Table of Contents
date title user score
2020-06-24 12:36:53 What vertical farming and ag startups don't understand about agriculture kickout 307
2020-06-15 05:26:29 Ask HN: What are your go to SaaS products for startups/MVPs? lbj 169
2020-06-13 08:31:58 Ask HN: Do you read aloud or silently in your minds? Onceagain 6
2020-06-08 08:42:33 Ask HN: How do you deploy a Django app in 2020? eptakilo 3
2020-06-04 21:35:38 Containers from first principles setheron 102
2020-05-27 17:16:56 How many people did it take to build the Great Pyramid? samizdis 136
2020-05-14 16:44:28 Solar’s Future is Insanely Cheap epistasis 152
2020-05-20 14:52:29 Demo of an OpenAI language model applied to code generation [video] cjlovett 281
2020-05-04 18:51:16 Future of the human climate niche origgm 96
2020-05-15 06:25:43 Ask HN: Best resources for non-technical founders to understand hacker mindset? jamiecollinson 114
2020-05-11 10:08:31 Dissecting the code responsible for the Bitcoin halving Mojah 39
2020-04-30 13:06:53 Ask HN: Does mounting servers parallel with the temperature gradient trap heat? westurner 2
2020-04-26 16:33:13 Psychological techniques to practice Stoicism hoanhan101 173
2020-04-25 10:00:05 What does the 'rc' in `.bashrc`, etc. mean? janvdberg 297
2020-04-23 16:19:24 Google ditched tipping feature for donating money to sites caution 2
2020-04-23 15:58:23 Innovating on Web Monetization: Coil and Firefox Reality stareatgoats 2
2020-04-19 22:24:07 Ask HN: Recommendations for online essay grading systems? westurner 1
2020-04-19 22:28:00 Ask HN: Systems for supporting Evidence-Based Policy? westurner 1
2020-04-19 14:54:31 Facebook, Google to be forced to share ad revenue with Australian media docdeek 148
2020-04-11 12:36:55 France rules Google must pay news firms for content us0r 134
2020-04-05 03:00:45 Adafruit Thermal Camera Imager for Fever Screening jonbaer 2
2020-03-31 18:08:57 The end of an Era – changing every single instance of a 32-bit time_t in Linux zdw 165
2020-04-01 01:16:29 Ask HN: What's the ROI of Y Combinator investments? longtermd 4
2020-04-01 00:41:15 Microsoft announces Money in Excel powered by Plaid chirau 3
2020-03-30 02:02:12 Lora-based device-to-device smartphone communication for crisis scenarios [pdf] oliver2213 90
2020-03-27 17:56:01 LoRa+WiFi ClusterDuck Protocol by Project OWL for Disaster Relief westurner 3
2020-03-26 02:53:34 A Visual Debugger for Jupyter sandGorgon 197
2020-03-27 18:45:26 Ask HN: What's the Equivalent of 'Hello, World' for a Quantum Computer? simonblack 2
2020-03-27 18:43:58 Ask HN: Communication platforms for intermittent disaster relief? westurner 1
2020-03-27 18:06:49 DroneAid: A Symbol Language and ML model for indicating needs to drones, planes westurner 2
2020-03-26 06:52:53 Ask HN: Computer Science/History Books? jackofalltrades 327
2020-03-26 06:07:26 Open-source security tools for cloud and container applications alexellisuk 53
2020-03-25 14:26:44 YC Companies Responding to Covid-19 no_gravity 144
2020-03-23 18:21:18 Show HN: Neh – Execute any script or program from Nginx location directives oap_bram 27
2020-03-21 15:39:25 Ask HN: How can a intermediate-beginner learn Unix/Linux and programming? learnTemp229462 146
2020-03-20 09:40:37 Math Symbols Explained with Python amitness 130
2020-03-20 00:16:15 Ask HN: Is there way you can covert smartphone to a no contact thermometer? shreyshrey 9
2020-03-15 05:47:35 Employee Scheduling weitzj 641
2020-03-14 07:01:16 Show HN: Simulation-based high school physics course notes lilgreenland 295
2020-03-15 04:58:04 WebAssembly brings extensibility to network proxies pjmlp 132
2020-03-14 00:29:09 Pandemic Ventilator Project mhb 318
2020-03-14 02:53:51 Low-cost ventilator wins Sloan health care prize (2019) tomcam 99
2020-03-13 19:22:55 AI can detect coronavirus from CT scans in twenty seconds laurex 109
2020-03-10 16:08:03 AutoML-Zero: Evolving machine learning algorithms from scratch lainon 260
2020-03-10 16:48:16 Options for giving math talks and lectures online chmaynard 143
2020-03-04 06:29:43 Aerogel from fruit biowaste produces ultracapacitors dalf 152
2020-03-03 05:09:35 Ask HN: How to Take Good Notes? romes 293
2020-03-03 06:36:58 Ask HN: STEM toy for a 3 years old? spapas82 117
2020-02-29 14:17:55 OpenAPI v3.1 and JSON Schema 2019-09 BerislavLopac 88
2020-02-26 03:06:01 Git for Node.js and the browser using libgit2 compiled to WebAssembly mstade 16
2020-02-20 21:02:47 Scientists use ML to find an antibiotic able to kill superbugs in mice adventured 438
2020-02-11 17:35:48 Shit – An implementation of Git using POSIX shell kick 814
2020-02-01 19:01:19 HTTP 402: Payment Required jpomykala 224
2020-01-16 15:28:07 Salesforce Sustainability Cloud Becomes Generally Available westurner 1
2020-01-09 07:07:33 Httpx: A next-generation HTTP client for Python tomchristie 462
2020-01-14 06:07:53 BlackRock CEO: Climate Crisis Will Reshape Finance vo2maxer 13
2019-12-29 13:32:58 A lot of complex “scalable” systems can be done with a simple, single C++ server Impossible 398
2019-12-31 10:19:32 Warren Buffett is spending billions to make Iowa 'the Saudi Arabia of wind' corporate_shi11 52
2019-12-27 07:08:54 Scientists Likely Found Way to Grow New Teeth for Patients elorant 243
2019-12-26 13:32:34 Announcing the New PubMed vo2maxer 119
2019-12-25 08:16:17 Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C in 2020? zabana 11
2019-12-21 07:55:04 Free and Open-Source Mathematics Textbooks vo2maxer 321
2019-12-18 09:24:05 Make CPython segfault in 5 lines of code coolreader18 130
2019-12-10 12:05:36 Applications Are Now Open for YC Startup School – Starts in January erohead 48
2019-12-10 14:37:28 ‘Adulting’ is hard. UC Berkeley has a class for that incomplete 2
2019-12-10 13:55:50 Founder came back after 8 years to rewrite flash photoshop in canvas/WebGL poniko 9
2019-12-09 09:56:35 Five cities account for vast majority of growth in U.S. tech jobs: study Bostonian 93
2019-12-01 12:45:50 Don’t Blame Tech Bros for the Housing Crisis mistersquid 30
2019-11-25 09:07:30 Docker is just static linking for millenials DyslexicAtheist 38
2019-11-14 04:01:54 Show HN: Bamboolib – A GUI for Pandas (Python Data Science) __tobals__ 119
2019-11-25 01:39:22 Battery-Electric Heavy-Duty Equipment: It's Sort of Like a Cybertruck duck 3
2019-11-09 09:26:55 Tools for turning descriptions into diagrams: text-to-picture resources ingve 61
2019-10-16 00:42:33 CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility westurner 2
2019-10-19 08:28:01 GTD Tickler file – a proposal for text file format vivekv 3
2019-10-20 02:07:48 Ask HN: Any suggestion on how to test CLI applications? pdappollonio 3
2019-10-16 00:34:32 The Golden Butterfly and the All Weather Portfolio westurner 1
2019-10-12 07:19:23 Canada's Decision To Make Public More Clinical Trial Data Puts Pressure On FDA pseudolus 192
2019-10-10 23:35:35 Python Alternative to Docker gilad 3
2019-10-09 00:17:45 $6B United Nations Agency Launches Bitcoin, Ethereum Crypto Fund zed88 8
2019-10-08 16:03:02 Timsort, the Python sorting algorithm alexchamberlain 407
2019-10-07 22:29:21 Supreme Court allows blind people to sue retailers if websites aren't accessible justadudeama 743
2019-10-04 11:15:12 Streamlit: Turn a Python script into an interactive data analysis tool danicgross 467
2019-09-23 16:43:51 Scott’s Supreme Quantum Supremacy FAQ xmmrm 600
2019-09-23 18:31:40 Ask HN: How do you handle/maintain local Python environments? PascLeRasc 103
2019-09-23 12:35:51 Is the era of the $100 graphing calculator coming to an end? prostoalex 361
2019-09-23 03:17:17 Reinventing Home Directories Schiphol 118
2019-09-23 03:00:38 Serverless: slower and more expensive kiyanwang 1787
