:03 Fact Checks fanf2 126
2017-10-19 05:51:13 DHS orders agencies to adopt DMARC email security puppetmaster30 2
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2017-10-19 05:20:26 PAC Fundraising with Ethereum Contracts? westurner 1
2017-10-19 05:16:25 SolarWindow Completes Financing ($2.5m) westurner 2
2017-10-16 12:48:08 Here’s what you can do to protect yourself from the KRACK WiFi vulnerability tdrnd 2
2017-10-14 12:41:29 The Solar Garage Door – A Possible Alternative to the Emergency Generator curtis 2
2017-10-14 07:34:07 Using the Web Audio API to Make a Modem maaaats 307
2017-10-11 18:25:17 Ask HN: How to introduce someone to programming concepts during 12-hour drive? nkkollaw 9
2017-09-27 01:24:13 American Red Cross Asks for Ham Radio Operators for Puerto Rico Relief Effort kw71 346
2017-09-26 14:58:38 Technical and non-technical tips for rocking your coding interview duck 259
2017-09-23 12:12:36 Django 2.0 alpha orf 156
2017-09-24 00:15:28 Ask HN: What is the best way to spend my time as a 17-year-old who can code? jmeyer2k 161
2017-09-21 14:18:33 Democrats fight FCC's plans to redefine “broadband” from 25+ to 10+ Mbps gnicholas 18
2017-09-17 12:49:37 Ask HN: Any detailed explanation of computer science smithmayowa 2
2017-09-16 18:40:33 Ask HN: What algorithms should I research to code a conference scheduling app viertaxa 55
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2017-09-15 23:22:02 Ask HN: What can't you do in Excel? (2017) danso 37
2017-09-08 20:04:36 Open Source Ruling Confirms Enforceability of Dual-Licensing and Breach of GPL t3f 116
2017-09-01 11:27:30 Elon Musk Describes What Great Communication Looks Like endswapper 90
2017-09-01 04:05:12 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science tu7001 290
2017-08-28 16:06:24 Ask HN: How do you, as a developer, set measurable and actionable goals? humaninstrument 24
2017-08-26 16:06:24 Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index schwabacher 256
2017-08-26 09:59:19 Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain brahmwg 71
2017-08-26 09:03:19 Rumours swell over new kind of gravitational-wave sighting indescions_2017 258
2017-08-20 12:56:37 New Discovery Simplifies Quantum Physics wolfgke 2
2017-08-23 03:22:00 OpenAI has developed new baseline tool for improving deep reinforcement learning grey_shirts 3
2017-08-24 23:19:03 The prior can generally only be understood in the context of the likelihood selimthegrim 94
2017-08-22 04:13:00 Ask HN: How to find/compare trading algorithms with Quantopian? westurner 3
2017-08-22 04:09:17 Ask HN: How do IPOs and ICOs help a business raise capital? westurner 2
2017-08-22 04:02:04 Solar Window coatings “outperform rooftop solar by 50-fold” westurner 4
2017-08-21 23:30:16 MS: Bitcoin mining uses as much electricity as 1M US homes pulisse 79
2017-08-15 15:45:47 Ask HN: What are your favorite entrepreneurship resources brianbreslin 13
2017-05-09 12:59:38 CPU Utilization is Wrong dmit 624
2017-05-06 17:13:03 Ask HN: Can I use convolutional neural networks to clasify videos on a CPU Faizann20 1
2017-05-01 10:17:36 Esoteric programming paradigms SlyShy 397
2017-04-27 04:41:09 gRPC-Web: Moving past REST+JSON towards type-safe Web APIs bestan 329
2017-04-16 03:59:55 Reasons blog posts can be of higher scientific quality than journal articles vixen99 233
2017-04-07 12:50:38 Fact Check now available in Google Search and News fouadmatin 302
2017-04-07 20:07:05 Ask HN: Is anyone working on CRISPR for happiness? arikr 4
2017-03-26 14:58:59 Roadmap to becoming a web developer in 2017 miguelarauj1o 4
2017-03-20 19:14:10 Beautiful Online SICP Dangeranger 762
2017-03-19 11:52:48 Ask HN: How do you keep track/save your learnings?(so that you can revisit them) mezod 4
2017-03-11 13:26:30 Ask HN: Criticisms of Bayesian statistics? muraiki 1
2017-01-16 18:53:09 80,000 Hours career plan worksheet BreakoutList 230
2017-01-07 18:27:31 World's first smartphone with a molecular sensor is coming in 2017 walterbell 19
2016-12-31 12:11:14 Ask HN: How would one build a business that only develops free software? anondon 12
2016-12-29 00:40:11 Ask HN: If your job involves continually importing CSVs, what industry is it? iamwil 12
2016-12-09 17:21:13 Ask HN: Maybe I kind of suck as a programmer – how do I supercharge my work? tastyface 328
2016-11-20 06:33:34 Ask HN: Anything Like Carl Sagan's Cosmos for Computer Science? leksak 32
2016-11-20 10:32:00 Learn X in Y minutes anonu 161
2016-11-03 05:46:50 Org mode 9.0 released Philipp__ 285
2016-11-13 00:23:33 Ask HN: Best Git workflow for small teams tmaly 166
2016-11-10 15:46:57 TDD Doesn't Work narfz 153
2016-11-07 14:13:48 C for Python programmers (2011) bogomipz 314
2016-10-26 02:19:06 Ask HN: How do you organise/integrate all the information in your life? tonteldoos 323
2016-10-23 14:06:00 Ask HN: What are the best web tools to build basic web apps as of October 2016? arikr 114
2016-10-16 10:55:18 Harvard and M.I.T. Are Sued Over Lack of Closed Captions lsh123 45
2016-10-06 11:15:16 Jack Dorsey Is Losing Control of Twitter miraj 283
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2016-08-19 08:12:25 The Open Source Data Science Masters nns 95
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2016-05-30 07:39:05 The SQL filter clause: selective aggregates MarkusWinand 138
2016-05-29 23:36:23 Ask HN: What do you think about the current education system? alejandrohacks 36
2016-05-10 08:55:01 A Reboot of the Legendary Physics Site ArXiv Could Shape Open Science tonybeltramelli 174
2014-03-23 14:27:04 Principles of good data analysis gjreda 108
2014-03-11 08:16:38 Why Puppet, Chef, Ansible aren't good enough iElectric2 362
2014-03-11 20:12:16 Python vs Julia – an example from machine learning ajtulloch 170
2014-02-17 10:23:21 Free static page hosting on Google App Engine in minutes fizerkhan 95
2014-02-03 09:15:30 “Don’t Reinvent the Wheel, Use a Framework” They All Say mogosselin 79
2013-09-09 10:20:50 IPython in Excel vj44 73
2013-08-11 01:56:12 PEP 450: Adding A Statistics Module To The Standard Library petsos 185
2013-08-02 21:03:51 Functional Programming with Python llambda 107
2013-08-01 10:59:55 PEP 8 Modernisation tristaneuan 213
2013-07-15 12:40:04 Useful Unix commands for data science gjreda 221
2013-07-13 11:35:40 The data visualization community needs its own Hacker News ejfox 11
2013-07-06 08:59:22 Ask HN: Intermediate Python learning resources? jesusx 113
2013-07-03 08:00:50 Ansible Simply Kicks Ass hunvreus 185
2013-06-29 05:44:08 Python-Based Tools for the Space Science Community neokya 76
2013-05-04 21:21:29 Debian 7.0 "Wheezy" released sciurus 428
2013-05-04 10:40:20 Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat Sheet ashleyblackmore 520
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Can we make a black hole? And if we could, what could we do with it?


/? Quantum gravity fluid

"Gravity as a fluid dynamic phenomenon in a superfluid quantum space. Fluid quantum gravity and relativity." (2017)

> The hypothesis starts from considering the physical vacuum as a superfluid quantum medium, that we call superfluid quantum space (SQS), close to the previous concepts of quantum vacuum, quantum foam, superfluid vacuum etc. We usually believe that quantum vacuum is populated by an enormous amount of particle-antiparticle pairs whose life is extremely short, in a continuous foaming of formation and annihilation. Here we move further and we hypothesize that these particles are superfluid symmetric vortices of those quanta constituting the cosmic superfluid (probably dark energy). Because of superfluidity, these vortices can have an indeterminately long life. Vorticity is interpreted as spin (a particle's internal motion). Due to non-zero, positive viscosity of the SQS, and to Bernoulli pressure, these vortices attract the surrounding quanta, pressure decreases and the consequent incoming flow of quanta lets arise a gravitational potential. This is called superfluid quantum gravity. In this model we don't resort to gravitons. Once comparing superfluid quantum gravity with general relativity, it is evident how a hydrodynamic gravity could fully account for the relativistic effects attributed to spacetime distortion, where the space curvature is substituted by flows of quanta. Also special relativity can be merged in the hydrodynamics of a SQS and we obtain a general simplification of Einstein's relativity under the single effect of superfluid quantum gravity.

IIRC, when I searched gscholar for "wave-particle-[fluid]" duality" a few weeks ago there were even more recent papers.

Does Quantum Chaos describe fluids or superfluids?

Do CAS tools must stop reducing symbolic expressions describe infinity such that?:

   assert n*x*oo == oo
Conway's surreal numbers of infinity aren't quite it, I'm afraid. Countability or continuum? Did Hilbert spaces (described here in SymPy with degree n) quite exist back then? Degrees of curl; divergence and convergence


DNS over Dedicated QUIC Connections

> Abstract: This document describes the use of QUIC to provide transport confidentiality for DNS. The encryption provided by QUIC has similar properties to those provided by TLS, while QUIC transport eliminates the head-of-line blocking issues inherent with TCP and provides more efficient packet-loss recovery than UDP. DNS over QUIC (DoQ) has privacy properties similar to DNS over TLS (DoT) specified in RFC 7858, and latency characteristics similar to classic DNS over UDP. This specification describes the use of DoQ as a general-purpose transport for DNS and includes the use of DoQ for stub to recursive, recursive to authoritative, and zone transfer scenarios.

> [...] DNS over HTTPS (DoH) [RFC8484] can be used with HTTP/3 to get some of the benefits of QUIC. However, a lightweight direct mapping for DoQ can be regarded as a more natural fit for both the recursive to authoritative and zone transfer scenarios, which rarely involve intermediaries. In these scenarios, the additional overhead of HTTP is not offset by, for example, benefits of HTTP proxying and caching behavior.


Twitter Deal Temporarily on Hold


Show HN: – Live search for Python documentation

Hi everyone!

I've been working on a web search interface for Python's documentation as a personal project, and I think it's ready for other people to use...

Please give it a go (and join me in praying to the server gods):

Here's the tech stack for those interested:

- Parser: Beautiful Soup + Mozilla Bleach

- Database: in-memory SQLite (aiosqlite) + SQLAlchemy

- Web server: FastAPI + Uvicorn + Jinja2

- Front end: Tailwind CSS + htmx + Alpine.js

I have ideas for future improvements but hopefully the current version is useful to someone.

Let me know what you think!


The `pydoc` / `python -m pydoc` module doesn't do search; it would be O(n) for every search like grep without e.g. a sphinx searchindex:

Sphinx searchindex.js does Porter stemming for English and other languages: supports Xapian, Whoosh (Python), and null:

sphinx-elasticsearch :

> This is a stand-alone extraction of the functionality used by, compatible with elasticsearch-6.

MeiliSearch (rust) compared with ElasticSearch (java), Algolia, TypeSense (C++):

Is there a good way to index each sphinx doc set's searchindex.js?


Colleges where everyone works and there's no tuition

bale | 2022-05-08 22:08:15 | 186 | # | ^

Sqldiff: SQLite Database Difference Utility

Which {SQL,} databases do this as a native, online database feature; so you don't have to pull backups to sqldiff?

E.g. django-reversion and VDM do versioned domain model on top of SQL, but not with native temporal database features.

Many apps probably could or should be written as mostly-append-only - not necessarily blocking until the previous record is available to hash – but very few apps are written that way, so run sqldiff offline.



  dolt clone
  dolt pull
  dolt push
  dolt checkout
  dolt branch
  dolt commit
  dolt merge

  dolt blame
  dolt diff
mgramin/awesome-db-tools > schema > changes:



GitBOM: Enabling universal artifact traceability in software supply chains

From :

> For this reason we propose two areas of work:

> 1. enhancing artifact-generating tools (e.g., compilers, linkers, and container image generators) to also output metadata regarding their inputs and outputs

> 2. defining a storage format which represents the minimum information to describe the artifact relationship tree, and which uses git’s on-disk storage format

> Following from (1), this approach will require minimal to no effort on the part of open source project maintainers, thus significantly increasing its chances of widespread adoption as compared to any approach which requires maintainers to perform additional actions (e.g., implementing substantive changes in their CI/CD or package build pipeline to generate an SBOM).

Requirements traceability:

codemeta/codemeta - Minimal metadata schemas for science software and code, in JSON-LD:



Compostable fungi-based replacement for styrofoam


Can hempcrete be made from Mars or Moon aggregate instead of lime, and 4d printed?

FWIU, lime requires coral for production? Is lime sustainable?

Alternative solutions for: structural wood frame in a hempcrete structure: stacking hempcrete blocks on structural forms that are stronger and more insulting than structural concrete; green concrete, a carbon and thermal gradient sink; and Hempwood, which is apparently stronger than spec lumber of the same dimensions as well.


How does this product compare to aerogel, which is inorganic without minor radiation?

> Aerogels are produced by extracting the liquid component of a gel through supercritical drying or freeze-drying. This allows the liquid to be slowly dried off without causing the solid matrix in the gel to collapse from capillary action, as would happen with conventional evaporation. The first aerogels were produced from silica gels. Kistler's later work involved aerogels based on alumina, chromia and tin dioxide. Carbon aerogels were first developed in the late 1980s.[12]

Can aerogels be made with {formed,?} fungi-based production processes?


Is it a carbon sink organic compound? Does it offgas VOCs?

HS chem was years ago. Does jsmol/pymol work in Jupiter notebooks? That probably doesn't at all model heat or other QFT or QG fields.

Though this one probably doesn't require an understanding of how quantum chemistry is actually occurring (Q12 STEM), I found this for protyping, which "operates on abstract data structures allowing the formulation, combination, automatic differentiation and optimization of generalized objectives. Tequila can execute the underlying quantum expectation values on state of the art simulators as well as on real quantum devices."


Evolution is not a tree of life but a fuzzy network

ALee | 2022-04-24 13:30:52 | 100 | # | ^

How can it be acyclic? A phylogenetic tree is a DAG. Organisms sharing DNA? That's definitely a cyclic graph.

If there were and/or schema:AnimalInstance classes, what do you list under a :breed property to indicate that e.g. one parent is breed X and another is breed Y?! That's definitely not a DAG; that looks like a feature clustering dendrogram.

DNA barcoding > Mismatches between conventional (morphological) and barcode based identification

Taxonomy (biology)

FWIU, there's at least one DNA-based organism naming system; IDK how much that helps resolve :Animal and :AnimalInstance if at all?


U.S. interest rates have soared everywhere but savings accounts

mgh2 | 2022-04-23 10:53:06 | 237 | # | ^

There was a separation between savings and investment banking between ~1933-1999.

Glass–Steagall in post-financial crisis reform debate:

(Edit: Monetary policy / Monetarism > Current State , Liquidity trap > Global financial crises of 2008 and 2020: )

How do microlending and DeFi rates democratize subsidized capital availability?