2019-09-22 17:32:04 Entropy can be used to understand systems acgan 3
2019-09-18 07:24:36 New Query Language for Graph Databases to Become International Standard Anon84 290
2019-09-21 13:21:03 A Python Interpreter Written in Python nnnmnten 2
2019-09-21 11:51:00 Reinventing Home Directories – systemd-homed [pdf] signa11 3
2019-09-21 13:08:28 Weld: Accelerating numpy, scikit and pandas as much as 100x with Rust and LLVM unbalancedparen 585
2019-09-19 20:00:14 Craftsmanship–The Alternative to the 4 Hour Work Week oglowo3 4
2019-09-19 09:31:43 Solar and Wind Power So Cheap They’re Outgrowing Subsidies ph0rque 623
2019-09-18 06:52:46 Show HN: Python Tests That Write Themselves timothycrosley 131
2019-09-09 10:52:49 Most Americans see catastrophic weather events worsening elorant 102
2019-09-17 12:00:54 Emergent Tool Use from Multi-Agent Interaction gdb 332
2019-09-17 22:32:25 Inkscape 1.0 Beta 1 nkoren 603
2019-09-08 13:45:57 Where Dollar Bills Come From danso 69
2019-09-05 07:13:24 Monetary Policy Is the Root Cause of the Millennials’ Struggle joshuafkon 52
2019-08-30 15:42:12 Non-root containers, Kubernetes CVE-2019-11245 and why you should care zelivans 8
2019-08-25 23:49:46 How do black holes destroy information and why is that a problem? sohkamyung 195
2019-08-25 09:48:11 Banned C standard library functions in Git source code susam 502
2019-08-25 10:01:30 Ask HN: What's the hardest thing to secure in a web-app? juansgaitan 7
2019-08-22 01:29:43 Crystal growers who sparked a revolution in graphene electronics sohkamyung 85
2019-08-22 16:27:43 Things to Know About GNU Readline matt_d 204
2019-08-22 16:16:41 Show HN: Termpage – Build a webpage that behaves like a terminal brisky 5
2019-08-21 22:49:19 Vimer - Avoid multiple instances of GVim with gvim –remote[-tab]-silent wrapper grepgeek 6
2019-08-22 16:06:27 Electric Dump Truck Produces More Energy Than It Uses mreome 3
2019-08-21 17:34:53 Ask HN: Let's make an open source/free SaaS platform to tackle school forms busymichael 12
2019-08-21 14:18:17 Ask HN: Is there a CRUD front end for databases (especially SQLite)? Tomte 2
2019-08-20 06:43:31 California approves solar-powered EV charging network and electric school buses elorant 15
2019-08-17 10:58:03 You May Be Better Off Picking Stocks at Random, Study Finds Vaslo 146
2019-08-12 08:15:23 Root: CERN's scientific data analysis framework for C++ z3phyr 137
2019-08-13 02:09:30 MesaPy: A Memory-Safe Python Implementation based on PyPy (2018) ospider 119
2019-08-11 16:22:30 Ask HN: Configuration Management for Personal Computer? jacquesm 197
2019-08-08 13:11:06 GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories dstaheli 680
2019-08-05 17:19:30 The Fed is getting into the Real-Time payments business apo 96
2019-07-08 15:26:38 A Giant Asteroid of Gold Won’t Make Us Richer pseudolus 92
2019-07-08 10:52:06 Abusing the PHP Query String Parser to Bypass IDS, IPS, and WAF lelf 92
2019-06-28 14:23:33 Ask HN: Scripts/commands for extracting URL article text? (links -dump but) WCityMike 1
2019-07-02 11:02:08 NPR's Guide to Hypothesis-Driven Design for Editorial Projects danso 101
2019-06-20 14:56:56 Gryphon: An open-source framework for algorithmic trading in cryptocurrency reso 236
2019-06-21 00:18:36 Wind-Powered Car Travels Downwind Faster Than the Wind J253 5
2019-06-13 19:39:58 NOAA upgrades the U.S. global weather forecast model mehrdadn 214
2019-06-12 08:16:17 A plan to change how Harvard teaches economics carlosgg 116
2019-06-12 17:41:58 The New York Times course to teach its reporters data skills is now open-source espeed 423
2019-06-11 10:21:59 No Kings: How Do You Make Good Decisions Efficiently in a Flat Organization? eugenegamma 743
2019-06-01 23:13:28 4 Years of College, $0 in Debt: How Some Countries Make Education Affordable pseudolus 2
2019-05-26 10:16:10 Ask HN: What jobs can a software engineer take to tackle climate change? envfriendly 67
2019-05-23 12:59:05 YC's request for startups: Government 2.0 simonebrunozzi 194
2019-05-23 13:52:23 Almost 40% of Americans Would Struggle to Cover a $400 Emergency Geeek 112
2019-05-19 16:01:51 Congress should grow the Digital Services budget, it more than pays for itself rmason 68
2019-05-20 01:20:05 The Trillion-Dollar Annual Interest Payment westurner 2
2019-05-15 07:09:29 Oak, a Free and Open Certificate Transparency Log dankohn1 143
2019-05-14 09:36:21 Death rates from energy production per TWh peter_retief 122
2019-05-11 22:37:32 Use links not keys to represent relationships in APIs sarego 342
2019-05-09 23:49:28 No Python in Red Hat Linux 8? jandeboevrie 19
2019-05-06 09:16:47 JMAP: A modern, open email protocol okket 307
2019-05-09 14:51:33 Grid Optimization Competition zeristor 2
2019-05-02 16:11:54 Blockchain's present opportunity: data interchange standardization ivoras 2
2019-04-30 12:45:38 Ask HN: Value of “Shares of Stock options” when joining a startup cdeveloper 5
2019-04-28 13:46:48 CMU Computer Systems: Self-Grading Lab Assignments (2018) georgecmu 205
2019-04-28 14:50:29 Show HN: Debugging-Friendly Tracebacks for Python cknd 121
2019-04-28 07:41:27 Why isn't 1 a prime number? gpvos 273
2019-04-28 07:26:37 How do we know when we’ve fallen in love? (2016) rohmanhakim 157
2019-04-27 21:50:58 Rare and strange ICD-10 codes zdw 68
2019-04-20 15:10:14 Python Requests III maximilianroos 19
2019-04-17 09:43:04 Post-surgical deaths in Scotland drop by a third, attributed to a checklist fanf2 1036
2019-04-17 16:06:09 Apply to Y Combinator dlhntestuser 3
2019-04-02 03:51:50 Trunk-Based Development vs. Git Flow kiyanwang 4
2019-04-01 17:25:58 Ask HN: Anyone else write the commit message before they start coding? xkapastel 25
2019-03-27 03:29:30 Ask HN: Datalog as the only language for web programming, logic and database truth_seeker 21
2019-03-24 19:46:33 The cortex is a neural network of neural networks curtis 297
2019-03-22 21:51:49 Is there a program like codeacademy but for learning sysadmin? tayvz 7
2019-03-22 17:18:44 Maybe You Don't Need Kubernetes ra7 500
2019-03-21 08:04:34 Quantum Machine Appears to Defy Universe’s Push for Disorder biofox 78
2019-03-21 12:45:42 Pytype checks and infers types for your Python code mkesper 4
2019-03-20 21:56:26 How I'm able to take notes in mathematics lectures using LaTeX and Vim tambourine_man 674
2019-03-21 05:18:51 LHCb discovers matter-antimatter asymmetry in charm quarks rbanffy 269
2019-03-21 00:22:37 React Router v5 jsdev93 153
2019-03-15 18:23:21 Experimental rejection of observer-independence in the quantum world lisper 186
2019-03-15 08:14:22 Show HN: A simple Prolog Interpreter written in a few lines of Python 3 photon_lines 148
2019-03-07 17:57:28 How to earn your macroeconomics and finance white belt as a software developer andrenth 307
2019-03-02 14:24:35 Ask HN: Relationship between set theory and category theory fmihaila 4
2019-02-26 11:24:41 The most popular docker images each contain at least 30 vulnerabilities vinnyglennon 562
2019-02-24 22:39:39 Tinycoin: A small, horrible cryptocurrency in Python for educational purposes MrXOR 4
2019-02-20 14:08:47 When does the concept of equilibrium work in economics? dnetesn 54
2019-02-20 22:53:23 Simdjson – Parsing Gigabytes of JSON per Second cmsimike 597
2019-02-18 10:13:02 A faster, more efficient cryptocurrency salvadormon 583
2019-02-17 05:52:11 Git-signatures – Multiple PGP signatures for your commits Couto 75
2019-02-16 06:55:28 Running an LED in reverse could cool future computers ChrisGranger 46
2019-02-06 07:15:56 Compounding Knowledge golyi 481
2019-02-16 14:49:30 Why CISA Issued Our First Emergency Directive ca98am79 211
2019-02-14 23:22:11 Chrome will Soon Let You Share Links to a Specific Word or Sentence on a Page kumaranvpl 359