From IL-RFC-1 Interledger Architecture :

> Settlement for one account MUST NOT depend on the status of any other accounts.

> If settlement of one account in the Interledger is contingent on the status of another account or relationship, this could create the threat of cascading risks and failures, similar to problems that occurred during the 2008 global financial crisis. Nodes can protect themselves from such risks by choosing to use settlement technologies such as collateralized payment channels where available. These types of arrangements can provide high-speed settlement without a risk that the other side may not pay. For more information on different ledger types and settlement strategies, see IL-RFC-22: Hashed Timelock Agreements.

> Nodes can also choose never to settle their obligations. This configuration may be useful when several nodes representing different pieces of software or devices are all owned by the same person or business, and all their traffic with the outside world goes through a single “home router” connector. This is the model of `moneyd`, one of the current implementations of Interledger.


Changing std:sort at Google’s scale and beyond

> LLVM history: Back then we recognized some really interesting benchmarks and we didn’t recall anybody trying to really benchmark sorts on different data patterns for standard libraries.

Timsort :

> In the worst case, Timsort takes O(n log n) comparisons to sort an array of n elements. In the best case, which occurs when the input is already sorted, it runs in linear time, meaning that it is an adaptive sorting algorithm. [3]

> It is advantageous over Quicksort for sorting object references or pointers because these require expensive memory indirection to access data and perform comparisons and Quicksort's cache coherence benefits are greatly reduced. [...]

> Timsort has been Python's standard sorting algorithm since version 2.3 [~2002]. It is also used to sort arrays of non-primitive type in Java SE 7,[4] on the Android platform,[5] in GNU Octave,[6] on V8,[7] Swift,[8] and Rust.[9]

Sorting algorithm > Comparison of algorithms

Schwartzian transform :

> In Python 2.4 and above, both the sorted() function and the in-place list.sort() method take a key= parameter that allows the user to provide a "key function" (like foo in the examples above). In Python 3 and above, use of the key function is the only way to specify a custom sort order (the previously supported cmp= parameter that allowed the user to provide a "comparison function" was removed). Before Python 2.4, developers would use the lisp-originated decorate–sort–undecorate (DSU) idiom,[2] usually by wrapping the objects in a (sortkey, object) tuple

Big-O Cheatsheet

Quicksort in Python 7 ways (and many other languages) on RosettaCode:


xeus-cling didn't exist back then:

A standard way to benchmark and chart {sorting algorithms, web framework benchmarks,} would be great.

The TechEmpower "framework overhead" benchmarks might have at least average case sorting in there somewhere:


awesome-theoretical-computer-science > Machine Learning Theory, Physics; Grover's; and surely something is faster than Timsort:


Deep Learning Poised to ‘Blow Up’ Famed Fluid Equations

Euler equations (fluid dynamics)

> In fluid dynamics, the Euler equations are a set of quasilinear partial differential equations governing adiabatic and inviscid flow. They are named after Leonhard Euler. In particular, they correspond to the Navier–Stokes equations with zero viscosity and zero thermal conductivity. [1]

Navier–Stokes equations

> The Navier–Stokes equations mathematically express conservation of momentum and conservation of mass for Newtonian fluids.

Computational fluid dynamics

Numerical methods in fluid mechanics

- [ ] Quantum fluid

> Quantum mechanical effects become significant for physics in the range of the de Broglie wavelength. For condensed matter, this is when the de Broglie wavelength of a particle is greater than the spacing between the particles in the lattice that comprises the matter. [...]

> The above temperature limit T has different meaning depending on the quantum statistics followed by each system, but generally refers to the point at which the system manifests quantum fluid properties. For a system of fermions, T is an estimation of the Fermi energy of the system, where processes important to phenomena such as superconductivity take place. For bosons, T gives an estimation of the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature.

Classical fluid

> Classical fluids [1] are systems of particles which retain a definite volume, and are at sufficiently high temperatures (compared to their Fermi energy) that quantum effects can be neglected [...] Common liquids, e.g., liquid air, gasoline etc., are essentially mixtures of classical fluids. Electrolytes, molten salts, salts dissolved in water, are classical charged fluids. A classical fluid when cooled undergoes a freezing transition. On heating it undergoes an evaporation transition and becomes a classical gas that obeys Boltzmann statistics.

Chaos theory

> Chaos theory is [...] focused on underlying patterns and deterministic laws highly sensitive to initial conditions in dynamical systems that were thought to have completely random states of disorder and irregularities. [1] Chaos theory states that within the apparent randomness of chaotic complex systems, there are underlying patterns, interconnectedness, constant feedback loops, repetition, self-similarity, fractals, and self-organization.

Quantum chaos

> If quantum mechanics does not demonstrate an exponential sensitivity to initial conditions, how can exponential sensitivity to initial conditions arise in classical chaos, which must be the correspondence principle limit of quantum mechanics?

... in dynamic, nonlinear - possibly adaptive - complex systems.

google/jax-cfd lists "Other differentiable CFD codes compatible with deep learning"

FWIU the AlphaZero for Fusion optimization is for the non-fluid plasma Deep Learning convex optimization part of the problem?

Is it ever enough to model just fluids, is modeling quantum chemistry necessary as well?

  pip install tequila-basic
> Quantum Backends Currently supported: [Qulacs, Qibo, Qiskit, Cirq, PyQuil, QLM, myQLM]

awesome-fluid-dynamics :

- "12 Steps to Navier-Stokes"

- Differential programming : gradients; sometimes gradient descent

- Neural Networks for PDE

"Differentiable function"

> In mathematics, a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain

If there is a ZeroDivisionError because a denominator is zero, is that actually a differentiable function?

There's a symbolic result at or approaching that limit. IDK how exactly that applies to quantum-scale fluid effects at room temperature? Shouldn't there be a triality in terms of relativity, post-relativity QM with hair, and fluids converging or diverging to infinity?

Divergence theorem ... Fluid diverconvergences :

> The divergence theorem is an important result for the mathematics of physics and engineering, particularly in electrostatics and fluid dynamics. In these fields, it is usually applied in three dimensions. However, it generalizes to any number of dimensions. In one dimension, it is equivalent to integration by parts. In two dimensions, it is equivalent to Green's theorem. [...] Explanation using liquid flow [...]

"Logarithms yearning to be free" re: symbolic limits and currently non-axiomatic Infinity

... Quantum thermodynamics, fluids, and chaotic divergence


Are there no symbolic results from derivatives of any order?

Is it more correct to say that, if the denominator is zero at that point, the derivative is just non-Real because it's e.g. `n*x*oo`?

Practically, do we just say that such actually discontinuous functions are still mostly differentiable but the derivative does not exist in non-symbolic space?

> ... Quantum thermodynamics, fluids, and chaotic divergence

FWIW, does [quantum] thermodynamics predict emergent behaviors amongst self-organizing systems apparently at least temporarily contradicting a tendency to entropic decay?

My understanding is that no: fluid dynamics, quantum fluid dynamics, and quantum chemistry are not sufficient to describe and thus cannot predict emergent behaviors in complex nonlinear - possibly emergently adaptive - complex systems.

Emergence occurs in/of/by/within/betwixt/between systems; in application emergent programs require human-level intelligence ethical filters:

Perhaps before describing physical systems with current best known descriptions as multi-field (QFT,QQ,) wave-particle[-fluid] interactions with convergent and divergent e.g convection, it's appropriate to compare the difference between Classical and Quantum Wave Interference:

> some of the differences between classical wave interference and quantum interference: (a) In classical interference, two different waves interfere; In quantum interference, the wavefunction interferes with itself. (b) Classical interference is obtained simply by adding the displacements from equilibrium (or amplitudes) of the two waves; In quantum interference, the effect occurs for the probability function associated with the wavefunction and therefore the absolute value of the wavefunction squared. (c) The interference involves different types of mathematical functions: A classical wave is a real function representing the displacement from an equilibrium position; a quantum wavefunction is a complex function. A classical wave at any point can be positive or negative; the quantum probability function is non-negative.

Thus our best descriptions of emergent behavior in fluids (and chemicals and fields) must presumably be composed at least in part from quantum wave functions that e.g. Navier-Stokes also fit for; with a fitness function.

Gigahertz topological valley Hall effect in NEMS phononic crystals

"Gigahertz topological valley Hall effect in nanoelectromechanical phononic crystals" (2022)

> Topological phononic crystals can manipulate elastic waves that propagate in solids without being backscattered, and could be used to develop integrated acousto-electronic systems for classical and quantum information processing. However, acoustic topological metamaterials have been mainly limited to macroscale systems that operate at low (kilohertz to megahertz) frequencies. Here we report a topological valley Hall effect in nanoelectromechanical aluminium nitride membranes at gigahertz (up to 1.06 GHz) frequencies. We visualize the propagation of elastic waves through phononic crystals with high sensitivity (10–100 fm) and spatial resolution (10–100 nm) using transmission-mode microwave impedance microscopy. The valley Hall edge states, which are protected by band topology, are observed in both real and momentum space. Robust valley-polarized transport is evident from wave transmission across local disorder and around sharp corners. We also show that the system can be used to create an acoustic beamsplitter.

Quantum Hall effect > Photonic quantum Hall effect:

> The quantum Hall effect, in addition to being observed in two-dimensional electron systems, can be observed in photons. Photons do not possess inherent electric charge, but through the manipulation of discrete optical resonators and coupling phases or on-site phases, an artificial magnetic field can be created. [17][18][19][20][21] This process can be expressed through a metaphor of photons bouncing between multiple mirrors. By shooting the light across multiple mirrors, the photons are routed and gain additional phase proportional to their angular momentum. This creates an effect like they are in a magnetic field.

The Hall effect article describes how Superposition states can be prepared with the Hall effect.

So, in crystal lattices, is there less noise due to scattering?




Doing small network scientific machine learning in Julia faster than PyTorch


There's no mention of GPUs, TPUs, or indeed QPUs in the memory hierarchy described by Wikipedia!

Locality of reference ("Data locality") > Spatial and temporal locality usage :

Memory hierarchy :

> Most modern CPUs are so fast that for most program workloads, the bottleneck is the locality of reference of memory accesses and the efficiency of the caching and memory transfer between different levels of the hierarchy [citation needed]. As a result, the CPU spends much of its time idling, waiting for memory I/O to complete. This is sometimes called the space cost, as a larger memory object is more likely to overflow a small/fast level and require use of a larger/slower level. The resulting load on memory use is known as pressure (respectively register pressure, cache pressure, and (main) memory pressure). Terms for data being missing from a higher level and needing to be fetched from a lower level are, respectively: register spilling (due to register pressure: register to cache), cache miss (cache to main memory), and (hard) page fault (main memory to disk).

Is it that PCIe is necessarily implied by the debuggable pipeline specified by the von Neumann architecture?

Otherwise, computation within RAM avoids interconnect saturation.

"Neuromorphic" computing, stateful RAM with operators mapped to particle interactions:

Memristor > Derivative devices > memtransistor

Quantum reservoir computing:

But these still need a faster and wider (and qubit) bus than PCIe, too: :

> Lloyd also postulates that the Universe can be fully simulated using a quantum computer; however, in the absence of a theory of quantum gravity, such a simulation is not yet possible. "Particles not only collide, they compute."

Quantum on Silicon looks cheaper in today dollars.

Devide the universe in QFT field-equal halves A and B, take energy from A to make B look like A, then add qubit error correction, and tell me if there's enough energy to simulate the actual universe on a universe QC with no instruction pipeline.


Logarithms yearning to be free

> The author opens with the example of finding the antiderivative of xn. When n ≠ -1 the antiderivative is another power function, but when n = -1 it’s a logarithm.

What a neat limit. Probably best to leave the powerfn/logfn() as a dumb symbolic symbol until the end (until after later parameter substitution)?


So the type of the return value changes at asymptotes/limits (already) and thus that's not a pure function in terms of math. If a [math] function returns a more complex type signature instead of throwing a ZeroDivisionError (as Python core does) what is that then called? Is it differentiable or no, etc?

We throw ZeroDivisionError instead of axiomatically defining a ranking for


  if x > 0:
      2*x*inf > x*inf
      # because
      2 > 1
But basically every CAS just prematurely throws away all terms next to infinity (by replacing the information in that expression with just infinity)? And nothing yet implements e.g. Conway's Surreal numbers infinities?

Is negative infinity to the infinity greater or lesser than infinity?

  assert (-1*math.inf)**math.inf == math.inf

  assert (-1*sympy.oo)**sympy.oo == sympy.oo
Here's a dumb Real/Function instead of prematurely discarding information that could be useful:

  from sympy import symbol
  from import x

  Infinity = symbol('Infinity', real=True)  # *

  from sympy.symbols import Wild
All the axioms just change there.

An uphill battle for certain.

"[Python-ideas] Re: 'Infinity' constant in Python"


Show HN: Monocle – bidirectional code generation library

I just published a bidirectional code generation library. Afaik it's the first of its kind, and it opens up a lot of possibilities for cool new types of dev tools. The PoC is for ruby, but the concept is very portable.

[+] :

> Round-trip engineering (RTE) is a functionality of software development tools that synchronizes two or more related software artifacts, such as, source code, models, configuration files, and even documentation.[1] The need for round-trip engineering arises when the same information is present in multiple artifacts and therefore an inconsistency may occur if not all artifacts are consistently updated to reflect a given change. For example, some piece of information was added to/changed in only one artifact and, as a result, it became missing in/inconsistent with the other artifacts.

Source-to-source_compiler > See also > #ROSE, :


Organization Discussions – GitHub Changelog

"What is GitHub Discussions? A complete guide"

> GitHub Discussions vs. GitHub Issues: When to use each: When and how to use Discussions and Issues on a project—and how to turn a Discussion into an Issue (and vice versa).

Looks like they also support Polls now. There should be an obligatory note about e-voting, private keys (SK/PK), ZK, and "master keys" in non- Zero Trust Systems .

Zero-trust security model:

"What’s new in GitHub Discussions: Organization Discussions, polls, and more" (2022-04)

Unfortunately code can indeed generate code.


Fossil of dinosaur killed in asteroid strike found, scientists claim


Over here that's PBS NOVA "Dinosaur Apocalypse: The Last Day" (2022) with Sir David Attenborough.

It says "MAY 11, 2022 AT 10PM". Presumably that's EST or EDT.