2019-02-09 12:21:30 Guidelines for keeping a laboratory notebook Tomte 87
2019-02-07 12:03:47 Superalgos and the Trading Singularity ciencias 2
2019-02-07 12:23:44 Crunching 200 years of stock, bond, currency and commodity data chollida1 308
2019-02-06 14:50:35 Show HN: React-Schemaorg: Strongly-Typed JSON-LD for React Eyas 16
2019-02-06 16:15:33 Consumer Protection Bureau Aims to Roll Back Rules for Payday Lending pseudolus 197
2019-02-05 01:56:30 Lectures in Quantitative Economics as Python and Julia Notebooks westurner 355
2019-02-04 11:55:50 If Software Is Funded from a Public Source, Its Code Should Be Open Source jrepinc 1138
2019-02-04 23:55:48 Apache Arrow 0.12.0 westurner 1
2019-02-04 23:51:34 Statement on Status of the Consolidated Audit Trail (2018) westurner 1
2019-02-04 20:03:28 U.S. Federal District Court Declared Bitcoin as Legal Money obilgic 12
2019-01-30 12:42:06 Post Quantum Crypto Standardization Process – Second Round Candidates Announced dlgeek 2
2019-01-30 13:59:56 Ask HN: How do you evaluate security of OSS before importing? riyakhanna1983 5
2019-01-30 09:35:47 Ask HN: How can I use my programming skills to support nonprofit organizations? theneck 3
2019-01-29 19:43:16 Ask HN: Steps to forming a company? jxr006 4
2019-01-29 13:48:48 A Self-Learning, Modern Computer Science Curriculum hacknrk 394
2019-01-24 00:34:14 MVP Spec hyperpallium 2
2019-01-21 12:10:37 Can we merge Certificate Transparency with blockchain? fedotovcorp 3
2019-01-21 20:38:23 Why Don't People Use Formal Methods? pplonski86 419
2019-01-20 20:29:25 Steps to a clean dataset with Pandas NicoJuicy 4
2019-01-19 19:38:48 Reahl – A Python-only web framework kim0 165
2019-01-12 19:56:20 Ask HN: How can you save money while living on poverty level? ccdev 8
2019-01-11 14:46:52 A DNS hijacking wave is targeting companies at an almost unprecedented scale Elof 112
2019-01-09 23:09:59 Show HN: Generate dank mnemonic seed phrases in the terminal mofle 3
2019-01-08 15:28:29 Can you sign a quantum state? zdw 3
2019-01-09 18:04:41 Lattice Attacks Against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies [pdf] soohyung 11
2019-01-09 12:00:44 REMME – A blockchain-based protocol for issuing X.509 client certificates fedotovcorp 33
2019-01-08 09:51:20 California grid data is live – solar developers take note Osiris30 2
2019-01-05 12:30:30 Why attend predatory colleges in the US? azhenley 3
2018-12-31 15:43:54 Ask HN: Data analysis workflow? tucaz 1
2018-12-28 16:25:15 The U.S. is spending millions to solve mystery sonic attacks on diplomats johnshades 5
2018-12-27 10:00:38 Ask HN: What is your favorite open-source job scheduler bohinjc 6
2018-12-22 06:53:46 How to Version-Control Jupyter Notebooks tosh 164
2018-12-04 10:25:47 Teaching and Learning with Jupyter (A book by Jupyter for Education) westurner 5
2018-11-27 17:48:54 Margin Notes: Automatic code documentation with recorded examples from runtime mpweiher 67
2018-11-24 15:33:08 Time to break academic publishing's stranglehold on research joeyespo 692
2018-11-22 10:32:27 Ask HN: How can I learn to read mathematical notation? cursorial 211
2018-10-18 18:07:59 New law lets you defer capital gains taxes by investing in opportunity zones rmason 88
2018-10-15 19:55:06 How to Write a Technical Paper [pdf] boricensis 360
2018-10-15 15:19:40 JSON-LD 1.0: A JSON-Based Serialization for Linked Data geezerjay 2
2018-10-14 15:30:29 Jeff Hawkins Is Finally Ready to Explain His Brain Research tysone 489
2018-10-12 03:02:01 Interstellar Visitor Found to Be Unlike a Comet or an Asteroid Bootvis 204
2018-10-12 02:15:03 Publishing more data behind our reporting gballan 146
2018-10-10 22:23:44 CSV 1.1 – CSV Evolved (for Humans) polm23 84
2018-10-11 06:42:34 Ask HN: Which plants can be planted indoors and easily maintained? gymshoes 123
2018-10-08 10:23:38 Graduate Student Solves Quantum Verification Problem digital55 267
2018-10-05 07:53:30 The down side to wind power todd8 63
2018-10-05 05:47:19 Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki westurner 2
2018-10-04 09:27:48 Why Do Computers Use So Much Energy? tshannon 220
2018-09-30 22:11:07 Justice Department Sues to Stop California Net Neutrality Law jonburs 201
2018-09-22 10:52:45 White House Drafts Order to Probe Google, Facebook Practices Jerry2 105
2018-09-19 20:37:52 Ask HN: Books about applying the open source model to society kennu 1
2018-09-12 16:02:35 Today, Europe Lost The Internet. Now, We Fight Back DiabloD3 433
2018-09-01 14:13:52 Consumer science (a.k.a. home economics) as a college major guard0g 4
2018-08-28 11:18:26 Facebook vows to run on 100 percent renewable energy by 2020 TamoC 2
2018-08-30 12:51:10 California Moves to Require 100% Clean Electricity by 2045 dsr12 407
2018-08-29 11:15:59 Miami Will Be Underwater Soon. Its Drinking Water Could Go First hourislate 264
2018-08-29 22:50:51 Free hosting VPS for NGO project? vikramjb 1
2018-08-29 12:18:35 The Burden: Fossil Fuel, the Military and National Security westurner 3
2018-08-29 02:27:58 Scientists Warn the UN of Capitalism's Imminent Demise westurner 1
2018-08-28 14:41:52 Firefox Nightly Secure DNS Experimental Results Vinnl 40
2018-08-28 08:31:48 Long-sought decay of Higgs boson observed at CERN chmaynard 243
2018-08-28 09:00:54 Sen. Wyden Confirms Cell-Site Simulators Disrupt Emergency Calls DiabloD3 518
2018-08-23 00:01:34 Building a Model for Retirement Savings in Python koblenski 3
2018-08-20 21:38:10 New E.P.A. Rollback of Coal Pollution Regulations Takes a Major Step Forward yaseen-rob 3
2018-08-20 14:21:22 Researchers Build Room-Temp Quantum Transistor Using a Single Atom jonbaer 3
2018-08-20 10:55:17 New “Turning Tables” Technique Bypasses All Windows Kernel Mitigations yaseen-rob 2
2018-08-19 22:27:20 Um – Create your own man pages so you can remember how to do stuff quickthrower2 646
2018-08-15 04:52:10 Leverage Points: Places to Intervene in a System pjc50 113
2018-08-15 03:46:23 SQLite Release 3.25.0 adds support for window functions MarkusWinand 333
2018-08-15 19:53:03 Update on the Distrust of Symantec TLS Certificates dumpsterkid 3
2018-08-11 07:57:44 The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3 dochtman 255
2018-08-12 08:56:52 Academic Torrents – Making 27TB of research data available jacquesm 1081
2018-08-10 15:19:24 1/0 = 0 ingve 650
2018-08-07 15:43:05 Power Worth Less Than Zero Spreads as Green Energy Floods the Grid bumholio 537
2018-08-05 15:27:39 Kernels, a free hosted Jupyter notebook environment with GPUs benhamner 95
2018-07-22 14:16:25 Solar and wind are coming. And the power sector isn’t ready spenrose 174
2018-07-11 13:15:47 Solar Just Hit a Record Low Price in the U.S toomuchtodo 456
2018-07-10 23:53:58 Causal Inference Book luu 104
2018-07-02 10:18:14 Tim Berners-Lee is working a platform designed to re-decentralize the web rapnie 36
2018-07-01 06:49:08 More States Opting to 'Robo-Grade' Student Essays by Computer happy-go-lucky 44
2018-07-02 07:26:28 Ask HN: Looking for a simple solution for building an online course r4victor 57
2018-06-30 15:45:56 There is now a backprop principle for deep learning on quantum computers GVQ 3
2018-06-30 21:03:36 New research a ‘breakthrough for large-scale discrete optimization’ new_guy 96
2018-06-29 23:17:31 Wind, solar farms produce 10% of US power in the first four months of 2018 toomuchtodo 85
2018-06-25 16:57:46 FDA approves first marijuana-derived drug and it may spark DEA rescheduling mikece 150
2018-06-21 10:22:43 States Can Require Internet Tax Collection, Supreme Court Rules uptown 541
2018-06-18 08:26:23 William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech zjacobi 71
2018-06-17 18:13:13 Ask HN: Do you consider yourself to be a good programmer? type0 27
2018-06-17 11:00:59 Handles are the better pointers ingve 194
2018-06-14 14:13:13 Neural scene representation and rendering johnmoberg 540
2018-06-17 20:19:20 New US Solar Record – 2.155 Cents per KWh prostoalex 4
2018-06-10 18:04:07 Ask HN: Is there a taxonomy of machine learning types? ljw1001 3
2018-05-22 16:22:43 Senator requests better https compliance at US Department of Defense [pdf] anigbrowl 168
2018-05-22 23:15:18 Banks Adopt Military-Style Tactics to Fight Cybercrime petethomas 3
2018-04-12 13:13:10 No, Section 230 Does Not Require Platforms to Be “Neutral” panarky 6
2018-04-11 14:28:06 Ask HN: Do battery costs justify “buy all sell all” over “net metering”? westurner 1
2018-04-09 21:17:43 Portugal electricity generation temporarily reaches 100% renewable mgdo 234
2018-04-06 19:16:25 GPU Prices Drop ~25% in March as Supply Normalizes merqurio 2
2018-04-09 23:51:08 Apple says it’s now powered by renewable energy worldwide iamspoilt 272
2018-03-18 13:13:15 Hackers Are So Fed Up with Twitter Bots They’re Hunting Them Down Themselves CrankyBear 271
2018-03-02 08:21:41 “We’re committing Twitter to increase the health and civility of conversation” dankohn1 147
2018-03-01 02:06:42 Gitflow – Animated in React v33ra 3
2018-02-28 22:06:35 Ask HN: How feasible is it to become proficient in several disciplines? diehunde 4
2018-02-27 09:47:40 After rising for 100 years, electricity demand is flat aaronbrethorst 629
2018-02-27 10:37:54 A framework for evaluating data scientist competency schaunwheeler 3
2018-02-27 18:28:01 Levi Strauss to use lasers instead of people to finish jeans e2e4 3
2018-02-27 18:24:45 Chaos Engineering: the history, principles, and practice austingunter 2
2018-02-27 09:52:39 Scientists use an atomic clock to measure the height of a mountain montrose 45
2018-02-27 18:10:10 Resources to learn project management best practices? chuie 1
2018-02-22 15:35:51 Ask HN: Thoughts on a website-embeddable, credential validating service? estroz 28
2018-02-21 05:03:58 Ask HN: What's the best algorithms and data structures online course? zabana 272
2018-02-20 15:14:40 Using Go as a scripting language in Linux neoasterisk 8
2018-02-18 12:09:07 Guidelines for enquiries regarding the regulatory framework for ICOs [pdf] paulsutter 23
2018-02-16 00:16:09 The Benjamin Franklin method for learning more from programming books nancyhua 566
2018-02-10 20:41:21 Avoiding blackouts with 100% renewable energy ramonvillasante 2
2018-02-10 11:25:54 Ask HN: What are some common abbreviations you use as a developer? yagamidev 3
2018-02-09 19:42:21 There Might Be No Way to Live Comfortably Without Also Ruining the Planet SirLJ 43
2018-02-08 22:52:44 Multiple GWAS finds 187 intelligence genes and role for neurogenesis/myelination gwern 2
2018-02-08 20:33:49 Could we solve blockchain scaling with terabyte-sized blocks? gwern 4
2018-02-07 20:50:24 Ask HN: Do you have ADD/ADHD? How do you manage it? vumgl 4
2018-02-03 14:36:02 Ask HN: How to understand the large codebase of an open-source project? maqbool 186
2018-02-03 13:56:30 What is the best way to learn to code from absolute scratch? eliotpeper 8
2018-02-02 04:35:58 Tesla racing series: Electric cars get the green light – Roadshow rbanffy 77
2018-02-02 13:40:19 What happens if you have too many jupyter notebooks? tvorogme 4
2018-02-01 00:49:46 Cancer ‘vaccine’ eliminates tumors in mice jv22222 942
2018-02-01 12:23:08 Boosting teeth’s healing ability by mobilizing stem cells in dental pulp digital55 306
2018-01-29 17:11:55 This Biodegradable Paper Donut Could Let Us Reforest the Planet westurner 2
2018-01-29 16:44:35 Drones that can plant 100k trees a day artsandsci 147
2018-01-27 22:21:28 What are some YouTube channels to progress into advanced levels of programming? altsyset 41
2018-01-25 17:41:24 Multiple issue and pull request templates clarkbw 17
2018-01-25 17:38:38 Five myths about Bitcoin’s energy use nvk 10
2018-01-23 18:41:16 Ask HN: Which programming language has the best documentation? siquick 3
2018-01-18 06:36:07 Ask HN: Recommended course/website/book to learn data structure and algorithms strikeX 3
2018-01-19 17:06:07 Why is quicksort better than other sorting algorithms in practice? isp 5
2018-01-18 16:16:16 ORDO: a modern alternative to X.509 juancampa 1
2018-01-18 11:47:03 Wine 3.0 Released etiam 724
2018-01-18 19:51:30 Kimbal Musk is leading a $25M mission to fix food in US schools rmason 2
2018-01-13 21:42:47 Spinzero – A Minimal Jupyter Notebook Theme neilpanchal 5
2018-01-11 13:27:17 What does the publishing industry bring to the Web? mpweiher 2
2018-01-10 14:02:09 Git is a blockchain Swizec 13
2018-01-07 12:06:03 Show HN: Convert Matlab/NumPy matrices to LaTeX tables tpaschalis 4
2018-01-02 10:48:10 A Year of Spaced Repetition Software in the Classroom misiti3780 4
2017-12-27 08:32:39 NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 1 Submissions sohkamyung 130
2018-01-01 21:38:58 What are some good resources to learn about Quantum Computing? nmehta21 3
2017-12-29 15:53:06 Gridcoin: Rewarding Scientific Distributed Computing trueduke 134
2017-12-26 12:37:07 Power Prices Go Negative in Germany kwindla 485
2017-12-21 14:30:35 Mathematicians Find Wrinkle in Famed Fluid Equations digital55 240
2017-12-20 10:43:31 Bitcoin is an energy arbitrage js4 51
2017-12-19 17:03:30 There are now more than 200k pending Bitcoin transactions OyoKooN 192
2017-12-17 22:16:06 What ORMs have taught me: just learn SQL (2014) ausjke 540
2017-12-17 07:32:06 Show HN: An educational blockchain implementation in Python jre 412
2017-12-16 08:12:44 MSU Scholars Find $21T in Unauthorized Government Spending sillypuddy 137
2017-12-13 04:59:42 Universities spend millions on accessing results of publicly funded research versteegen 624
2017-12-11 19:49:44 An Interactive Introduction to Quantum Computing kevlened 254
2017-12-12 12:34:46 Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them (ECDSA, SHA256) westurner 2
2017-12-10 17:50:44 Project Euler vinchuco 792
2017-12-12 10:17:39 Who’s Afraid of Bitcoin? The Futures Traders Going Short thisisit 54
2017-12-11 19:21:38 Statement on Cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings corbinpage 811
2017-12-11 15:02:04 Ask HN: How do you stay focused while programming/working? flipfloppity 83
2017-12-08 10:53:49 A Hacker Writes a Children's Book arthurjj 171
2017-12-11 18:17:52 Ask HN: Do ISPs have a legal obligation to not sell minors' web history anymore? westurner 2
2017-12-11 11:58:38 Tech luminaries call net neutrality vote an 'imminent threat' kjhughes 279
2017-12-06 18:55:25 Ask HN: Can hashes be replaced with optimization problems in blockchain? pacavaca 3
2017-12-01 01:19:43 Ask HN: What could we do with all the mining power of Bitcoin? Fold Protein? sova 3
2017-12-03 20:14:58 No CEO needed: These blockchain platforms will let ‘the crowd’ run startups maxwellnardi 4
2017-12-04 04:59:08 How much energy does Bitcoin mining really use? trueduke 3
2017-12-02 00:27:40 The Actual FCC Net Neutrality Repeal Document. TLDR: Read Pages 82-87 [pdf] croatoan 3
2017-12-01 21:55:26 The 5 most ridiculous things the FCC says in its new net neutrality propaganda pulisse 164
2017-12-01 13:15:47 FCC's Pai, addressing net neutrality rules, calls Twitter biased joeyespo 13
2017-12-01 05:49:25 A curated list of Chaos Engineering resources dastergon 51
2017-12-01 11:24:06 Technology behind Bitcoin could aid science, report says digital55 13
2017-11-30 15:07:26 Git hash function transition plan vszakats 215
2017-11-30 22:04:20 Vintage Cray Supercomputer Rolls Up to Auction ohjeez 3
2017-11-30 21:21:09 Google is officially 100% sun and wind powered – 3.0 gigawatts worth rippsu 163
2017-11-29 12:29:30 Interactive workflows for C++ with Jupyter SylvainCorlay 292