List of impact craters on Earth

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event (C-P or also K-Pg event) :

> A wide range of species perished in the K–Pg extinction, the best-known being the non-avian dinosaurs. It also destroyed myriad other terrestrial organisms, including some mammals, birds,[21] lizards,[22] insects,[23][24] plants, and all the pterosaurs.[25] In the oceans, the K–Pg extinction killed off plesiosaurs and mosasaurs and devastated teleost fish,[26] sharks, mollusks (especially ammonites, which became extinct), and many species of plankton. It is estimated that 75% or more of all species on Earth vanished.[27] Yet the extinction also provided evolutionary opportunities: in its wake, many groups underwent remarkable adaptive radiation—sudden and prolific divergence into new forms and species within the disrupted and emptied ecological niches. Mammals in particular diversified in the Paleogene,[28] evolving new forms such as horses, whales, bats, and primates. The surviving group of dinosaurs were avians, ground and water fowl who radiated into all modern species of bird.[29] Teleost fish,[30] and perhaps lizards[22] also radiated. :

> A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth. By convention, a Solar System body is a NEO if its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) is less than 1.3 astronomical units (AU).[2] If a NEO's orbit crosses the Earth's, and the object is larger than 140 meters (460 ft) across, it is considered a potentially hazardous object (PHO).[3] Most known PHOs and NEOs are asteroids, but a small fraction are comets. [1]

Asteroid impact avoidance :

> In 2016, a NASA scientist warned that the Earth is unprepared for such an event.[3] In April 2018, the B612 Foundation reported "It's 100 percent certain we'll be hit by a devastating asteroid, but we're not 100 percent sure when."[4] Also in 2018, physicist Stephen Hawking, in his final book, Brief Answers to the Big Questions, considered an asteroid collision to be the biggest threat to the planet. [5][6][7] Several ways of avoiding an asteroid impact have been described.[8] Nonetheless, in March 2019, scientists reported that asteroids may be much more difficult to destroy than thought earlier.[9][10] In addition, an asteroid may reassemble itself due to gravity after being disrupted.[11] In May 2021, NASA astronomers reported that 5 to 10 years of preparation may be needed to avoid a virtual impactor based on a simulated exercise conducted by the 2021 Planetary Defense Conference. [12][13][14]

- Nkalakatha the "#megamaser" (2022) ... (Can we harvest or collect and point - or pull against - such energy sources which are already present, using a minimum pertubative force in n-body idk QFT+QG fields in order to effectively read and write to points in stochastic spacetime, which is presumably all embedded in the horizon disc of one or more microscopic and larger black holes?)

Can a train of multiple solar collector + sails + lasers exceed (c + nlimit_approaching_c, or does that warp spacetime for NEOs, over their net effective path through spacetime?

- A QG Quantum Gravity duality for idk Gravitational lensing > Explanation in terms of spacetime curvature:

Claimed moons of Earth

> Although the Moon is Earth's only natural satellite, there are a number of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with orbits that are in resonance with Earth. These have been called "second" moons of Earth. [3]*

> 469219 Kamoʻoalewa, an asteroid discovered on 27 April 2016, is possibly the most stable quasi-satellite of Earth.[4] As it orbits the Sun, 469219 Kamoʻoalewa appears to circle around Earth as well. It is too distant to be a true satellite of Earth, but is the best and most stable example of a quasi-satellite, a type of near-Earth object. They appear to orbit a point other than Earth itself, such as the orbital path of the NEO asteroid 3753 Cruithne. Earth trojans, such as 2010 TK7, are NEOs that orbit the Sun (not Earth) on the same orbital path as Earth, and appear to lead or follow Earth along the same orbital path.

> Other small natural objects in orbit around the Sun may enter orbit around Earth for a short amount of time, becoming temporary natural satellites. As of 2020, the only confirmed examples have been 2006 RH120 in Earth orbit during 2006 and 2007,[1] and 2020 CD3 in Earth orbit between 2018 and 2020. [5][6]

ʻOumuamua from ~Vega (2017)?:


Wind Turbine Blades Can’t Be Recycled, So They’re Piling Up in Landfills (2020)

"GE produces world's largest recyclable wind turbine blade" (2022)

> The 62-meter (203-ft) prototype blade is made with Elium resin from materials company Arkema, which is a glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastic. Not only is the material 100 percent recyclable, it is said to deliver a similar level of performance to thermoset resins that are favored for their lightweight and durability.

> Through a chemical recycling method, the material can be depolymerized and turned into a new resin for re-use, acting as a proof-of-concept for a circular economy loop for the wind energy sector. Before that happens, in the coming weeks LM Wind Power will start full-scale structural testing to verify the blade's performance


Why doesn't that work with existing thermosets?

Could these be feedstock for something like these formed LEGO-style hempcrete blocks with structure that are stronger and more insulating than structural concrete?


What about waterjet?

Or e.g. SYLOS laser for transmutation?

Or replicating nanomachines?

Or a vat of something like the stuff that eats plastic and everything else in the ocean if it gets out?

[+] :

> The density of wind turbines per unit of land area depends on many factors. Wind farms containing very large (1.5–2 megaWatt) turbines may have only one for every 25–50 acres. Smaller turbines can be more closely spaced.

> At either rate, the overall harvestable wind energy per unit of land at fully rated conditions (approx. 12 meters/sec wind speed), is generally in the range of 50 to 100 kW per acre.

  harvestable_wind_energy = 50-100 kW/acre :

  average_rotor_diameter: 120m (393ft)

  blade_length = 1/2 * average_rotor_diameter = 60m (197m)
How many rotor blades can be stored on an acre?

  Acre = 43560 ft**2

  blade_depth__on_end =
  spacing_vertical =
  spacing_horizontal =
How much less $ does an acre storing the maximum number of wind turbines yield compared to a wind turbine on, say, 50 acres?

Sphere packing


In Python, [JupyterLite or Mamba] Pint and Uncertainties might be helpful for units and uncertainty/error propagation.

The pyolite (WASM) IPython demo has SymPy installed in the env but not Pint?




GhostSCAD: Marrying OpenSCAD and Golang

[+] :

> CadQuery is often compared to OpenSCAD. Like OpenSCAD, CadQuery is an open-source, script based, parametric model generator. However, CadQuery stands out in many ways and has several key advantages:

> The scripts use a standard programming language, Python, and thus can benefit from the associated infrastructure. This includes many standard libraries and IDEs.

> CadQuery's CAD kernel Open CASCADE Technology (OCCT) is much more powerful than the CGAL used by OpenSCAD. Features supported natively by OCCT include NURBS, splines, surface sewing, STL repair, STEP import/export, and other complex operations, in addition to the standard CSG operations supported by CGAL

> Ability to import/export STEP and the ability to begin with a STEP model, created in a CAD package, and then add parametric features. This is possible in OpenSCAD using STL, but STL is a lossy format.

> CadQuery scripts require less code to create most objects, because it is possible to locate features based on the position of other features, workplanes, vertices, etc.

> CadQuery scripts can build STL, STEP, and AMF faster than OpenSCAD.

What are some of the advantages of OpenSCAD tooling?


The existence of true one-way functions depends on Kolmogorov complexity


What is the correlation between _ complexity and e.g. EVM/eWASM opcode [CPU,] costs?

> Smart contracts cost CPU usage with costed opcodes. eWASM (Ethereum WebAssembly) has costed opcodes for redundantly-executed smart contracts (that execute on n nodes of a shard)

> AFAIU, while there are DLTs that cost CPU, RAM, and Data storage between points in spacetime, none yet incentivize energy efficiency by varying costs depending upon whether the instructions execute on a FPGA, ASIC, CPU, GPU, TPU, or QPU?


Language of fungi derived from their electrical spiking activity

T-A | 2022-04-06 09:58:09 | 239 | # | ^

Is there emergence? Do they need time, or clocks? Is it full duplex; is the channel blocked while just one transmits?


Lifetime Annotations for C++


IDK why the private, internal paradigms of e.g. Spanner would even need to be reimplemented in a clone instead of a port?

Looks like CockroachDB (Go), TiDB (Go, Rust), and YugabyteDB (C++) are Distributed SQL alternatives to Spanner.

... Which may or may not be able to rely upon inexpensive Lamport clocks:'s_lo...

From re : :

> * Serverless full-text search with Cloudflare Workers, WebAssembly, and Roaring Bitmaps *

> "Edgesearch builds a reverse index by mapping terms to a compressed bit set (using Roaring Bitmaps) of IDs of documents containing the term, and creates a custom worker script and data to upload to Cloudflare Workers"

WASM or [C++] to WASM?

TIL about Roaring Bitmaps: /?q=roaring+bitmap


According to which objective metrics?

From :

> We are designing, implementing, and evaluating an attribute-based annotation scheme for C++ that describes object lifetime contracts. It allows relatively cheap, scalable, local static analysis to find many common cases of heap-use-after-free and stack-use-after-return bugs. It allows other static analysis algorithms to be less conservative in their modeling of the C++ object graph and potential mutations done to it. Lifetime annotations also enable better C++/Rust and C++/Swift interoperability.

> This annotation scheme is inspired by Rust lifetimes, but it is adapted to C++ so that it can be incrementally rolled out to existing C++ codebases. Furthermore, the annotations can be automatically added to an existing codebase by a tool that infers the annotations based on the current behavior of each function’s implementation.

> Clang has existing features for detecting lifetime bugs [...]


Learn about Concept Maps


While scoping is necessary and useful, I hadn't ever learned that there were categorical restrictions upon mind map graphs, definitionally

Centrality, Components, Cliques might be helpful for general network analysis:

The difference between a URI and a URL; a URL is supposed to be dereferenceable and retrievable.

Named Graphs are composed of triples:

  {named_graph_uri, subject_uri, predicate_uri, value_uri, [datatype_uri, language_uri]}

  {g, s, p, o, [d, l]}
E.g. Rdflib supports various stores for and representations of RDF:

Though, general systems are more complex than the average [concept] network: there are nonlinearities in so many of the observed relations between components that trees and DAGs are laughably insufficient; systems descriptions require more than naievely-acyclical graphs without nonlinearity in independent relations even.

Graph (disambiguation)

Glossary of systems theory

How best to describe nonlinear relations without a MultiDiGraph that bundles edges together by [QFT] field, because they're objectively not statistically independent?

s/value_uri/object/, which may be a URI:

  {named_graph_uri, subject_uri, predicate_uri, object, [datatype_uri, language_uri]}

  {g, s, p, o, [d], [l]}
A mindmap, where e.g. and "a" is "xsd:type":

  @base <_#> .
  @prefix rdf: <> .
  @prefix rdfs: <> .
  @prefix schema: <> .

  :Node, a, rdfs:Class .
  :linksTo, a, rdfs:Property .

  :Shapes, a, :Node .

  :Shapes, :linksTo, :Rectangle .
  :Rectangle, a, :Node .

  :Rectangle, :linksTo, :Square .
  :Square, a, :Node .

  :Square, rdfs:label, "Square" .
  :Square, schema:name, "Square" .

  :Rectangle, rdfs:subClassOf, :Shape .
  :Square, rdfs:subClassOf, :Rectangle .


The Personal Security Checklist

Also good: "The SaaS CTO Security Checklist [Redux]"

"The Personal Infosec & Security Checklist"

"The DevOps Security Checklist Redux"

... Years ago, I helped develop a checklist app for a hospital (in Python and JS at the time).

TIL checklists usually are justified, and may be the only process for collaboratively improving process controls that a healthy organization handling feedback has established; who gets to send PRs to the checklist, and what criteria should be applied such that evidence-based variations of process are objectively tested?

"Post-surgical deaths in Scotland drop by a third, attributed to a checklist" (2019)


Study Tips from Richard Feynman


Teachers, Professors, and TAs may have prepared a quiz for us: to test the knowledge of others in order to help them feel learned in application.


Minimodem – general-purpose software audio FSK modem


Could this be used to embed e.g. the sports "game clock" clock time(s) in broadcast TV/audio/video streams; in order to synchronize an air-gapped device next to the media signal reproduction unit?

For example at a grille during the game.

FWIU, e.g. Chromecast have ultrasonic pairing.


So live TV could broadcast [ultrasonic] timecodes during ad breaks such that the gameclock would be synchronized even when the viewer initially tunes in during ad breaks, but "Video On Demand" would be fine because it's not the current time timecode, it would be a game time timecode?

Selecting between multiple audible [sports bar TVs, radios] might imply need for a sonewhat-unique signal code, or only over e.g. USB would work with more than one game on; because there's naturally noise in that airgap channel.

[+] :

> The I2S is a small, low-cost MEMS mic with a range of about 50Hz - 15KHz, good for just about all general audio recording/detection.

From :

> Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.

Raspberry Pi Pico (RP2040), Pi Zero [2 W]: $5+

Power supply, case, wall-mount:

Mic: ~$6

Huge [red] 7-segment display with I2C and voltage regulator components taped to the wall next to the sports bar TVs:


Ask HN: Why don't PCs have better entropy sources?

After reading the thread "Problems emerge for a unified /dev/*random" (1) I was wondering why PCs don't have a bunch of sensors available to draw entropy from.

Is this assumption correct, that adding a magnetometer, accelerometer, simple GPS, etc to a motherboard would improve its entropy gathering? Or is there a mathematical/cryptographical rule that makes the addition of such sensors useless?

Do smartphones have better entropy gathering abilities? It seems like phones would be able to seed a RNG based on input from a variety of sensors that would all be very different between even phones in the same room. Looking at a GPS Android app like Satstat (2) it feels like there's a huge amount of variability to draw from.

If such sensors would add better entropy, would it really cost that much to add them to PC motherboards?



(2) &


Shouldn't it be easier than a kernel parameter to compare the performance of specific applications that relied upon the current behaviors; at least for a major rev or two?


Postgres wire compatible SQLite proxy


NYTimes/DBSlayer (2007) wraps MySQL in JSON:

ODBC > Bridging configurations:

awesome-graphql > tools: security:

... W3C SOLID > Authorization and Access Control:

"Hosting SQLite Databases on GitHub Pages" (2021) re: sql.js-httpvfs, DuckDB

[edit] TIL the MS ODBC 4.0 spec is MIT Licensed, on GitHub , and supports ~challenge/response token auth: "3.2.2 Web-based Authentication Flow with SQLBrowseConnect"

> Applications that are unable to allow drivers to pop up dialogs can call SQLBrowseConnect to connect to the service.

> SQLBrowseConnect provides an iterative dialog between the driver and the application where the application passes in an initial input connection string. If the connection string contains sufficient information to connect, the driver responds with SQL_SUCCESS and an output connection string containing the complete set of connection attributes used.

> If the initial input connection string does not contain sufficient information to connect to the source, the driver responds with SQL_NEED_DATA and an output connection string specifying informational attributes for the application (such as the authorization url) as well as required attributes to be specified in a subsequent call to SQLBrowseConnect. Attribute names returned by SQLBrowseConnect may include a colon followed by a localized identifier, and the value of the requested attribute is either a single question mark or a comma-separated list of valid values (optionally including localized identifiers) enclosed in curly braces. Optional attributes are returned preceded with an asterix (*).

> In a Web-based authentication scenario, if SQLBrowseConnect is called with an input connection string containing an access token that has not expired, along with any other required properties, no additional information should be required. If the access token has expired and the connection string contains a refresh token, the driver attempts to refresh the connection using the supplied refresh token.

Also TIL ODBC 4.0 supports: :

> Semi-structured data – Tables whose schema may not be defined or may change on a row-by-row basis

> Hierarchical Data – Data with nested structure (structured fields, lists)

> Web Authentication model


Show HN: Redo – Command line utility for quickly creating shell functions


From ::

> I log shell commands with a script called that creates [per-]$USER and per-virtualenv tab-delimited [$_USRLOG] logfiles with unique per-terminal-session identifiers [$_TERM_ID] and ISO8601 timestamps; so it's really easy to just grep for the apt/yum/dnf commands that I ran ad-hoc when I should've just taken a second to create an Ansible role with `ansible-galaxy init ansible-role-name ` and referenced that in a consolidated system playbook with a `when` clause.

  stid \#tutorial; echo "$_TERM_ID"

  tail -n11 $_USRLOG
  ut -n11

  grep "$_TERM_ID" "$_USRLOG"
  usrlog_grep "$_TERM_ID"
  ug "$_TERM_ID"

  usrlog_grep_parse "$_TERM_ID"
  ugp "$_TERM_ID" # `type ugp`


Rustc_codegen_GCC can now bootstrap rustc


Q: "Does my data fit in RAM?"