2017-11-28 16:01:32 Vanguard Founder Jack Bogle Says ‘Avoid Bitcoin Like the Plague’ dionmanu 105
2017-11-29 11:22:54 Nasdaq Plans to Introduce Bitcoin Futures knwang 416
2017-11-28 17:49:07 Ask HN: Where do you think Bitcoin will be by 2020? rblion 10
2017-11-28 18:03:11 Ask HN: Why would anyone share trading algorithms and compare by performance? westurner 1
2017-11-25 06:28:39 Ask HN: CS papers for software architecture and design? avrmav 513
2017-11-15 10:24:27 Keeping a Lab Notebook [pdf] Tomte 327
2017-10-28 08:12:53 How to teach technical concepts with cartoons Tomte 170
2017-10-22 16:43:03 Fact Checks fanf2 126
2017-10-19 05:51:13 DHS orders agencies to adopt DMARC email security puppetmaster30 2
2017-10-18 21:20:00 The electricity for 1BTC trade could power a house for a month niyikiza 25
2017-10-19 05:20:26 PAC Fundraising with Ethereum Contracts? westurner 1
2017-10-19 05:16:25 SolarWindow Completes Financing ($2.5m) westurner 2
2017-10-16 12:48:08 Here’s what you can do to protect yourself from the KRACK WiFi vulnerability tdrnd 2
2017-10-14 12:41:29 The Solar Garage Door – A Possible Alternative to the Emergency Generator curtis 2
2017-10-14 07:34:07 Using the Web Audio API to Make a Modem maaaats 307
2017-10-11 18:25:17 Ask HN: How to introduce someone to programming concepts during 12-hour drive? nkkollaw 9
2017-09-27 01:24:13 American Red Cross Asks for Ham Radio Operators for Puerto Rico Relief Effort kw71 346
2017-09-26 14:58:38 Technical and non-technical tips for rocking your coding interview duck 259
2017-09-23 12:12:36 Django 2.0 alpha orf 156
2017-09-24 00:15:28 Ask HN: What is the best way to spend my time as a 17-year-old who can code? jmeyer2k 161
2017-09-21 14:18:33 Democrats fight FCC's plans to redefine “broadband” from 25+ to 10+ Mbps gnicholas 18
2017-09-17 12:49:37 Ask HN: Any detailed explanation of computer science smithmayowa 2
2017-09-16 18:40:33 Ask HN: What algorithms should I research to code a conference scheduling app viertaxa 55
2017-09-15 05:51:45 What have been the greatest intellectual achievements? Gormisdomai 42
2017-09-15 23:22:02 Ask HN: What can't you do in Excel? (2017) danso 37
2017-09-08 20:04:36 Open Source Ruling Confirms Enforceability of Dual-Licensing and Breach of GPL t3f 116
2017-09-01 11:27:30 Elon Musk Describes What Great Communication Looks Like endswapper 90
2017-09-01 04:05:12 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science tu7001 290
2017-08-28 16:06:24 Ask HN: How do you, as a developer, set measurable and actionable goals? humaninstrument 24
2017-08-26 16:06:24 Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index schwabacher 256
2017-08-26 09:59:19 Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain brahmwg 71
2017-08-26 09:03:19 Rumours swell over new kind of gravitational-wave sighting indescions_2017 258
2017-08-20 12:56:37 New Discovery Simplifies Quantum Physics wolfgke 2
2017-08-23 03:22:00 OpenAI has developed new baseline tool for improving deep reinforcement learning grey_shirts 3
2017-08-24 23:19:03 The prior can generally only be understood in the context of the likelihood selimthegrim 94
2017-08-22 04:13:00 Ask HN: How to find/compare trading algorithms with Quantopian? westurner 3
2017-08-22 04:09:17 Ask HN: How do IPOs and ICOs help a business raise capital? westurner 2
2017-08-22 04:02:04 Solar Window coatings “outperform rooftop solar by 50-fold” westurner 4
2017-08-21 23:30:16 MS: Bitcoin mining uses as much electricity as 1M US homes pulisse 79
2017-08-15 15:45:47 Ask HN: What are your favorite entrepreneurship resources brianbreslin 13
2017-05-09 12:59:38 CPU Utilization is Wrong dmit 624
2017-05-06 17:13:03 Ask HN: Can I use convolutional neural networks to clasify videos on a CPU Faizann20 1
2017-05-01 10:17:36 Esoteric programming paradigms SlyShy 397
2017-04-27 04:41:09 gRPC-Web: Moving past REST+JSON towards type-safe Web APIs bestan 329
2017-04-16 03:59:55 Reasons blog posts can be of higher scientific quality than journal articles vixen99 233
2017-04-07 12:50:38 Fact Check now available in Google Search and News fouadmatin 302
2017-04-07 20:07:05 Ask HN: Is anyone working on CRISPR for happiness? arikr 4
2017-03-26 14:58:59 Roadmap to becoming a web developer in 2017 miguelarauj1o 4
2017-03-20 19:14:10 Beautiful Online SICP Dangeranger 762
2017-03-19 11:52:48 Ask HN: How do you keep track/save your learnings?(so that you can revisit them) mezod 4
2017-03-11 13:26:30 Ask HN: Criticisms of Bayesian statistics? muraiki 1
2017-01-16 18:53:09 80,000 Hours career plan worksheet BreakoutList 230
2017-01-07 18:27:31 World's first smartphone with a molecular sensor is coming in 2017 walterbell 19
2016-12-31 12:11:14 Ask HN: How would one build a business that only develops free software? anondon 12
2016-12-29 00:40:11 Ask HN: If your job involves continually importing CSVs, what industry is it? iamwil 12
2016-12-09 17:21:13 Ask HN: Maybe I kind of suck as a programmer – how do I supercharge my work? tastyface 328
2016-11-20 06:33:34 Ask HN: Anything Like Carl Sagan's Cosmos for Computer Science? leksak 32
2016-11-20 10:32:00 Learn X in Y minutes anonu 161
2016-11-03 05:46:50 Org mode 9.0 released Philipp__ 285
2016-11-13 00:23:33 Ask HN: Best Git workflow for small teams tmaly 166
2016-11-10 15:46:57 TDD Doesn't Work narfz 153
2016-11-07 14:13:48 C for Python programmers (2011) bogomipz 314
2016-10-26 02:19:06 Ask HN: How do you organise/integrate all the information in your life? tonteldoos 323
2016-10-23 14:06:00 Ask HN: What are the best web tools to build basic web apps as of October 2016? arikr 114
2016-10-16 10:55:18 Harvard and M.I.T. Are Sued Over Lack of Closed Captions lsh123 45
2016-10-06 11:15:16 Jack Dorsey Is Losing Control of Twitter miraj 283
2016-09-18 09:09:04 Mission, Project, Goal, Objective, Task westurner 49
2016-09-18 08:59:41 This week is #GlobalGoals week (and week of The World's Largest Lesson) westurner 1
2016-08-19 08:12:25 The Open Source Data Science Masters nns 95
2016-07-29 06:08:29 We Should Not Accept Scientific Results That Have Not Been Repeated dnetesn 910
2016-05-30 07:39:05 The SQL filter clause: selective aggregates MarkusWinand 138
2016-05-29 23:36:23 Ask HN: What do you think about the current education system? alejandrohacks 36
2016-05-10 08:55:01 A Reboot of the Legendary Physics Site ArXiv Could Shape Open Science tonybeltramelli 174
2014-03-23 14:27:04 Principles of good data analysis gjreda 108
2014-03-11 08:16:38 Why Puppet, Chef, Ansible aren't good enough iElectric2 362
2014-03-11 20:12:16 Python vs Julia – an example from machine learning ajtulloch 170
2014-02-17 10:23:21 Free static page hosting on Google App Engine in minutes fizerkhan 95
2014-02-03 09:15:30 “Don’t Reinvent the Wheel, Use a Framework” They All Say mogosselin 79
2013-09-09 10:20:50 IPython in Excel vj44 73
2013-08-11 01:56:12 PEP 450: Adding A Statistics Module To The Standard Library petsos 185
2013-08-02 21:03:51 Functional Programming with Python llambda 107
2013-08-01 10:59:55 PEP 8 Modernisation tristaneuan 213
2013-07-15 12:40:04 Useful Unix commands for data science gjreda 221
2013-07-13 11:35:40 The data visualization community needs its own Hacker News ejfox 11
2013-07-06 08:59:22 Ask HN: Intermediate Python learning resources? jesusx 113
2013-07-03 08:00:50 Ansible Simply Kicks Ass hunvreus 185
2013-06-29 05:44:08 Python-Based Tools for the Space Science Community neokya 76
2013-05-04 21:21:29 Debian 7.0 "Wheezy" released sciurus 428
2013-05-04 10:40:20 Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat Sheet ashleyblackmore 520
2013-05-03 22:32:14 JSON API steveklabnik 227
2013-05-04 14:04:39 Norton Ghost discontinued ruchirablog 42