Is there a one-liner to build llvm e.g. with k8s and containers, or just a `git push` to a PR? #GitOps

And another to publish a locally-signed tagged build?

`conda install rust` does install `cargo`.

`conda install -c conda-forge -y mamba; mamba install -y rust libllvm14 lit llvm llvm-tools llvmdev`

conda-forge/llvmdev-feedstock; ninja, cmake, python >= 3

.scripts/ is called by


Black Holes Shown to Act Like Quantum Particles


White hole > Big Bang/Supermassive White Hole :

> Some researchers have proposed that when a black hole forms, a Big Bang may occur at the core/singularity, which would create a new universe that expands outside of the parent universe

Where's the exit on this thing?

Do the CMB or GWB indicate that the Shapley Attractor / Great Attractor interaction is the omnidirectional mouth / center of it all, or no?

Gravitational wave background > Cosmological sources

... FWIU, all we've done is observe minute confirmatory fluctuations from the ground; e.g. LIGO (Nobel Prize in Physics 2017, Thorne, NumFocus-supported tools)? Could that tell us where the center is? Should there even be one if we're actually inside a white hole / black hole combo?

What "dark matter" do we subtract or add to the CMB, GWB,?

... Severe questions of cosmological topology, in regards to a manifold for holographic projection

@PBSSpaceTime videos:

"Where Is The Center of The Universe?" (2022)

"Could The Universe Be Inside A Black Hole?" (2022)

"The Holographic Universe Explained" (2019)

"Are Black Holes Actually Fuzzballs?" (2022)

From :

> Physicists are using quantum math to understand what happens when black holes collide. In a surprise, they’ve shown that a single particle can describe a collision’s entire gravitational wave.

"Scale invariance in quantum field theory"


Dagger: a new way to build CI/CD pipelines


Is there a task runtime stat for a blob pruning task?

This sounds like memoization caching:

> In computing, memoization or memoisation is an optimization technique used primarily to speed up computer programs by storing the results of expensive function calls and returning the cached result when the same inputs occur again.

Re: SBOM: Software Bill of Materials, OSV (CloudFuzz), CycloneDX, LinkedData, ld-proofs, sigstore, and software supply chain security: "Podman can transfer container images without a registry"

Can Dagger cache the (layer/task-merged) SBOM for all of the {CodeMeta, SEON OWL} s?


Grafana Mimir – Horizontally scalable long-term storage for Prometheus


Suggestions for organizing a Helm + Terraform [+ k3s/k3d/MicroShift] provisioning and monitoring git repo with CI for job accounting? (without Ansible & AWX, which I'd create a role with for this too)

- [ ] ENH,BLD: A cookiecutter for this would be cool


Recommendations when publishing a WASM library

conda: "Adding a WebAssembly platform"


  #  import micropip
"Creating a Pyodide package" > "2. Creating the meta.yaml file"

conda-forge: "WASM as a supported architecture"


If you’re not using SSH certificates you’re doing SSH wrong (2019)


`ssh-keygen` #Certificates:

"DevSec SSH Baseline" ssh_spec.rb, sshd_spec.rb

"SLIP-0039: Shamir's Secret-Sharing for Mnemonic Codes"

> Shamir's secret-sharing provides a better mechanism for backing up secrets by distributing custodianship among a number of trusted parties in a manner that can prevent loss even if one or a few of those parties become compromised.

> However, the lack of SSS standardization to date presents a risk of being unable to perform secret recovery in the future should the tooling change. Therefore, we propose standardizing SSS so that SLIP-0039 compatible implementations will be interoperable.


Google's Certificate Transparency Search page to be discontinued May 15th, 2022


Do you think that CT log data replication would be more secure and efficient if the CT logs were stored by a zero trust distributed application like a blockchain, instead of Merkle signatures in a database owned by one party (that's now discontinuing free indexing, at least)?

From "Oak, a Free and Open Certificate Transparency Log" (LetsEncrypt 2019) :

> Trillian is a centralized Merkle tree: it doesn't support native replication [...] According to the trillian README, trillian depends upon MySQL/MariaDB and thus internal/private replication is as good as the SQL replication model (which doesn't have a distributed consensus algorithm like e.g. paxos).

And what about indexing and search queries at volume, again without replication?

From "A future for SQL on the web" :


>> Indexers are node operators in The Graph Network that stake Graph Tokens (GRT) in order to provide indexing and query processing services. Indexers earn query fees and indexing rewards for their services. They also earn from a Rebate Pool that is shared with all network contributors proportional to their work, following the Cobbs-Douglas Rebate Function.

>> GRT that is staked in the protocol is subject to a thawing period and can be slashed if Indexers are malicious and serve incorrect data to applications or if they index incorrectly. Indexers can also be delegated stake from Delegators, to contribute to the network.

>> Indexers select subgraphs to index based on the subgraph’s curation signal, where Curators stake GRT in order to indicate which subgraphs are high-quality and should be prioritized. Consumers (eg. applications) can also set parameters for which Indexers process queries for their subgraphs and set preferences for query fee pricing.

FWIW, here's how OSV affords search queries:

> For convenience, these sources are aggregated and continuously exported to a GCS bucket maintained by OSV: gs://osv-vulnerabilities

> This bucket contains individual entries of the format gs://osv-vulnerabilities/<ECOSYSTEM>/<ID>.json as well as a zip containing all vulnerabilities for each ecosystem at gs://osv-vulnerabilities/<ECOSYSTEM>/

> E.g. for PyPI vulnerabilities:

  # Or download over HTTP via
  gsutil cp gs://osv-vulnerabilities/PyPI/
Hopefully, with an incentivized Blockchain Indexing service and/or e.g. GCS buckets that you just always `cp` and then load locally and then query locally, we can find a solution for queries of the growing CT Certificate Transparency logs.


Implementing a toy version of TLS 1.3


> tlslite

"PEP 543 – A Unified TLS API for Python" #interfaces (-2016)


Here's caddy's go/tls wrapper with e.g. ACME, OCSP stapling:

Django-ca also does OCSP and certbot-compatible ACMEv2 w/ known limitations:

E.g. is likely not so great at protocols because that requires testing concurrent and distributed systems and TLAplus, which at least currently can't find side channels FWIU.

OSS-Fuzz runs CloudFuzz[Lite?] for many open source repos and feeds OSV OpenSSF Vulnerability Format:


The quantum technology ecosystem explained

Wikipedia (dbpedia, wikidata,) concept URIs:

Category:Quantum mechanics


List of emerging technologies may have inspiration for applications of currently-discovered quantum mechanical phenomena.

#Q12 is the Quantum K12 talent.

QoS: Quantum-on-Silicon may very well scale; but how can we store un-collapsed output qubits?

Quantum tagging,


> one can literally write down a matrix of numbers in a program to define a new mathematical function, and later use that function to manipulate the contents of the computer's RAM[1].

This "Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists" video explains classical and quantum operators as just matrices. What are other good references?

Quantum state:

Quantum logic; quantum logical operators:

> All this business about energy levels, evolution, etc. are distractions, just as the electrodynamics of a transistor are distractions from what it means to program a computer.

But a classical simulator - like e.g. qiskit - for a quantum circuit/experiment/function must run the experiment very^very^very many times to even probabilistically approximate a sufficient quantum system; because of the combinatorial probabilistic explosion that results from adding just one more basis state.

What are the fundamental limitations of quantum simulators? Maybe it's possible.

Quantum simulator:

- [ ] Maybe Twistor theory has insight into a classical geometrical formulation that could be run on a non-QC?


[Photon] wave-particle constructive superpositions approximate which operators, which may form a neat topology like this:

- [ ] > A research question for a new school year:

> The classical logical operators form a neat topology. Should we expect there to be such symmetry and structure amongst the quantum operators as well?


Re: error in simulators and actual QC hardware, which we do need for a reason: Quantum Error Correction # General_codes

How to best quantize reals into matrices (~= tensors)?

> Peter Shor first discovered this method of formulating a quantum error correcting code by storing the information of one qubit onto a highly entangled state of nine qubits. A quantum error correcting code protects quantum information against errors of a limited form.

Here's "Quantum Algorithm Zoo" by Microsoft Quantum:

And "Timeline of quantum computing and communication"

I have a hard time with the idea that the outcome of the ultimate quantum simulation is a collapsed float.

Quantum Monte Carlo: :

> Quantum Monte Carlo encompasses a large family of computational methods whose common aim is the study of complex quantum systems. One of the major goals of these approaches is to provide a reliable solution (or an accurate approximation) of the quantum many-body problem. [...] The difficulty is however that solving the Schrödinger equation requires the knowledge of the many-body wave function in the many-body Hilbert space, which typically has an exponentially large size in the number of particles. Its solution for a reasonably large number of particles is therefore typically impossible,

What sorts of independent states can or should we map onto error-corrected qubits in an approximating system?

Propagation of Uncertainty ... Numerical stability ... Chaotic convergence, ultimately, apparently:

"Quantum computing: A taxonomy, systematic review and future" (2022)

"Multi-qubit quantum logic operations with ion-implanted donor spins in silicon" (2022) (Veritasium video)

> Among semiconductor qubits, the electron and nuclear spins of donors in silicon play a special role for their conceptual simplicity (a 31P donor in silicon is similar to hydrogen in vacuum) and their exceptional coherence times [1] and 1-qubit gate fidelities [2]. Here I will present experimental progress on multi-qubit logic operations with donor spins, which point to several credible pathways for scalability using ion-implanted donors in MOS-compatible devices. The current state of the art is a hybrid electron-nuclear 3-qubit processor [3], where two 31P nuclear spin qubits are coupled to the same electron. The shared electron enables a geometric nuclear two-qubit CZ gate, which we perform with 99.37% average fidelity. NMR single-qubit gates reach fidelities up to 99.95%, and state preparation and measurement are performed with 98.95% fidelity. These three metrics show how close this system is to operating at fault-tolerance thresholds. Further, we entangle the two nuclei with the electron to prepare a 3-qubit GHZ state with 92.5% fidelity. Electron-nuclear entanglement unlocks the ability to connect nuclear qubits via the electrons, for instance using exchange interactions [4]. We have operated a weakly (~10 MHz) exchange-coupled 31P donor pair as a 2-qubit electron system, with native CROT gates performed by resonant microwaves. Gate fidelity benchmarks are underway and will be reported at the Meeting. On the engineering side, we have demonstrated the ability to implant single donors in silicon with confidence up to 99.85% [5]. This striking result identifies ion implantation as a scalable and accurate manufacturing strategy for spin-based quantum computers in silicon.

QoS: Quantum-on-Silicon

The survey article above just says "[Quantum] Output"? Is that different from registers? How long are those states ah coherent?

"Researchers store a quantum bit for a record-breaking 20 milliseconds" (2022)

> By managing to store a qubit in a crystal (a "memory") for 20 milliseconds, a team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) has set a world record and taken a major step towards the development of long-distance quantum telecommunications networks.

What are repeaters, and what are [quantum] prepared states in re: registers and longer-term storage for non-collapsed (or just probabilistic?) qubit outputs?


That was how they did it back in the old days though.

Q: "Ask HN: What's the Equivalent of 'Hello, World' for a Quantum Computer?" [ IBM Qiskit, Microsoft Q#, Google TFQ TensorFlow Quantum, Google Cirq ([NumFOCUS,] SymPy) ]


A: Set a register to zero and see how many times it reads as zero: A) in the local software simulator; and B) with just one modern day qubit register.


Debugging with GDB


Time travel debugging :

> Interactive debuggers include the ability to modify code and step forward based on updated information.[4] Reverse debugging tools allow users to step backwards in time through the steps that resulted in reaching a particular point in the program. Time traveling debuggers provide these features and also allow users to interact with the program, changing the history if desired, and watch how the program responds.[5] :

> System requirements: Linux kernel ≥ 3.11 is required (for PTRACE_SETSIGMASK).

> rr currently requires either:

> An Intel CPU with Nehalem (2010) or later microarchitecture. [OR] Certain AMD Zen or later processors

Is there an rr-like reverse time-travel debugging tool for ARM64/aarch64?

Are GUIs like Voltron and Ghidra helpful for gdb and/or rr-like traces?


'Quantum hair’ could resolve Hawking’s black hole paradox, say scientists

Does this mean we can finally see the (collapsed, 'classical photonic') quantum information of dinosaurs which is never destroyed; by recalling information embedded in or relayed through such spaces; which are induced by cosmic rays, neutron stars, and possibly accelerators?

... That we can finally see dinosaurs?


A Primer on Proxies


An HTTP reverse proxy forwards HTTP requests and adds e.g. X-Forwarded-For and X-Forwarded-Host headers. :

  X-Forwarded-Proto: https
TIL from the nginx docs that there's a standardized way to forward HTTP without the X- prefix on the unregistered headers:

  Forwarded: for=;;proto=https, for=
What is the difference between a reverse proxy and a load balancer?

k8s calls this "Ingress" and there are multiple "Ingress API" implementers; which essentially must reload the upstream server list on SIGHUP.

List of k8s Ingress Controllers:


A [load-balancing] reverse proxy can also keep WAF rules in RAM for processing requests and responses. WAF: Web Application Firewall (OWASP CRS ruleset, CF ruleset,)

Methods for delegating HTTP requests to another application, with per-message overhead and inevitably-necessarily-tunable buffering: Layer 2 (MAC on a local segment), Layer 3 (IP), Layer 4 (TCP, UDP ports), Layer 7: HTTP parse and forward over network sockets or file sockets, defy separation of concerns and least privileges and run the (e.g. non-blocking Lua,) app within the webserver, Layer 7+: container service mesh Ingress API,

e.g. FastCGI uses file sockets, which avoids additional TCP overhead but doesn't really scale because sockets and network filesystems.

(ASGI is the Asynchronous WSGI, which specifies $ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE names as an interface contract in order to decouple web [[reverse] proxy] servers from web applications.)

Fundamentally, which variables passed in the e.g. os.environ dict like $REMOTE_USER and IDK is it like $SSL_CLIENT_CERT_SHA384, SSL_CLIENT_CERT_*; should downstream web applications simply trust as valid strings over what network path?

TLS re-termination.

Non-root [web] servers must run on ports less than 1024, which e.g. iptables or nftables (or eBPF) can easily port-forward to only if rewriting URLs within potentially-signed assets within HTTP messages and HTTP/3 UDP streams isn't necessary.


Ask HN: Tools to generate coverage of user documentation for code

Does anyone know of tools/techniques for generating a coverage report of user documentation over source code? In other words, I'd like to be able to automatically determine when there is documentation missing for an implemented feature or if there is documentation for a feature that was removed.

I'm asking because I've been working on a tool for many years and it's grown large enough that I have a hard time keeping track of what all the parts do and what has and has not been documented. What I'm thinking I'd like to do is add a tag to a piece of source code (C++) and put the corresponding tag in the user docs (RST). Then, during the build, I'd like a report of untagged code, code/docs with matching tags, and code/docs with unmatched tags.

I also feel like there should be at least two levels of documentation to be tracked: 1) the overall feature and 2) fine-details about how the feature behaves under different circumstances. For example, a feature that interacted with the network would have an overall description and some extra notes about how timeouts/retries are handled.