What vertical farming and ag startups don't understand about agriculture


>> "Actually no not really. Plants only absorb two wavelengths of light. It's currently more efficient to convert sun into solar power via panels and then to light LEDs supplying only the wavelengths that plants use. Despite the seeming inefficiency here, the fact is that plants are even more inefficient at absorbing light not at the right wavelengths than solar panels."

> Could one imagine a material that would absorb solar spectrum and emit the preferred frequencies? Something like a polymer one could stretch over fields to get more from the suns rays.

Would you call that a "solar transmitter"? :

> Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters, even though they often have similar circuits.

Would "absorption spectroscopy" specialists have insight into whether this is possible without solar cells, energy storage, and UV LEDs?

(edit) The thermal energy from sunlight (from the FREE radiation from the nuclear reaction at the center of our solar system) is also useful to and necessary for plants. There's probably a passive heat pipe / solar panel cooling solution that could harvest such heat for colder seasons and climates.

Also, UV-C is useful for sanitizing (UVGI) but not really for plant growth. :

> UVGI can be coupled with a filtration system to sanitize air and water.

Is that necessary or desirable for plants? :

> The light that plants predominately use for photosynthesis ranges from 400–700 nm. This range is referred to as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and includes red, blue and green wavebands. Photomorphogenesis occurs in a wider range from approximately 260–780 nm and includes UV and far-red radiation.


PAR: Photosynthetically active radiation:

Grow light:

Are there bioluminescent e.g. algae which emit PAR and/or UV? Algae can feed off of waste industrial gases.

Bioluminescence > Light production:




Quantum dot display / "QLED":

Could be possible? Analyzing the inputs and outputs is useful in natural systems, as well.


Ask HN: What are your go to SaaS products for startups/MVPs?

lbj | 2020-06-15 05:26:29 | 169 | # | ^

Looking for some inspiration. Ive done a lot of MVPs/Early-stage apps over the years and I tend to lean on the same SaaS portfolio for mails, text gateways, payment etc, but Im sure Ive missed a few valuable additions.

Here's a few I use: Mails: Mailchimp / Mandrill Payment: Paylike Search: Algolia and are great places to find reviews of SaaS services:

> mails,

> text gateways,

> payments

Both have categories:


Long term viability of SaaS solutions is definitely worth researching.

Is this something that's going to get acquired and be extinguished?

What are our switching costs?

How do we get our data in a format that can be: read into our data warehouse/lake and imported into an alternate service if necessary in the future?

How does Coscout compare to e.g. Crunchbase, PitchBook (Morningstar), YCharts, AngelList?


Ask HN: Do you read aloud or silently in your minds?

Most times while reading a new topic that I am not familiar with, I tend to read aloud in my mind. Yet that changes based on the content and the way it is written.

When I'm focused, I notice that reading silently helps increase my reading speed and cognition, like everything is flowing in.

Other times I don't seem to understand anything if I'm not reading it aloud in my mind.

Has anyone noticed such a thing and if so can you share any tips or information you've learned about this behavior


Ask HN: How do you deploy a Django app in 2020?

Hi. I'm a mid-level software engineer trying to deploy a small (2000 max users) django app to production.

If I Google: How to deploy a Django app. I get 10+ different answers.

Can anyone on HN help me please.


If you have only one production server, dokku is "A docker-powered PaaS that helps you build and manage the lifecycle of applications." Dokku supports Heroku buildpack deployment (buildstep), Procfiles, Dockerfile deployment, Docker image deployment, git deployment (gitreceive), or tarfile deployments.

There are a number of plugins for Dokku. Dokku ships with the nginx plugin as the HTTP frontend proxy. Dokku supports SSL certs with the certs plugin.

When you need to move to more than one server, what do you do? There's now a dokku-scheduler-kubernetes plugin which can do HA (high availability) which is worth reading about before you develop and document your own deployment workflow.

I also always put build, test, and deployment commands in a Makefile.

Package it; as a container or as containers that install a RPM/DEB/APK/Condapkg/Pythonpkg (possibly containing a zipapp). Zipapps are fast.

If you have any non-python dependencies, a Pythonpkg only solves for part of the packaging needs.

Producing a packaged artifact should be easy and part of your CI build script.

Here's the cookiecutter-django production docker-compose.yml with containers for django, celery, postgres, redis, and traefik as a load balancer:

Cookiecutter-django also includes a Procfile.

With k8s, you have an ingress (~load balancer + SSL termination proxy) other than traefik.

You can generate k8s YML from docker-compose.yml with Kompose.

I just found this which describes using GitLab CI with Helm:

What is the command to scale up or down? Do you need a geodistributed setup (on multiple providers' clouds)? Who has those credentials and experience?

How do you do red/green or rolling deployments?

Can you run tests in a copy of production?

Can you deploy when the tests that run on git commit pass?

What runs the database migrations in production; while users are using the site?

If something deletes the whole production setup or the bus factor is 1, how long does it take to redeploy from zero; and how much manual work does it take?

CI + Ansible + Terraform + Kubernetes.

Whatever tools you settle on, django-eviron for a 12 Factor App may be advisable.

The Twelve-Factor App:


Containers from first principles


"Docker Without Docker" (2015) explains /sbin/init and systemd-nspawn. Systemd did not exist when docker was first created.


Are there other systemd + containers solutions?

"Chapter 4. Running containers as Systemd services with Podmam"

AFAIU, when running containers with systemd:

- logs go to journald by default

- there's no docker-compose for just the [name-prefixed] containers in the docker-compose.yml,

- you can use systemd unit template parametrization

- it's not as easy to collect metrics on every container on the system without a read-only docker socket: how many containers are running, how much RAM quota are they assigned and utilizing? What are the filesystem and port mappings?

- you can run containers as non-root

- you can run containers in systemd timer units

- you use runC to handle seccomp

... You can do cgroups and namespaces with just systemd; but keeping chroots/images upgraded is outside the scope of systemd: where is the ideal boundary between systemd and containers?

See this comment regarding per-container MAC MCS labels:

There's much additional complexity that justifies k8s / OpenShift: when would I want to manage containers with just systemd units?

> Many people might think the word “container” has a specific meaning within the Linux kernel; however the kernel has no notion of a “container”. The word has been synonymous with a variety of Linux tooling which when applied give the resemblance of what we expect a container to be.

Before LXC ( ) and CNCF ( ) and OCI ( ), for shared-kernel VPS hosting ("virtual private server"; root on a shared box), there was OpenVZ (which requires a patched kernel and AFAIU still has features, like bursting, not present in cgroups).

Docker no longer has an LXC driver: libcontainer (opencontainers/runc) is the story now. The LXC docs have a great list of utilized kernel features that's also still true for docker-engine = runC + moby. The LXC docs: :

> Current LXC uses the following kernel features to contain processes:

> ## Kernel namespaces (ipc, uts, mount, pid, network and user)

>> Namespaces are a feature of the Linux kernel that partitions kernel resources such that one set of processes sees one set of resources while another set of processes sees a different set of resources.

> ## Apparmor and SELinux profiles /

udica is an interesting tool for creating SELinux policies for containers.

Is it possible for each container to run confined with a different SELinux label?

> ## Seccomp policies

See below re: Seccomp.

> ## Chroots (using pivot_root)

Chroots and symlinks, Chroots and bind mounts, Chroots and overlay filesystems, Chroots and SELinux context labels.

FWIU, Chroots are a native feature of filesystem syscalls in Fuchsia.

> ## Kernel capabilities :

>> "Capabilities (POSIX 1003.1e, capabilities(7)) provide fine-grained control over superuser permissions, allowing use of the root user to be avoided. Software developers are encouraged to replace uses of the powerful setuid attribute in a system binary with a more minimal set of capabilities. Many packages make use of capabilities, such as CAP_NET_RAW being used for the ping binary provided by iputils. This enables e.g. ping to be run by a normal user (as with the setuid method), while at the same time limiting the security consequences of a potential vulnerability in ping."

> ## CGroups (control groups)*

Control groups enable per-process (and to thus per-container) resource quotas. Other than limiting the impact of resource exhaustion, cgroups are not a security feature of the Linux kernel.

Here's a helpful explainer of the differences between some of these kernel features; which, combined, have become somewhat ubiquitous:

From "Formally add support for SELinux" (k3s #1372) :


>> The main thing to understand about SELinux integration with OpenShift is that, by default, OpenShift runs each container as a random uid and is isolated with SELinux MCS labels. The easiest way of thinking about MCS labels is they are a dynamic way of getting SELinux separation without having to create policy files and run restorecon.*

>> If you are wondering why we need SELinux and namespaces at the same time, the way I view it is namespaces provide the nice abstraction but are not designed from a security first perspective. SELinux is the brick wall that’s going to stop you if you manage to break out of (accidentally or on purpose) from the namespace abstraction.

>> CGroups is the remaining piece of the puzzle. Its primary purpose isn’t security, but I list it because it regulates that different containers stay within their allotted space for compute resources (cpu, memory, I/O). So without cgroups, you can’t be confident your application won’t be stomped on by another application on the same node.

From Wikipedia: ::

> seccomp (short for secure computing mode) is a computer security facility in the Linux kernel. seccomp allows a process to make a one-way transition into a "secure" state where it cannot make any system calls except exit(), sigreturn(), read() and write() to already-open file descriptors. Should it attempt any other system calls, the kernel will terminate the process with SIGKILL or SIGSYS.[1][2] In this sense, it does not virtualize the system's resources but isolates the process from them entirely.

... SELinux is one implementation of MAC (Mandatory Access Controls) that is built upon the LSM (Linux Security Modules) support in the Linux kernel. Some distros include policy sets for Docker hosts and lots of other packages that could be installed; see: "Formally add support for SELinux" (k3s #1372)


How many people did it take to build the Great Pyramid?

> The potential energy of the pyramid—the energy needed to lift the mass above ground level—is simply the product of acceleration due to gravity, mass, and the center of mass, which in a pyramid is one-quarter of its height. The mass cannot be pinpointed because it depends on the specific densities of the Tura limestone and mortar that were used to build the structure; I am assuming a mean of 2.6 metric tons per cubic meter, hence a total mass of about 6.75 million metric tons. That means the pyramid’s potential energy is about 2.4 trillion joules.

In "Lost Technologies of the Great Pyramid" (2010) and "The Great Pyramid Prosperity Machine: Why the Great Pyramid was Built!" (2011), Steven Myers contends that the people who built the pyramids were master hydrologists who built a series of locks from the Nile all the way up the sides of the pyramids and pumped water up to a pool of water on the topmost level; where they used buoyancy and mechanical leverage by way of a floating barge crane in order to place blocks. This would explain how and why the pyramids are water tight, why explosive residue has been found in specific chambers, and why boats have been found buried at the bases of the pyramids.

There are videos:

I'm not aware of other explanations for how friction could have been overcome in setting the blocks such that they are watertight (in the later Egyptian pyramids).

AFAIU, the pyramids of South America appear to be of different - possibly older - construction methods.


Solar’s Future is Insanely Cheap


> if smart thermostats received price signals (maybe we should precool this house...) that would alleviate the evening ramp-up issue.

Is there an existing model for retail intraday rates? Would intraday rates be desirable for all market participants?

"Add area for curtailment data?"


Demo of an OpenAI language model applied to code generation [video]


1. Generate test cases from function/class/method definitions.

2. Generate test cases from fuzz results.

3. Run tests and walk outward from symbols around relevant stacktrace frames (line numbers,).

4. Mutate and run the test again.


Model-based Testing (MBT)

> Models can also be constructed from completed systems

> At best this is like having an exceptionally smart autocomplete function that can look up code snippets on SO for you (provided those code snippets are no longer than one line).

Yeah, all it could do for you is autocomplete around what it thinks the specification might be at that point in time.

> But what if Andy gets another dinosaur, a mean one? -- Toy Story (1995)


Future of the human climate niche

How many degrees Celsius hotter would that be for billions of people in 50 years?

> The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. This should be done by reducing emissions as soon as possible, in order to "achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases" in the second half of the 21st century. It also aims to increase the ability of parties to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and make "finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."

> Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming. [6] No mechanism forces [7] a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date, [8] but each target should go beyond previously set targets.

And then this is what was decided:

> In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020, shortly before the end of President Trump's 2016 term. In practice, changes in United States policy that are contrary to the Paris Agreement have already been put in place.[9]


That's a good question,


Ask HN: Best resources for non-technical founders to understand hacker mindset?

Background: technical founder wondering what reading to recommend to a business focused founder for them to grok the hacker mindset. I've thought perhaps Mythical Man Month and How To Become A Hacker (Eric Raymond essay) but not sure they're quite right.

Any suggestions?

(In case it helps an analogue in the mathematical world might be A Mathematician's Apology or Gödel, Escher, Bach.)


> 3) True "hackers" value taking ownership in their work, that is, whatever they work on becomes an extension of themselves, much like an artist working on a work of art

There's something to be said about owning your work, but I have to disagree that unhealthy attachment to work products is a universal attribute of technical founder hackers. It's not a kid, it's a thing that was supposed to be the best use of the resources and information available at the time.

I must have confused this point with vanity and retention in projecting my own counterproductive anti-patterns.

Prolific is not the objective for a true hacker, but not me but a guy I know mentioned something about starting projects and seeing the next 5 years of potentially happily working on that project, too.


Dissecting the code responsible for the Bitcoin halving

> The difficulty of the calculations are determined by how many zeroes need to be at the front. [...]

The difficulty is actually not determined by the number of zeroes (as was initially the case). :

> The Bitcoin network has a global block difficulty. Valid blocks must have a hash below this target. Mining pools also have a pool-specific share difficulty setting a lower limit for shares.

"Less than" instead of "count leading zeroes" makes it possible for the difficulty to be less broadly adjusted in a difficulty retargeting.

Difficulty retargetings occur after up to 2016 blocks (~10 minutes, assuming the mining pool doesn't suddenly disappear resulting in longer block times that could make it take months to get to 2016 blocks according to "What would happen if 90% of the Bitcoin miners suddenly stopped mining?" )

Difficulty is adjusted up or down (every up to 2016 blocks) in order to keep the block time to ~10 minutes.

The block reward halving occurs every ~4 years (210,000 blocks).

Relatedly, Moore's law observes/predicts that processing power (as measured by transistor count per unit) will double every 2 years while price stays the same. Is energy efficiency independent of transistor count?

Ask HN: Does mounting servers parallel with the temperature gradient trap heat?

Heat rises. Is heat trapped in the rack? Would mounting servers sideways (vertically) allow heat to transfer out of the rack?

Many systems have taken the vertical mount approach approach over the years: Blade servers, routers, modems, and various gaming systems.

Horizontally-mounted: parallel with the floor

Vertically-mounted: perpendicular to the floor



Are engine cylinders ever mounted horizontally? Why or why not?

> Heat rises.

Warmer air is less dense / more buoyant; so it floats.

"Does hot air really rise?"

- Water ice floats because – somewhat uniquely – solid water is less dense than liquid water.

> Is heat trapped in the rack?


> Would mounting servers sideways (vertically) allow heat to transfer out of the rack?

How could we find studies that have already tested this hypothesis?


Google ditched tipping feature for donating money to sites

> When asked, Google confirmed that the designs were an internal idea it explored last year but decided not to pursue as part of [Google Contributor] and Google Funding Choices, which lets sites ask visitors to disable ad blockers, or instead buy a subscription or pay a per page fee to remove ads.

Could this be built on Web Monetization API (ILP (Interledger Protocol)) and e.g. Google Pay as one of many possible payment/card/cryptocurrency processing backends; just like Coil is built on Web Monetization API?


Innovating on Web Monetization: Coil and Firefox Reality

Coil: $5/mo, Content creators get a proportional cut of that amount according to what is browsed with the browser extension enabled or the Puma browser, and Private: No Tracking

> Coil sends payments via the Interledger Protocol, which allows any currency to be used for sending and receiving.

It looks like the Web Monetization API is not yet listed on the Website Monetization Wikipedia page:

Quoting from earlier this week:

> Web Monetization API (ILP: Interledger Protocol)

>> A JavaScript browser API which allows the creation of a payment stream from the user agent to the website.

>> Web Monetization is being proposed as a #W3C standard at the Web Platform Incubator Community Group.


> Interledger: Web Monetization API

Ask HN: Recommendations for online essay grading systems?

Which automated essay grading systems would you recommend? Are they open source?

How can we identify biases in these objective systems?

What are your experiences with these systems as authors and graders?

Who else remembers using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level metric in Word to evaluate school essays?