Does anyone have any experience with such a thing or have a similar interest?

"[Python-Dev] Should set objects maintain insertion order too?" :

> Are there URIs for Big-O notation that could be added as e.g. structured attributes in docstrings or annotations?

Looks like docutils supports bibliographic fields and a `metadata` directive:

RST field lists:

`sphinx-apidoc -M`:

sphinx-contrib/apidoc re-runs sphinx-apidoc on every build to generate the doc stubs:


Requirements traceability:

Test coverage:


Someday I'd like to be able to express RDF triples in RST; wherein the preceding heading and/or a specific attribute specify the subject URI and then attr/value pairs are predicate/objects. IDK if that's even necessary for this application where you'd have the dotted-path of the __doc__ string to imply the subject URI?

: :

  How to express #LinkedData in
  - [ ] LaTeX
  - [x] HTML: RDFa, JSON-LD, Microdata
  - [ ] YAML: YAML-LD
  - [ ] Markdown: MyST-Markdown for executablebooks/jupyter-book (Sphinx roles and directives)
  - [ ] reStructuredText (docutils)

- [ ] SCH: SEON OWL ontology could grow a "Documentation"/"Docstring" rdfs:Class/owl:Class and requisite domains on possibly already covering properties to describe the URI-traceable relations between the artifacts: :

> SEON consists of multiple ontologies, for example to describe stakeholders, activities, artifacts, and the relations among all of them. The ultimate goal is to facilitate the implementation of tools that help software engineers to manage software systems over their entire life-cycle.

jupyter-book (Sphinx (docutils), myst-parser, jupyter notebooks) > #879 "Generate OpenGraph metadata for social previews and cards"


Show HN: `Git add -p` with multiple buckets

There are probably a couple good ways to avoid trying to split `git add -p` with e.g. jujutsu `jj`?

If CI isn't running tests for every PR, `git add -p` can create pretty patches that fail when attempting to `git bisect` later.

> Comprehensive support for rewriting history: Besides the usual rebase command, there's `jj describe` for editing the description (commit message) of an arbitrary commit. There's also `jj edit`, which lets you edit the changes in a commit without checking it out. To split a commit into two, use `jj split`. You can even move part of the changes in a commit to any other commit using `jj move`.


Beavers back in London after 400-year absence


"Leave It to Beavers" (2018) PBS Nature [53m] :

> A growing number of scientists, conservationists and grass-roots environmentalists have come to regard beavers as overlooked tools when it comes to reversing the disastrous effects of global warming and world-wide water shortages. Once valued for their fur or hunted as pests, these industrious rodents are seen in a new light through the eyes of this novel assembly of beaver enthusiasts and “employers” who reveal the ways in which the presence of beavers can transform and revive landscapes. Using their skills as natural builders and brilliant hydro-engineers, beavers are being recruited to accomplish everything from finding water in a bone-dry desert to recharging water tables and coaxing life back into damaged lands.

Apparently beavers are attracted to the sound of running water.


Show HN: A Graphviz Implementation in Rust


awesome-graphviz #language-bindings,

awesome-network-analysis #javascript lists a few libraries.

FWIW, JupyterLite builds WASM as well


How to record data for reinforcement learning agent from any Linux game (2020)


"Sysdig vs DTrace vs Strace: A technical discussion."

There are sysdig chisels that reference gdb. :

> Gym Retro lets you turn classic video games into Gym environments for reinforcement learning and comes with integrations for ~1000 games. It uses various emulators that support the Libretro API, making it fairly easy to add new emulators.


Podman can transfer container images without a registry

kukx | 2022-03-14 17:10:10 | 149 | # | ^

"Signing Images with Docker Content Trust" explains how cryptographic container image signatures work w/ Docker Notary (TUF)

The TUF spec (and PyPI TUF PEPs) explains why a tar over https (with optional DNSSEC, a CA cert bundle, CRL, OCSP,) isn't sufficient for secure software distribution. "#ZeroTrust DevOps"; #DevSecOps

What's the favorite package format with content signatures, key distribution, a keyring of trusted (authorized) keys, and a cryptographically-signed manifest of per-file hashes, permissions, and extended file attributes? FWIW, ZIP at least does a CRC32.

We now have the Linux Foundation CNCF sigstore for any artifact, including OCI container images.

W3C ld-proofs is a newer web standard that unfortunately all package managers haven't yet migrated to.

Because ld-proofs is RDF, it works in JSON-LD and you could merge the entire SBOM [1] and e.g. CodeMeta [2] Linked Data metadata for all of the standardized-metadata-documented components in a stack.




From this about DNSSEC and software supply chain security a couple weeks ago, from this about Android packages: :

>> [...] Sigstore is a free and open Linux Foundation service for asset signatures:

>> The TUF Overview explains some of the risks of asset signature systems; key compromise, there's one key for everything that we all share and can't log the revocation of in a CT (Certificate Transparency) log distributed like a DLT,

>> Certificate Transparency:

>> Yeah, there's a channel to secure there at that layer of the software supply chain as well.

>> "PEP 480 -- Surviving a Compromise of PyPI: End-to-end signing of packages" (2014-)

>>> Proposed is an extension to PEP 458 that adds support for end-to-end signing and the maximum security model. End-to-end signing allows both PyPI and developers to sign for the distributions that are downloaded by clients. The minimum security model proposed by PEP 458 supports continuous delivery of distributions (because they are signed by online keys), but that model does not protect distributions in the event that PyPI is compromised. In the minimum security model, attackers who have compromised the signing keys stored on PyPI Infrastructure may sign for malicious distributions. The maximum security model, described in this PEP, retains the benefits of PEP 458 (e.g., immediate availability of distributions that are uploaded to PyPI), but additionally ensures that end-users are not at risk of installing forged software if PyPI is compromised.

>> One W3C Linked Data way to handle ( ) cryptographic signatures of a JSON-LD manifest with per-file and whole package hashes would be with e.g. W3C ld-signatures/ld-proofs and W3C DID (Decentralized Identifiers) or x.509 certs in a CT log.

> FWIU, the Fuschia team is building package signing on top of TUF.

W3C Web Bundles + Linked Data for the SBOM and metadata could be a good solution for software supply chain security in general: :

>> Web Bundles, more formally known as Bundled HTTP Exchanges, are part of the Web Packaging proposal.

>> HTTP resources in a Web Bundle are indexed by request URLs, and can optionally come with signatures that vouch for the resources. Signatures allow browsers to understand and verify where each resource came from, and treats each as coming from its true origin. This is similar to how Signed HTTP Exchanges, a feature for signing a single HTTP resource, are handled.

How do these newer potential solutions compare to distributing packages and GPG-signed hash manifests over HTTP, with GPG public keys retrieved over HTTPS (HKP)? (Maybe with keys pinned in the GPG source codes for common key servers? Or why not?)

Are DNS (DNSSEC, DoH, DoT downgrade attacks), CA compromise (SPOF), and x.509 cert forgery still the significant potential points of failure? What of that can e.g. Web3 solve for?


Does `podman trust` also work yet? Shell commands from the first Docker docs link above:

  docker trust key generate jeff
  # docker trust key load key.pem --name jeff

  docker trust signer add --key cert.pem jeff
  docker trust sign

  docker push

  docker trust inspect --pretty

  docker trust revoke


Light exposure during sleep impairs cardiometabolic function

Research on Blue light and sleep: :

> Melanopsin photoreceptors are sensitive to a range of wavelengths and reach peak light absorption at blue light wavelengths around 480 nanometers.[30] Other wavelengths of light activate the melanopsin signaling system with decreasing efficiency as they move away from the optimum 480 nm. For example, shorter wavelengths around 445 nm (closer to violet in the visible spectrum) are half as effective for melanopsin photoreceptor stimulation as light at 480 nm.[30]

Under Melanopsin > infobox > "Biological process", e.g. "entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod" and "regulation of circadian rhythm" are listed.


Show HN: Instantly create a GitHub repository to take screenshots of a web page

I built a GitHub repository template which automates the process of configuring a new repository to take web page screenshots using GitHub Actions.

You can try this out at

Use the interface to create a new repository using that template, and paste the URL that you want to take screenshots of in as the "description" field.

The new repository will then configure itself using GitHub Actions, take the screenshot and save it back to the repo!


Awesome Visual Regression Testing > lists quite a few tools and online services:

"visual-regression": can run in a CI job, does Time Travel, works with DevTools debugger, can take screenshots and [headless] video, and it looks like there's a visual regression testing thing for it:


Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity (2018)


Rewilding (conservation biology)

Climate change mitigation effects of rewilding > Carbon sinks and removal:

Permaculture :


Another reason for textual chat meetings with URLs, #hashTags, @atTags, an agenda at the top, headings, and a prepared, accessible transcript!


a #TeamPlaybook suggestion: add a copy-and-pasteable monospace markdown text template for #ThreeQuestions in the #TeamHandbook-specified chat #channel for #3qs:

  ## Date
  ### Agenda
  - 3qs
  ### @name
  Since, Before, Obstacles


Lasers could cut lifespan of nuclear waste from a million years to 30 minutes


What are the energy requirements? Is there residual energy to capture?


Gold of the soul!

Could superconducting diamonds or atomic batteries or graphene sheets for filtration be made from any remaining carbon and peanut butter under pressure? What can be made from brine with e.g. lasers?


Show HN: Hubfs – File System for GitHub


Isn't there already a good way to push computation closer to the data?

GmailFS and pyfilesystem (userspace FUSE) and rclone are neat as well. explains about the `git push` step that git-remote-dropbox enables:


Running the code where the data already is saves network transfer: with data locality, you don't need to download each file before grepping.

Locality_of_reference#Matrix_multiplication explains how the cache miss penalty applies to optimizing e.g. matrix multiplication:


Physicists steer chemical reactions by magnetic fields and quantum interference

Perhaps also practical for intersecting applications: "These Superabsorbent Batteries Charge Faster the Larger They Get: In the lab, the prototype quantum batteries are charged with light" :

> Previous work found that matter could act collectively in surprising ways due to quantum physics. For example, in "superradiance," a group of atoms charged up with energy can release a far more intense pulse of light than they could individually.

> In the past decade, researchers have also discovered the reverse of superradiance was possible—superabsorption, with atoms cooperating to display enhanced absorption. However, until now superabsorption was seen for only small numbers of atoms.


> The new device consists of a reflective waferlike microcavity enclosing a semiconducting organic Lumogen F orange dye, which the researchers charged with energy using a laser. Ultrafast detectors helped the team monitor the way in which this dye charged and stored light energy at femtosecond resolution. As the microcavity size and the number of dye molecules increased, the charging time decreased.

Could a combo PV photovoltaic, storage, full-spectrum e.g. LED product for outdoor and/or indoor applications be created with super absorption, , and superradiance?

Maybe also wrap the thing in thin film (and/or graphene sheets that throw off electrons) to harvest energy off the thermal gradient around the unit; and shape it like self-cleaning petals.


White noise improves learning by modulating activity in midbrain regions (2014)

White noise: :

> says brainwaves are 1-150 Hz? IIRC compassion is acheivable on a bass guitar.

Doodling improves memory retention / learning, too. IDK how much difference the content of a doodle makes? Hypothesis: Additional "cognitive landmarky" content in the doodle or received waveforms would increase retention up to a limit.


Memory and retention in learning > Methods of improving memory and retention

Mnemosyne/Anki, (FreeMind, yEd, Gephi, AtomSpace as-moses, RDF bnodes, ONNX,) mind maps, RestructuredRext, MyST-Markdown, todo.txt (TaskWarrior,), StructuredProcrastination, ActivityWatch, Dogsheep, *-to-sqlite, awesome-quantified-self,

But metrics for actual memory retention? I've heard of TinCan xAPI w/ a LRS. nbgrader, Khan Academy exercises, OpenBadges to demonstrate proficiency,


"Episodic memory enhancement versus impairment is determined by contextual similarity across events" (2021)

From "How Our Environment Affects What We Remember"


Show HN: Prepform – AI and spaced-repetition to optimize learning

Hi, I'm Eric and I'm the founder and lead developer of Prepform.

A high-quality education helped me pursue my interests and achieve my goals. I started Prepform so students of all backgrounds have access to the same kind of education.

I grew up in Southern California, surrounded by dozens of SAT prep programs, and I swear I must have gone to all of them. Different programs followed different styles and techniques, but the strategy they shared was to create a study plan and review mistakes.

A study plan is taking a diagnostic test,

setting a target score,

creating a study schedule,

identifying mistakes, and finally

reviewing those mistakes.

I wanted to take this structure and optimize it with machine learning, while accounting for elements of human learning and memory. I'm a big fan of SuperMemo, a memorization technique developed by Piotr Wozniak, where you review material just as you're about to forget it. Cognitive psychology tells us human forgetting follows a pattern, but Piotr quantified this behavior to identify the precise moment forgetting happens.

The goal was to build on his research with AI and tailor it to not only test prep but to the individual student, and make it the engine of the study plan.

The result is Blended Prep, which guides students to internalize knowledge rather than memorize material, and gives them the best chance to ace their next exam.

I'm so excited to share this with the HN community, and would love to know what you think. You can try it out at Thanks for reading. :

Re: Phonemic awareness and Phonological awareness,

> What are some of the more evidence-based (?) (early literacy,) reading curricula? OTOH: LETRS, Heggerty, PAL:

> Which traversals of a curriculum graph are optimal or sufficient?

> You can add and Linked Data to your [#OER] curriculum resources to increase discoverability, reusability. :

>> A bottom-up (topologically sorted) computer science curriculum (a depth-first traversal of a Thing graph) ontology would be a great teaching resource.

>> One could start with e.g. "Outline of Computer Science", add concept dependency edges, and then topologically (and alphabetically or chronologically) sort.


>> There are many potential starting points and traversals toward specialization for such a curriculum graph of schema:Things/skos:Concepts with URIs.

> ... Ctrl-F "interview", "curriculum"

OpenBadges as Blockcerts for Q12 competencies


Why tensors? A beginner's perspective

mfn | 2022-03-08 21:20:08 | 173 | # | ^

AFAIU, Matrices are categorically subsets of Tensors where the product operator, at least, is not the tensor product but the Dot product.

Dot product:

Matrix multiplication > Dot product, bilinear form and inner product:

> The dot product of two column vectors is the matrix product

Tensor > Geometric objects :

> The transformation law for a tensor behaves as a functor on the category of admissible coordinate systems, under general linear transformations (or, other transformations within some class, such as local diffeomorphisms.) This makes a tensor a special case of a geometrical object, in the technical sense that it is a function of the coordinate system transforming functorially under coordinate changes.[24] Examples of objects obeying more general kinds of transformation laws are jets and, more generally still, natural bundles.[25][26]


Booting ARM Linux the standard way

Fwiu, the magical path to launch Grub on an ARM board is:

And that doesn't quite require tow-boot to do hw init?

"DOC: How to boot into Grub" (in order to get a passphrase-protected graphical boot menu where you can modify kernel parameters like `rescue`)


PipeWire: A year in review and a look ahead


> 2. is compatible with sandboxing

"DOC,ENH: How to connect container pipewire, alsa, jack to host pipewire (#1612)"


How does database indexing work? (2008)

luu | 2022-03-07 17:30:40 | 253 | # | ^

From "Hosting SQLite Databases on GitHub Pages" re: edgesearch, HTTP/3 QUIC UDP, :

> Serverless full-text search with Cloudflare Workers, WebAssembly, and Roaring Bitmaps

>> How it works: Edgesearch builds a reverse index by mapping terms to a compressed bit set (using Roaring Bitmaps) of IDs of documents containing the term, and creates a custom worker script and data to upload to Cloudflare Workers


WebGPU – All of the cores, none of the canvas

[+] :

> As WebGPU spec is being developed, a reference implementation is also being build. It’s written in Rust, and is likely going to power the WebGPU implementation in Firefox. This reference implementation, called wgpu-native, also exposes a C-api, which means that it can be wrapped in Python. And this is what wgpu-py does.

> So in short, wgpu-py is a Python wrapper of wgpu-native, which is a wrapper for Vulkan, Metal and DX12, which are low-level API’s to talk to the GPU hardware.

So, it should be possible to WebGPU-accelerate SciPy; for example where NumPy is natively or third-partily CUDA-accelerated

edit: Intel MKL,,

> Seamlessly scale from GPU workstations to multi-GPU servers and multi-node clusters with Dask.

Where can WebGPU + IDK WebRTC/WebSockets + Workers provide value for multi-GPU applications that already have efficient distributed messaging protocols?

"Considerable slowdown in Firefox once notebook gets a bit larger" Re: the differences between the W3C Service Workers API, Web Locks API, and the W3C Web Workers API and "4 Ways to Communicate Across Browser Tabs in Realtime" may be helpful.

Pyodide compiles CPython and the SciPy stack to WASM. The WASM build would probably benefit from WebGPU acceleration?


Command-line Tools can be 235x Faster than your Hadoop Cluster (2014)


That's pretty much how Dask works; though Dask doesn't throw away data types for newline-delimited strings between each failed partitioned IPC pipeline process, and then the new hire didn't appropriately trap errors in their shell script, so the log messages are chronologically non-sequential and text-only. :

> This package provides a JupyterLab extension to manage Dask clusters, as well as embed Dask's dashboard plots directly into JupyterLab panes.

Something like ml-hub allows MLops teams to create resource-quota'd containers with k8s and IAM, though even signed code can DoS an unauditable system with no logs of which processes ran which signed archive of which code at what time, with bash and ssh.


CPython, C standards, and IEEE 754


> for now Red Hat devtoolset is the only solution. When IBM discontinued the CentOS project, most people do not understand what it means to the OSS community.

"Compilers and Runtimes" > "CentOS sysroot for linux-* Platforms"

From :

>> 2021-10-13: GCC 10 and clang 12 as default compilers for Linux and macOS

>> These compilers will become the default for building packages in conda-forge.

Conda-forge specifies enough to solve for CentOS sysroot compatibility and newer GCC is already specified.

CentOS (RHEL SRPMs with RH trademarks removed + EPEL) lives on as {Rocky Linux, Alma Linux, CentOS Stream,} and SUSE is still RHEL-compatible. :

>> Build Python wheels for all the platforms on CI with minimal configuration.

>> Python wheels are great. Building them across Mac, Linux, Windows, on multiple versions of Python, is not.

>> cibuildwheel is here to help. cibuildwheel runs on your CI server - currently it supports GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI - and it builds and tests your wheels across all of your platforms.


Ask HN: Books recommendations on developing critical thinking?

hoping get your recommedation on critical thinking, decision under uncertainity - other than khaneman's book.

"Ask HN: How can I “work-out” critical thinking skills as I age?"



Web Share API

From :

> The Web Share API allows a site to share text, links, files, and other content to user-selected share targets, utilizing the sharing mechanisms of the underlying operating system. These share targets typically include the system clipboard, email, contacts or messaging applications, and Bluetooth or WiFi channels

> Note: This API should not be confused with the Web Share Target API, which allows a website to specify itself as a share target

W3C Web Share Target API: :

> This specification defines an API that allows websites to declare themselves as web share targets, which can receive shared content from either the Web Share API, or system events (e.g., shares from native apps).

W3C Web Share API: :

> This specification defines an API for sharing text, links and other content to an arbitrary destination of the user's choice.


Ask HN: Is Kubernetes the only alternative for being cloud agnostic?

My company's management desires for us to be "cloud agnostic" - without having a firm definition of what that actually means. Lots of people in my company think "cloud agnostic" means you "containerize" your solutions and run them on Kubernetes. Then you can pick and move your application from cloud to cloud as desired. That seems extremely limited to me. To me that thinking exemplifies the cloud as being "someone else's computer" rather than seeing the cloud as an application platform in and of itself.

What does HN think about this? Is there a way of looking at "cloud agnostic" that still allows you to look at the cloud as an application platform and not just as a platform for running Kubernetes? Is there another way to think about this?


Ansible & k8s:


geerlingguy/ansible-for-kubernetes book:


OKD is the open source (RedHat, (IBM)) OpenShift, which wraps kubernetes ; sort of like AWX :

> [OKD] Features: A fully automated distribution of Kubernetes on all major clouds and bare metal, OpenStack, and other virtualization providers;

Single-node OpenShift 4 requires at least 16GB of RAM and 8 vCPU :

> Single node OpenShift offers both control and worker node capabilities in a single server and provides users with a consistent experience across the sites where OpenShift is deployed, regardless of the size of the deployment.

MicroShift requires 2Gb of RAM on e.g. an ARM64 Raspberry Pi 4 or similar SBC:

Terraform doesn't require k8s:

OpenStack is somewhat EC2 API compatible, but the reverse is not true.


Bootloader Basics


- [ ] ENH: Could there be bootloader game(s) with progress bars for e.g. teh systemd boot sequence? Obvs, bootloader game high scores can't be recorded until further into the boot sequence.


Automerge: A JSON-like data structure (a CRDT) that can be modified concurrently


Re: inlined tabular data in CRDT distributed systems for collaboration on documents that may be required to validate:


> An atomic transaction is an indivisible and irreducible series of database operations such that either all occurs, or nothing occurs.[1] A guarantee of atomicity prevents updates to the database occurring only partially, which can cause greater problems than rejecting the whole series outright. As a consequence, the transaction cannot be observed to be in progress by another database client. At one moment in time, it has not yet happened, and at the next it has already occurred in whole (or nothing happened if the transaction was cancelled in progress).

> An example of an atomic transaction is a monetary transfer from bank account A to account B. It consists of two operations, withdrawing the money from account A and saving it to account B. Performing these operations in an atomic transaction ensures that the database remains in a consistent state, that is, money is neither lost nor created if either of those two operations fail. [2]

IIRC, Apache Wave (Google Wave (2009)) solves for tables but is not built atop a CRDT, like Docs and Sheets?

Jupyterlab/rtc - Jupyterlab, JupyterLite (WASM), - is built upon a CRDT for .ipynb JSON, at least.

(URI-) Named Graphs as JSON-LD would work there, too.

Does Dokieli have atomic table operations for ad-hoc inlined tables as RDF Linked Data?


> This has nothing to do with Atomicity in the traditional DB transaction sense.

Partial application of conflicting additive schema modifications is an atomicity issue as much as it is a merge issue. If the [HTML] doesn't validate before other nodes are expected to synchronize with it, that changeset shouldn't apply at all; atomicity.

It looks like Dokieli supports embedded tables.

With RDF (and triplestores, and property graphs), you can just add "rows" and "columns" (rdfs:Class instances with rdfs:Property instances) without modifying the schema or the tabular data. Online schema migration is dangerous with SQL, too, because the singular db user account for the app shouldn't have [destructive] ALTER TABLE privileges.

"CSV on the Web: A Primer" > "Validating CSVs" (CSVW Tabular Data)


A 13-year-old used my artificial nose to diagnose pneumonia


Is the limit: A) sensor resolution, B) NN architecture and/or algorithm, C) training sample size, D) training data (labeling, segmentation) quality, or E) it doesn't sufficiently predict the variance with low enough error?

New NN models are able to do more with the exact same sensor data.


How much information content is there in DNA (and RNA,)? How do creatures know or learn what not to eat given limited available sensor data?


So, sensor resolution is higher, there are multiple fields being integrated, in a massively-parallel spreading-activation Biological Neural Network, and that's how blank-slate creatures just know?

Is there enough information content - per the Shannon entropy definition or otherwise - in DNA and/or RNA to code for the survival-selected traits that

I'm not sure that the (Shannon entropy, MIC, Kolmogorov,) information content of the samples is the limit of any given network trained therefrom? Is there anything to be gained from upsampling and adding e.g. gaussian blur (noise)? Maybe it's feature engineering, maybe it's expert methods bias, maybe it's just sensor fusion; that's the magic noise.

Perhaps this is moving the goalposts a bit, but e.g. depixelation does appear to defy such a presumed limit due to apparent information content? Perhaps it is that the network reading the sensor carries additional information associated with the lower-resolution or additional-fields' sensor data? :

> Given a low-resolution input image, PULSE searches the outputs of a generative model (here, StyleGAN) for high-resolution images that are perceptually realistic and downscale correctly.

Maybe no amount of feature engineering can actually add information?


Lit-up fishing nets reduce catch of unwanted sharks, rays and squid: study

Is there some way to make fishing nets out of e.g. bioluminescent, biodegradable, carbon negative organic material?

LEDs that biodegrade after ___ years would be a good idea, too. MEMS-powered?


Design of a rapid transit to Mars mission using laser-thermal propulsion

Ah, but what if stationary laser L_0 is itself propelled by laser-thermal propulsion laser L_infinity?


WebGL 2.0 Achieves Pervasive Support from All Major Web Browsers



> WebGPU is the working name for a future web standard and JavaScript API for accelerated graphics and compute, aiming to provide "modern 3D graphics and computation capabilities". It is developed by the W3C GPU for the Web Community Group with engineers from Apple, Mozilla, Microsoft, Google, and others. [1]


Uniting the Linux random-number devices

h1x | 2022-02-17 09:25:13 | 125 | # | ^ has :

> In October 2016, with the release of Linux kernel version 4.8, the kernel's /dev/urandom was switched over to a ChaCha20-based cryptographic pseudorandom number generator (CPRNG) implementation [16] by Theodore Ts'o, based on Bernstein's well-regarded stream cipher ChaCha20.

> In 2020, the Linux kernel version 5.6 /dev/random only blocks when the CPRNG hasn't initialized. Once initialized, /dev/random and /dev/urandom behave the same. [17]


Carbon Robotics new LaserWeeder with 30 lasers to autonomously eradicate weeds

From the article:

> In addition to an updated build, the 2022 LaserWeeder features 30 industrial CO2 lasers, more than 3X the lasers in Carbon Robotics’ self-driving Autonomous LaserWeeder, creating an average weeding capacity of two acres per hour. Growers who use Carbon Robotics’ implements are seeing up to 80% savings in weed management costs, with a break-even period of 2-3 years.

How does this compare to competing laser weeding robots?

Agricultural robot:


Launch HN: Pelm (YC W22) – Plaid for Utilities

Hi HN, Drew and Edmund from Pelm here ( We are building an API that allows developers to access energy data, such as electricity usage or billing data, from utilities.

Currently, if you want to build an application on top of energy data, you have to build integrations with utilities across the country. Not only is this time-consuming, it's super frustrating given the lack of data standardization and the clunky, high-friction integration processes that energy companies use. With Pelm, you only have to integrate with one service to access utility data, and you get to use a seamless, well-documented API built by other developers.

We are software engineers (from Asana and Affirm) who are enthusiastic about sustainability and the creation of a more modern energy grid. We talked with lots of developers who were frustrated from trying to work with energy data and saw an opportunity to meet their needs while supporting the push for a more efficient energy grid.

Most companies trying to tackle this problem are energy companies, not technology companies. The products they build don't keep the user in mind and only focus on meeting bare functional requirements. Pelm, by contrast, is by-developers-for-developers. Our focus is ease of use. Our API is simple to get up and running (under ten minutes) and provides clear documentation and instructions.

It works like this: you register for our service and embed Connect (our front-end plugin) into your application. The end user uses Connect to authorize access to their data from their particular utility. We scrape electricity usage and billing data from their utility account and store it in a standardized format in a database. Your application can then query electricity interval data and billing data for the end user through our REST API. We also recently built out functionality to pay utility bills through our API.

Our API is designed for apps that do things like help consumers reduce electricity usage, charge EVs at optimal times, optimize HVAC installs, or educate on climate-friendly practices.

One example of how Pelm can currently be used is in demand response programs—that’s when utilities pay companies to get large amounts of people to reduce their electricity consumption during peak hours. Our API can help measure the reduction, which determines how much the company gets paid. Another example: solar panel installers can use us to show potential clients how much they could save on their electricity bill by installing solar. Another is community solar programs that allow people to buy into remote solar farms and get credit for the generated energy from utilities. Pelm can be used by community solar providers to calculate and bundle bills.

(By the way, an interesting little-known fact: this space is possible because of a 2012 initiative by Obama that required utilities to allow consumers more visibility into their energy consumption habits.)

Pelm is free up to 100 API calls and 10 active end users per month. After that we charge on a usage based plan: $0.10/call and $0.50/active end user up to 10,000 API calls and 1,000 active users. Past that limit, you'll move onto an enterprise plan with a flat monthly rate based on your service level and an adjusted rate for calls and active end users (we’re still figuring out the exact parameters).

We’d love to hear any of your ideas or experiences within this space! We’re always looking for creative approaches to the problem and ways we can better the developer experience we’re building. If you get a chance to test out the API, please share your feedback on how we could improve it. Thanks so much!


What does it cost a utility to add e.g. read-only OAuth token support to their customer-facing app?

FWIU, it's pretty easy to add OAuth support to any HTTP API endpoint with e.g. Nginx auth_request or by integrating an OAuth library with automated tests into the application at the url routes, if nothing else.

Do you have a "Guide for utilities who want users to have a safe third-party read-only API", a Developer portal, or like a decision tree for which script to read a decision-maker or a front-line lackey who doesn't know anything about APIs?

Does Pelm integrate with Zapier?


1999 Repeal of Glass-Steagall was the worst deregulation enacted in US history

Yeah what was the deal with that dotcom correction in the early 2000s? Did banks invest differently after GLBA said that they can gamble against peoples' savings deposits (because they created a 'sociallist' $100b credit line, called it FDIC, and things like that don't happen anymore)

Decline of the Glass-Steagall Act:

Dot-com bubble:


America’s Covid job-saving programme gave most of its cash to the rich

Would a [premined, escrowed] stablecoin token make it easier to answer these kinds of Transparency and Accountability questions in regards to government spending and government stimulus funding beyond intra-governmental transfers of real value?

Said stablecoin token would be hosted on more or more resilient Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs; 'blockchains') with a - indeed more auditable - transaction record specification that supports multiple transaction inputs and outputs and an optional identifier such as an e.g. "coinbase field" to key auxilliary (unfortunately comparably mutable, offsite-backuped by which responsible parties) database records to.


So, in your opinion, the "And then where did the money go?" question is entirely distinct from the "Did those investments have the desired impact for the desired audience, per the predefined criteria for success?" question? Who were we doing capital investment for, in hopes of them raising additional separately-accounted-for monies? re:


So we rely upon reports apparently generated from reconciled alternate accounting systems to determine whether the funds were appropriated impactfully?

TheGivingBlock specializes in handling cryptoasset donations with tax receipts. (We don't yet (?) prefill returns in the US)

When you donate to a TheGivingBlock Cause Fund, you get a tax receipt by email and the donation is privately sent to each of the multiple registered nonprofit charities included in that particular Fund.

TheGivingBlock Cause Funds map to the UN SDG Sustainable Development Goals; are categorically aligned to the #GlobalGoals Goals, but not yet (?) to specific Targets or Indicators.

Re: CharityNavigator nonprofit rating methodology, SDG-aligned GRI Corporate Sustainability Reports, setting up a CharityVest charitable matching fund for your employees, SDGs,: CharityVest feedback:

How should nonprofits be evaluated in order to invest impactfully?

If somebody says "Strategic Alignment" again, will less-impactful cashflows be eliminated?

When the government nonprofit invests in government services, nonprofits, NGOs, international aid, and for-profit entities, how do we evaluate per-investment/per-allocation ROI according to the predefined criteria at regular intervals, potentially with incremental commitment?

So, the specific fund allocation control adjustments being requested here are presumably due to feedback (sensor data and nonlinearity) which may or may not be traceable to an actual funding suggestion allocation task item in the near future, presumably


Water for kids? What's the ROI on that, right?


What would be better feedback for developing a resilient economy together?


Ask HN: Do you use TLA+?

It's surprising to me that so many crypto projects don't use TLA+. Besides the ones mentioned here (, does your company use TLA+? Why? Why not?

## TLA+




### Dr TLA+


Src: :

> Dr. TLA+ series - learn an algorithm and protocol, study a specification; [Byzantine] Paxos, Raft, Cosmos,


"Concurrency: The Works of Leslie Lamport" (

## :

> Can there still be side channel attacks in formally verified systems? Can e.g. TLA+ help with that at all?


New material that can absorb and release enormous amounts of energy


There are various forms of energy and various forms of energy storage, including chemical energy and gravitational potential energy.

We probably think of energy as entropy like gases because e.g Maxwell?

Examples of gravitational potential energy:

- A water tower or a pulley with weight suspended a greater distance from the most local mass/graviton centroid.

Potential energy:


WebVM: Server-less x86 virtual machines in the browser

Is WebVM a potential solution to "JupyterLite doesn't have a bash/zsh shell"? The current pyodide CPython Jupyter kernel takes like ~25s to start at present, and can load Python packages precompiled to WASM or unmodified Python packages with micropip:

Does WebVM solve for workload transparency, CPU overutilization by one tab, or end-to-end code signing maybe with W3C ld-proofs and whichever future-proof signature algorithm with a URL?


From "Hosting SQLite Databases on GitHub Pages" :

DuckDB can query [and page] Parquet from GitHub, sql.js-httpvfs, sqltorrent, File System Access API (Chrome only so far; IDK about resource quotas and multi-GB datasets), serverless search with WASM workers :

> sql.js is a light wrapper around SQLite compiled with EMScripten for use in the browser (client-side).

> This [sql.js-httpvfs] repo is a fork of and wrapper around sql.js to provide a read-only HTTP-Range-request based virtual file system for SQLite. It allows hosting an SQLite database on a static file hoster and querying that database from the browser without fully downloading it.

> The virtual file system is an emscripten filesystem with some "smart" logic to accelerate fetching with virtual read heads that speed up when sequential data is fetched. It could also be useful to other applications, the code is in lazyFile.ts. It might also be useful to implement this lazy fetching as an SQLite VFS [*] since then SQLite could be compiled with e.g. WASI SDK without relying on all the emscripten OS emulation.

Also, I'm not sure if jupyterlab/jupyterlab-google-drive works in JupyterLite yet? Is it yet possible to save notebooks and other files from JupyterLite running in WASM in the browser to one or more cloud storage providers?


Is all of that necessary to LD_PRELOAD sockets and tunnel them over WebSockets, WebRTC, etc?

So e.g. curl doesn't work without (File System Access API,) local storage && translation of e.g. at least normal curl syscalls to just HTTP/3?


Does it need to reframe packet structs and then fix fragmentation issues, or can it set the initial MSS (because MTU discovery likely won't work quite right) so that it doesn't have to ~shrink and re-fragment tunneled {TCP,} packets?


Plant-based epoxy enables recyclable carbon fiber

FWIU flax and hemp are more sustainable and potential substitutes for carbon fiber, which is industrially hazardous to produce?

The branching structure makes e.g. hemp bast fiber ideal for supercapacitor (~battery) anodes. How does this plant-based epoxy affect conductivity and resistivity in various materials in various outdoor conditions with and without a coating?

If it's plant-based, is it safe next to plenum cable? Can it be used for Hemp structural framing lumber, such as HempWood?


There are Hemp alloys.

From :

> It’s actually made using hemp fibers that have been woven together and then sealed and finished with as super hard resin. And once it’s completed you have an insanely strong material that makes steel look weak and brittle. It’s reported to be as much as ten times stronger than steel, yet is lighter than fiberglass.

> The Renew Sports Car was recently featured on an episode of Jay Leno’s Garage [...]*

> Dietzen got the idea from none other than Henry Ford who back in 1941 advocated that Ford should build everything they possibly could out of plant material. Which makes sense because that’s obviously going to drastically reduce material costs which should in turn, reduce the overall price of the car. And thanks to modern technology, Dietzen managed to figure out how to make it all work. If this catches on to the mainstream it could revolutionize the automotive industry across the board. He says that it takes roughly 100lbs of cannabis plants to make a car, which sounds like a lot, but when compared to how much steel and other metals used to create current automobiles that’s just a drop in the bucket.

"Is Hemp Really Stronger Than Steel? How?" re: Tensile Strength and Compression Strength exceeded that of {steel, aluminum, }

Do high carbon steel rockers rust after a couple years of average road salt?

Which carbon fibers are least health-hazardous to produce?


Have you here contested claims that hemp - biocomposite with resin - has greater Tensile Strength and Compressive Strength than steel and aluminum (and carbon fiber with sustainable binder)?

If this were OT, we could reference ScholarlyArticles which describe experiments which return scalar intervals for: Tensile and Compressive Strength, Melting point / deployed heat resistance, production cost in real dollars, carbon cost (reduction in carbon tax credits because unnecessary with alternate sustainable inputs), resistance to corrosion due to sodium chloride, [in-space without water] repairability, magnetizability, water transport and filtration cost, and other factors; with a fair standard panel for relative comparison.


Hemp batting insulation is also saline-treated to meet code.

Are (coated) biocomposite resin melting points higher and comparably acetone-resistant?


Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C to better understand Python?

For those who learned C after learning Python, was it worth it? Did it help you to better understand Python?


From :

> From "Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C in 2020?" : (which discusses [bounded] memory management)

> There are a number of coding guidelines e.g. for safety-critical systems where bounded running time and resource consumption are essential. *These coding guidelines and standards are basically only available for C, C++, and Ada.*

> awesome-safety-critical > Software safety standards:

> awesome-safety-critical > Coding Guidelines:


Rancher Desktop 1.0

From :

> Kubernetes and Container Management on the Desktop:

> An open-source desktop application for Mac, Windows and Linux.

> Rancher Desktop runs Kubernetes and container management on your desktop. You can choose the version of Kubernetes you want to run. You can build, push, pull, and run container images using either containerd or Moby (dockerd). The container images you build can be run by Kubernetes immediately without the need for a registry.

How does Rancher Desktop compare to Docker Desktop in terms of e.g. k8s support?


Systemd by Example





Systemd manpage index: :

  man 1 systemd
  man systemd
  man init

  man systemctl
  man journalctl
  man systemd.timer
  man systemd-resolved
The Arch Linux wiki docs for systemd are succinct:

Fedora docs > "Understanding and administering systemd"

RHEL7 System Administrator’s Guide > "Chapter 10. Managing Services with SystemD"


I often find the `## Usage Examples` heading in manages to be most helpful, too.

~Examples as Integration Tests as executable notebooks with output and state assertions may incur less technical debt.

How to manage containers with [MicroShift] k8s/k3d with systemd might be a good example.


FWIW, the man.vim vim plugin does grep and some syntax highlighting.


Pwnkit: Local Privilege Escalation in polkit's pkexec (CVE-2021-4034)


So, all C/C++ code on {Linux,} but not {OpenBSD,} that handles argc/argv needs to at least just exit() on the conditions added by the like 8 lines in main() in the patch for this issue?:

  if (argc < 1) {

  if (argv[n] == NULL) {

  // But this could never ever happen?
  if (argv == NULL)




Notes re: distributed temporal Data Locality, package mirroring, and CAS such as IPFS: "Draft PEP: PyPI cost solutions: CI, mirrors, containers, and caching to scale" (2020)





Systemd service sandboxing and security hardening (2020)


Which distro has the best out-of-the-box output for:?

  systemd-analyze security
Is there a tool like `audit2allow` for systemd units? selinux/python/audit2allow/audit2allow:


FWIU, e.g. sysdig is justified atop whichever MAC system.

In the SELinux MAC system on RHEL and Debian, in /etc/config/selinux, you have SELINUXTYPE=minimal|targeted|mls. RHEL (CentOS and Rocky Linux) and Fedora have SELINUXTYPE=targeted out-of-the-box. The compiled rulesets in /etc/selinux/targeted are generated when [...].

With e.g gnome-system-monitor on a machine with SELINUX=permissive|enforcing, you can right-click the column header in the process table to also display the 'Security context' column that's also visible with e.g. `ps -Z`. The stopdisablingselinux video is a good SELinux tutorial.

I'm out of date on Debian/Ubuntu's policy set, which could also probably almost just be sed'ed from the current RHEL policy set.

> * SELinux is deny by default, while in systemd you're playing whack-a-mole anyway, and are expected to add directives one by one until the application stops working. Unit logs usually make it obvious if something was denied.*

DENY if not unconfined is actually the out-of-the-box `targeted` config on RHEL and Fedora. For example, Firefox and Chrome currently run as unconfined processes. While decent browsers do do their own process sandboxing, SELinux and/or AppArmor and/or 'containers' with a shared X socket file (and drop-privs and setcap and cgroups and namespaces fwtw) are advisable atop really any process sandboxing?

Given that the task is to generate a hull of rules that allow for the observed computational workload to complete with least-privileges, if you enable like every rule and log every process hitting every rung on the way down while running integration tests that approximate the workload, you should end up with enough rule violations in the log to even dumbly generate a rule/policy set without the application developer's expertise around to advise on potential access violations to allow.

From :

> "Sysdig instruments your physical and virtual machines at the OS level by installing into the Linux kernel and capturing system calls and other OS events. Sysdig also makes it possible to create trace files for system activity, similarly to what you can do for networks with tools like tcpdump and Wireshark.

Probably also worth mentioning: "[BETA] Auditing Sysdig Platform Activities"

A bit of SELinux:

  # /etc/selinux/config

  $# touch /.autorelabel  # `restorecon /` at boot
  $# reboot
  $# setenforce 1  # redundant 
  $ sudo aureport --avc 
  $ journalctl --system -u auditd
  $ journalctl --system  -o json-seq --reverse 
  $ journalctl --system --grep "AVC" --reverse

  journalctl -fa _TRANSPORT=audit
  journalctl -fa _TRANSPORT=audit --grep AVC
  journalctl -a _TRANSPORT=audit --grep 'AVC avc:  denied' -o json | pyline -m json 'json.dumps(json.loads(l), indent=2, sort_keys=True)'


Why isn't there a universal data format for résumés?

Looks like there's an hresume microformat but and are probably the way to mark up resumes as JSONLD.

From :

>'s Occupation example 4, illustrates how to use Role and hasOccupation to associate an array of work history, like so:

There's already a .


LAN-port-scan forbidder, browser addon to protect private network


And also "Private Network Access: introducing preflights" (2022)

> Chrome is deprecating direct access to private network endpoints from public websites as part of the Private Network Access (PNA) specification.

> Chrome will start sending a CORS preflight request ahead of any private network request for a subresource, which asks for explicit permission from the target server. This preflight request will carry a new header, `Access-Control-Request-Private-Network: true`, and the response to it must carry a corresponding header, `Access-Control-Allow-Private-Network: true`

> The aim is to protect users from cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks targeting routers and other devices on private networks. These attacks have affected hundreds of thousands of users, allowing attackers to redirect them to malicious servers.

What would a browser setting to just block all PWA requests (`DENY * TO *` (to {, .1.1, .100.1,}) - regardless of the appropriate new HTTP headers - actually prevent a normal user from doing?


Ask HN: What are the best books for professional effectiveness?

What books have helped you be more effective at work that apply to most “knowledge work” jobs?


There's a flowchart of the GTD procedures with something like standard flowchart symbols in [1] PDF, [2] Search query (/?) [3] PNG / MP4 gif. But not yet a meme MP4 GIF, FWIU.

Given that URLs are the workflow improvement of the web, watch if these citations is most useful to you?

1: Heylighen, Francis, and Clément Vidal. "Getting things done: the science behind stress-free productivity." Long Range Planning 41, no. 6 (2008): 585-605.





5 is editable by the author in their - the original - fork; which may include local and remote branches that Pull Requests and ("#DevOpsSec") Continuous Integration build task automation that help collaborators collaborate on [open source] software in free public git repos.


HTTP Message Signatures


Is this solveable by including a cache key in the URL or other client-side storage?


Are there additional HTTP status code-like error codes that need to be specified?

What [same origin, SXG,] failure modes are there?

From "HTTP 402: Payment Required" :

> The new W3C Payment Request API [4] makes it easy for browsers to offer a standard (and probably(?) already accessible) interface for the payment data entry screen, at least.



You said HPKP and I misread it

Re: HKP, WKD, GPG Linked Data signatures, Keybase+Zoom and ACME

Ctrl-F "trillian" re: CT cert grant and revocation events on a blockchain

> Does there need to be a UI for viewing the key details, and for approving/rejecting upgrades to the web app?

blockcerts/cert-verifier-js ?

> Does there need to be a UI for viewing the key details, and for approving/rejecting upgrades to the web app?

There do need to be standards for displaying such errors and requesting key verification in the browser. e.g. DNSSEC and DoH/DoT errors should also propagate up to the browser eh? How do web3 browsers handle keychains?

From (an obscure comment with pictures on) "Roadmap update for TUF support " :

> Only users with package release permissions can create a new SoftwareRelease record for that project

You can log hashes to sigstore now, which is a centralized db supported by The Linux Foundation. :

> How sigstore works: sigstore is a set of tools developers, software maintainers, package managers and security experts can benefit from. Bringing together free-to-use open source technologies like Fulcio, Cosign and Rekor, it handles digital signing, verification and checks for provenance needed to make it safer to distribute and use open source software.

> A standardized approach: This means that open source software uploaded for distribution has a stricter, more standardized way of checking who’s been involved, that it hasn’t been tampered with. There’s no risk of key compromise, so third parties can’t hijack a release and slip in something malicious.

> Building for future integrations: With the help of a working partnership that includes Google, the Linux Foundation, Red Hat and Purdue University, we’re in constant collaboration to find new ways to improve the sigstore technology, to make it easy to adopt, integrate and become a long-lasting standard.

But then DIDs and ld-proofs (with at least the current trust root in a trustless DLT of some sort) are even more standardized.

Software Releases, [Academic, Professional, Medical,] Credentials, Legal Documents, Server Certs, ScholarlyArticles: all of these things can be signed and may already be listed in the Use Cases documents for W3C DID Decentralized Identifiers [1] and W3C VC Verifiable Credentials [2] which are summarized in context to Keybase here:




Unfortunately, because all domains don't yet have DNSSEC DNS records, a strict resolver that requires DNSSEC signatures will fall to resolve all domains unless it's configured to e.g. "allow-downgrade" to non-DNSSEC-signed records for any lookup.

FWIR, the same is basically true of DoH and DoT: if it's not configured to ~allow-downgrade, DNS will fall to resolve when connected to e.g. a captive portal hotspot; and there's no indication that DoH/DoT aren't working in the browser.

How do DNS resolution APIs need to change to accommodate basic DNSSEC and DoH/DoT error handling?

From :


From :

> The broader implication of SXGs is that they make content portable: content delivered via an SXG can be easily distributed by third parties while maintaining full assurance and attribution of its origin. Historically, the only way for a site to use a third party to distribute its content while maintaining attribution has been for the site to share its SSL certificates with the distributor. This has security drawbacks. Moreover, it is a far stretch from making content truly portable.

> In the long-term, truly portable content can be used to achieve use cases like fully offline experiences. In the immediate term, the primary use case of SXGs is the delivery of faster user experiences by providing content in an easily cacheable format. Specifically, Google Search will cache and sometimes prefetch SXGs. For sites that receive a large portion of their traffic from Google Search, SXGs can be an important tool for delivering faster page loads to users.

> It’s also possible that all sites could eventually support this standard. Every time a site is loaded, all the linked articles could be pre-loaded. Web speeds across the board would be dramatically increased.

"Signed HTTP Exchanges" draft-yasskin-http-origin-signed-responses

"Bundled HTTP Exchanges" draft-yasskin-wpack-bundled-exchanges :

> Web bundles provide a way to bundle up groups of HTTP responses, with the request URLs and content negotiation that produced them, to transmit or store together. They can include multiple top-level resources with one identified as the default by a primaryUrl metadata, provide random access to their component exchanges, and efficiently store 8-bit resources.

From :

> Introducing the Web Bundles API. A Web Bundle is a file format for encapsulating one or more HTTP resources in a single file. It can include one or more HTML files, JavaScript files, images, or stylesheets.

> Web Bundles, more formally known as Bundled HTTP Exchanges, are part of the Web Packaging proposal.

> HTTP resources in a Web Bundle are indexed by request URLs, and can optionally come with signatures that vouch for the resources. Signatures allow browsers to understand and verify where each resource came from, and treats each as coming from its true origin. This is similar to how Signed HTTP Exchanges, a feature for signing a single HTTP resource, are handled.



Asmrepl: REPL for x86 Assembly Language

This could be implemented with Jupyter notebooks as a Jupyter kernel or maybe with just fancy use of explicitly returned objects that support the (Ruby-like, implicit) IPython.display.display() magic.

IRuby is the Jupyter kernel for Rubylang:



More links to how Jupyter kernels and implicit display() and DAP: Debug Adapter Protocol work: "Evcxr: A Rust REPL and Jupyter Kernel"

"ENH: Mixed Python/C debugging (GDB,)"

... "Ask HN: How did you learn x86-64 assembly?"


On yak shaving and <md-block>, a new HTML element for Markdown


Jupyter-book depends upon MyST-NB (MyST Notebooks) which depends upon myst-parser which depends upon markdown-it-py (which is a port of markdown-it (TypeScript)) for parsing [MyST] Markdown. :

> MyST is a rich and extensible flavor of Markdown meant for technical documentation and publishing.

> MyST is a flavor of markdown that is designed for simplicity, flexibility, and extensibility. This repository serves as the reference implementation of MyST Markdown, as well as a collection of tools to support working with MyST in Python and Sphinx. It contains an extended CommonMark-compliant parser using markdown-it-py, as well as a Sphinx extension that allows you to write MyST Markdown in Sphinx. :

> Follows the CommonMark spec for baseline parsing; Configurable syntax: you can add new rules and even replace existing ones; Pluggable: Adds syntax extensions to extend the parser (see the plugin list), High speed (see our benchmarking tests) ; Safe by default :

> Follows the CommonMark spec + adds syntax extensions & sugar (URL autolinking, typographer), Configurable syntax!; You can add new rules and even replace existing ones; High speed; Safe by default; Community-written plugins and other packages on npm


Thoughts on “E-Readers” (2009)


> The Adam is set to be the first Android device marketed to contain Pixel Qi's low-power, dual-mode display

Was it that there wasn't a market for Pixel Qi dual-mode displays?

IDK how well you can scroll a (monochrome) PDF textbook on a PineNote development unit yet, given that the eInk display driver didn't work yet last I heard.

Nobody reads the whole PDF on even a large phone in landscape mode. There's a new server-side liquid PDF reflowing solution that could help solve the fixed font sizes and margin issues on mobile devices. ePub is basically just HTML, by comparison. But certain walled gardens feel like it's necessary to convert epub to mobi, rather than just integrate one of a number of existing open source e-reader apps with support for multiple document, eBook, and textbook formats.


Ask HN: Why don’t startups share their cap table and/or shares outstanding?

Start-ups expect you to join as the 4th employee, work incredibly hard for years and not have a clear picture of your compensation? Am I meant to take a 409a valuation at face value?

Is there a legal reason? If not, founders who are hiring, please know that withholding information like this is the easiest way to lose a potential hire.

From "Ask HN: Cap Table Service Recommendations" :

> Here are the "409a valuation" reviews on FounderKit:


And from "Stock dilution" :

> Stock dilution, also known as equity dilution, is the decrease in existing shareholders' ownership percentage of a company as a result of the company issuing new equity.[1] New equity increases the total shares outstanding which has a dilutive effect on the ownership percentage of existing shareholders. This increase in the number of shares outstanding can result from a primary market offering (including an initial public offering), employees exercising stock options, or by issuance or conversion of convertible bonds, preferred shares or warrants into stock. This dilution can shift fundamental positions of the stock such as ownership percentage, voting control, earnings per share, and the value of individual shares.

It is reasonable for shareholders to request - in dated written form - Transparency with What-If scenarios for "let's just issue more shares to raise capital".

From "Ask HN: Value of “Shares of Stock options” when joining a startup" :

> There are a number of options/equity calculators:

> ("~65% of companies will never exit", "~15% of companies will have low exits", "~20% of companies will make you money")*

> "Compensation and Equity Calculator"

> "What are my options worth?"

> "Co-Founder Equity Calculator"

From foundrs:

> The equity numbers assume a typical 4-year vesting for all founders including the CEO, with no cliff. It also assumes that no significant salary is provided to any of the co-founders (if that is wrong, you are entering into an employee relationship, not a co-founder relationship). If a founder leaves, vesting applies and they forfeit the shares that have not vested yet.

Vesting > Ownership in startup companies:


Toxiproxy is a framework for simulating network conditions

taf2 | 2021-11-02 13:16:45 | 213 | # | ^

What a useful tool for resilience engineering. does list toxiproxy.

Any general pointers for handling network connectivity issues (from any OSI layer) in client and server apps?

Many apps lack 'pending in outbox' functionality that we expect from e.g. email clients.

- [ ] Who could develop a set of reference toxiproxy 'test case mutators' (?) for simulating typical #DisasterRelief connectivity issues?

(In Python, Pytest + Hypothesis + Toxiproxy-python would be useful.)


Report on Stablecoins [pdf]

It may not be immediately obvious that all banks run their own "stablecoin": LD: "Ledger Dollars". How do "internal bank ledger dollars" differ from stablecoins?

As well, very many countries of the world "peg" their currency to the USD.

From :

> Countries will experience a particular set of problems when a currency is pegged at an overly low exchange rate. On the one hand, domestic consumers will be deprived of the purchasing power to buy foreign goods. Suppose that the Chinese yuan is pegged too low against the U.S. dollar. Then, Chinese consumers will have to pay more for imported food and oil, lowering their consumption and standard of living. On the other hand, the U.S. farmers and Middle East oil producers who would have sold them more goods lose business. This situation naturally creates trade tensions between the country with an undervalued currency and the rest of the world.

> Another set of problems emerges when a currency is pegged at an overly high rate. A country may be unable to defend the peg over time. Since the government set the rate too high, domestic consumers will buy too many imports and consume more than they can produce. These chronic trade deficits will create downward pressure on the home currency, and the government will have to spend foreign exchange reserves to defend the peg. The government's reserves will eventually be exhausted, and the peg will collapse.

> When a currency peg collapses, the country that set the peg too high will suddenly find imports more expensive. That means inflation will rise, and the nation may also have difficulty paying its debts. The other country will find its exporters losing markets, and its investors losing money on foreign assets that are no longer worth as much in domestic currency.

Is this the game:

  (A USD / B USD) * X = (C LD / D LD)
Who decides what the monetary bases - B USD and D LD - are? Should online games just keep issuing in-game currency? Are gift cards also stablecoins?

Perhaps "All of the World’s Money and Markets in One Visualization" could be updated to indicate which of the depicted assets are stablecoins and which are derivatives?

Are there some historical examples of centralized economic planning resulting in currency devaluation and subsequent directly resultant unrest?

(Meanwhile, <party> does continue to advise persons to invest diversifiedly and non-volatilely in order to meet or exceed CPI (Consumer Price Inflation))


Intel Extension for Scikit-Learn

CuML is similar to Intel Extension for Scikit-Learn in function?

> cuML is a suite of libraries that implement machine learning algorithms and mathematical primitives functions that share compatible APIs with other RAPIDS projects. cuML enables data scientists, researchers, and software engineers to run traditional tabular ML tasks on GPUs without going into the details of CUDA programming. In most cases, cuML's Python API matches the API from scikit-learn. For large datasets, these GPU-based implementations can complete 10-50x faster than their CPU equivalents. For details on performance, see the cuML Benchmarks Notebook.


The Metaverse Was Lame Even Before Facebook

Weren't BBS (Bulletin Board Systems) lame before Facebook, too?

BBS > List of features

Metaverse > History

TIL there's a VR version of Flight Simulator 2020 and it has the best Earth model of any game. Is that a metaverse?

> Flight Simulator simulates the topography of the entire Earth using data from Bing Maps. Microsoft Azure's artificial intelligence (AI) generates the three-dimensional representations of Earth's features, using its cloud computing to render and enhance visuals, and real-world data to generate real-time weather and effects. Flight Simulator has a physics engine to provide realistic flight control surfaces, with over 1,000 simulated surfaces, as well as realistic wind modelled over hills and mountains

AFAIU, e.g. Microsoft Planetary Computer data is not yet integrated into any Virtual Game World Metaverses? An in-game focus on real world sustainability would help us understand that online worlds are very much connected to the real world. describes how that can be done with Python code.


Before the Web, the Internet was lame like 50 years ago, therefore. Who would ever need a 10MB storage device?

Hopefully there will be more VR standardization someday.

Maybe this Metaverse of decades past could integrate some live weather?


Is college worth it? A return-on-investment analysis


Magnitude certainly is relevant to vector comparisons; but, if we define ROI as nominal rate of return, gross returns are not relevant to a comparison by that metric.

Return on Investment:

From :

> A Euclidean vector is thus an equivalence class of directed segments with the same magnitude (e.g., the length of the line segment (A, B)) and same direction (e.g., the direction from A to B).[3] In physics, Euclidean vectors are used to represent physical quantities that have both magnitude and direction, but are not located at a specific place, in contrast to scalars, which have no direction.[4] For example, velocity, forces and acceleration are represented by vectors

Quantitatively and Qualitatively quantify the direct and external benefits of {college, other alternatives} with criteria in additional to real monetary ROI?


> Welfare economics also provides the theoretical foundations for particular instruments of public economics, including cost–benefit analysis,


Direct or External Loss?

Is the unique loss you identify not accounted for in the traditional ROI expression?


From :

>> Why would people make an investment with insufficient ROI (Return on Investment)?

> Insufficient information.

> College Scorecard [1] is a database with a web interface for finding and comparing schools according to a number of objective criteria. CollegeScorecard launched in 2015. It lists "Average Annual Cost", "Graduation Rate", and "Salary After Attending" on the search results pages. When you review a detail page for an institution, there are many additional statistics; things like: "Typical Total Debt After Graduation" and "Typical Monthly Loan Payment".

> The raw data behind CollegeScorecard can be downloaded from [2]. The "data_dictionary" tab of the "Data Dictionary" spreadsheet describes the data schema.

> [1]

> [2]

> Khan Academy > "College, careers, and more" [3] may be a helpful supplement for funding a full-time college admissions counselor in a secondary education institution

> [3] :

- [ ] Video & exercise / Jupyter notebook under Exploring college options for Return on Investment (according to e.g. CollegeScorecard data)


Notes from the Meeting on Python GIL Removal Between Python Core and Sam Gross


"PEP 3146 -- Merging Unladen Swallow into CPython" > Future Work (2010)

Perhaps Google/Grumpy could be updated to compile Python 3.x+ to Go with e.g. the RustPython version of the CPython Python Standard Library modules?

"Inside cpyext: Why emulating CPython C API is so Hard" (2018)

Today, conda-forge compiles CPython to relocatable platform+architecture-specific binaries with LLVM.

conda-forge also compiles PyPy Python to relocatable platform+architecture-specific binaries with LLVM. conda-forge/pypy3.6-feedstock (3.7) :

> summary: Metapackage to select pypy as python implementation

Pyodide (JupyterLite) compiles CPython to WASM (or LLVM IR?) with LLVM/emscripten IIRC. Hopefully there's a clear way to implement the new GIL-less multithreading support with Web Workers in WASM, too?

The org has a bunch a fast Python for HPC and Cloud; with Dask and pick a scheduler. Less process overhead and less need for interprocess locking of memory handles that transgress contexts due to a new GIL removal approach would be even faster than debuggable one process per core Python.


Show HN: OtterTune – Automated Database Tuning Service for RDS MySQL/Postgres

Yo. OtterTune is a database optimization service. It uses machine learning to automatically tune your MySQL and Postgres configuration (i.e., RDS parameter groups) to improve performance and reduce costs. It does this by only looking at your database's runtime metrics (e.g., INNODB_METRICS, pg_stat_database, CloudWatch). We don't need to examine sensitive queries or user tables. We spun this project out of my research group at Carnegie Mellon University in 2020.

This week we've announced that OtterTune is now available to the public. We are offering everyone a starter account to try it out on their Postgres RDS or MySQL RDS databases (all versions, AWS US AZs only). We have seen OtterTune achieve 2-4x performance improvements and 50% cost reductions for these databases compared to using Amazon's default RDS configuration.

I am happy to answer any questions that you may have about how OtterTune works here.

-- Andy


More Info:

* 5min Demo Video:

* Free Account Sign-up:


What about OpenStack Trove DBaaS? OpenStack Trove is like an open source self-hosted Amazon RDS or Google CloudSQL.

FWIU, Trove supports 10+ databases including MySQL and PostgreSQL.

AFAIU, there are sound reasons to host containers with e.g. OpenStack VMs instead of a k8s scheduler with a proper SAN and just figure out how to redundantly and resiliently sync - replicate, synchronize, primary/secondary, nodeprocd - and tune given the CAP theorem and the given DB implementation(s)?

Here's the official Ansible role for Trove, which provisions various e.g. SQL databases on an OpenStack cloud:


Despite having just 5.8% sales, over 38% of bug reports come from Linux