Imagine my surprise when I learned that this metric is not one that was created for authors to maximize: reading ease for the widest audience is not an objective in some deparments, but a requirement.

What metrics do and should online essay grading systems present? As continuous feedback to authors, or as final judgement?

I'm reminded of a time in highschool when an essay that I wrote was flagged by an automated essay verification engine as plagiarism. I certainly hadn't plagiarized, and it was up to me to refute that each identified keyword-similar internet resource on the internet was not an uncited source of my paper. I disengaged. I later wrote an essay about how keyword search tools could be helpful to students doing original research. True story.

Decades later, I would guess that human review is still advisable.

This need of mine to have others validate my unpaid work has nothing to do with that traumatic experience.

I still harbor this belief in myself: that what I have to say is worth money to others, and that - someday - I'll pay a journal to consider my ScholarlyArticle for publishing in their prestigious publication with maybe even threaded peer review (and #StructuredPremises linking to Datasets and CreativeWorks that my #LinkedMetaAnalyses are predicated upon). Someday, I'll develop an online persona as a scholar, as a teacher, maybe someday as a TA or an associate professor and connect my CV to any or all of the social networks for academics. I'll work to minimize the costs of interviewing and searching public records. My research will be valued and funded.

Or maybe, like 20% time, I'll find time and money on the side for such worthwhile investigations; and what I produce will be of value to others: more than just an exercise in hearing myself speak.

In my years of internet communications, I've encountered quite a few patrons; lurkers; participants; and ne'er-do-wells who'll order 5 free waters, plaster their posters to the walls, harass paying customers, and just walk out like nothing's going to happen. Moderation costs time and money; and it's a dirty job that sometimes pays okay. There are various systems for grading these comments, these essays, these NewsArticles, these ScholarlyArticles. Human review is still advisable.

> How can we identify biases in these objective systems?

Modern "journalism" recognizes that it's not a one-way monologue but a dialogue: people want to comment. Ignorantly, helpfully, relevantly, insightfully, experiencedly. What separates the "article part" from the "comments part" of the dialogue? Typesetting, CSS, citations, quality of argumentation?

You could call it something like "Because I Want You To Grade My Essay Again" (BIWYGMEA) and just pay people who submit to it.

Ask HN: Systems for supporting Evidence-Based Policy?

What tools and services would you recommend for evidence-based policy tasks like meta-analysis, solution criteria development, and planned evaluations according to the given criteria?

Are they open source? Do they work with linked open data?

> Ask HN: Systems for supporting Evidence-Based Policy?

> What tools and services would you recommend for evidence-based policy tasks like meta-analysis, solution criteria development, and planned evaluations according to the given criteria?

> Are they open source? Do they work with linked open data?

I suppose I should clarify that citizens, consumers, voters, and journalists are not acceptable answers


Facebook, Google to be forced to share ad revenue with Australian media


If you don't want them to index your content and send you free traffic, you can already specify that in your robots.txt; for free.

There are no ads on Google News.

There is an apparent glut of online news: supply exceeds demand and so the price has fallen.


By hurt, do you mean competed with by effectively utilizing technology to help people find information about the world from multiple sources.

There are very many news aggregators and most do serve ads next to the headlines they index. I assume that people typically link out from news aggregation sites more than into vertically-integrated services.

Perhaps the content producers / information service providers could develop additional revenue streams in order to subsidize a news aggregation public service. Micropayments (BAT, Web Monetization (ILP)), ads, paywalls, and public and private grants are sources of revenue for content producers.

I think it's disingenuous to blame news aggregation sites for the unprofitability of extremely redundant journalism. What happened to journalism? Internet. Excessive ads. Aren't we all writers these days.

Unfortunately they killed the "most cited" and was it "most in-depth" source analysis functions of Google News; and now we're stuck with regurgitated news wires and press releases and all of these eyewitness mobile phone videos with two-bit banal commentary and also punditry. How the world has changed.

So, as far as scientific experiments are concerned, it might be interesting to see what the impact of de-listing from free time sites X, Y, and Z is.

Do the papers in Australia and France now intend to compensate journal ScholarlyArticle authors whose work they summarize and hopefully at least cite the titles and URLs of, or the journals themselves?


France rules Google must pay news firms for content

us0r | 2020-04-11 12:36:55 | 134 | # | ^

Website monetization

Web Monetization API (ILP: Interledger Protocol)

> A JavaScript browser API which allows the creation of a payment stream from the user agent to the website.

> Web Monetization is being proposed as a #W3C standard at the Web Platform Incubator Community Group.

Interledger: Web Monetization API

Khan Academy, for example, accepts BAT (Basic Attention Token) micropayments/microdonations that e.g. Brave browser users can opt to share with the content producers and indexers.

Web Monetization w/ Interledger should enable any payments system with low enough transaction costs ("ledger-agnostic, currency agnostic") to be used to pay/tip/donate to content producers who are producing unsensational, unbiased content that people want to pay for.

Paywalls/subscriptions and ads are two other approaches to funding quality journalism.

Should journalists pay ScholarlyArticle authors whose studies they publish summaries of without even citing the DOI/URL and Title; or the journals said ScholarlyArticles are published in?


Adafruit Thermal Camera Imager for Fever Screening

> Thermal Camera Imager for Fever Screening with USB Video Output - UTi165K. PRODUCT ID: 4579

> This video camera takes photos of temperatures! This camera is specifically tuned to work in the 30˚C~45˚C / 86˚F~113˚ F range with 0.5˚C / 1˚ F accuracy, so it's excellent for human temperature & fever detection. In fact, this thermal camera is often used by companies/airports/hotels/malls to do a first-pass fever check: If any person has a temperature of over 99˚F an alarm goes off so you can do a secondary check with an accurate handheld temperature meter.

> You may have seen thermal 'FLIR' cameras used to find air leaks in homes, but those cameras have a very wide temperature range, so they're not as accurate in the narrow range used for fever-scanning. This camera is designed specifically for that purpose!

... USB Type-C, SD Card; no price listed yet?


Ask HN: What's the ROI of Y Combinator investments?

To calculate the ROI of YC investments, we could find the terms of the YC investments (x for y%, preference) and find the exit rate (what % of companies exit).

We could search for 'ROI of ycombinator investments' and find valuation numbers from a number of years ago.

From the first page of search results, we'd then learn about "return on capital" and how the standard YC seed terms have changed over the years.

Return on capital:

From the See also section of this Wikipedia page, we might discover "Cash flow return on investment" and "Rate of return on a portfolio"

From the "rate of return" Wikipedia page, we might learn that "The return on investment (ROI) is return per dollar invested. It is a measure of investment performance, as opposed to size (c.f. return on equity, return on assets, return on capital employed)." and that "The annualized return of an investment depends on whether or not the return, including interest and dividends, from one period is reinvested in the next period. "

From the YCombinator Wikipedia page, we might read that "The combined valuation of the top YC companies was over $155 billion as of October, 2019. [4]" and that "As of late 2019, Y Combinator had invested in >2,000 companies [37], most of which are for-profit. Non-profit organizations can also participate in the main YC program. [38]" and then read about "seed accelerators" and then "business incubators" in search of appropriate metrics for comparing VC performance.

ROI is such a frou frou statistic anyway. What does that even mean, ROI? In any case, YC itself is not a public company, per se, AFAICT, so, it's not so easy as going to, entering the equity symbol, clicking on "Key Stats", and scrolling down to "Profitability" to review [Gross | EBITDA | Operating] [Profit] Margin.

The LTSE (Long-Term Stock Exchange) is where people who are in this for real are really doing it now.


Microsoft announces Money in Excel powered by Plaid

This looks really useful.

At first glance, I found a number of ways to push transaction data into Google Sheets from the Plaid API:

build-your-own-mint (NodeJS, CircleCI)


Presumably, like the GOOGLEFINANCE function, there's some way to pull data from an API with just Apps Script (~JS) without an auxiliary serverless function to get the txs from Plaid and post to the gsheets API?


Lora-based device-to-device smartphone communication for crisis scenarios [pdf]


Unfortunately, the Earl tablet never made it to market:

Earl specs: Waterproof; Solar charging; eInk; ANT+; NFC; VHF/UHF transceiver (GMRS, PMR446, UHFCB); GPS; Sensors: Accelerometer, Gyroscope, Magnetometer, Temperature, Barometer, Humidity; AM/FM/SW/LW/WB

LTE, LoRa, 5G, and Hostapd would be great

Being able to plug it into a powerbank and antennas for use as a fixed or portable e.g. BATMAN mesh relay would be great

"LoRa+WiFi ClusterDuck Protocol by Project OWL for Disaster Relief"

> An opkg (for e.g. OpenWRT) with this mesh software would make it possible to use WiFi/LTE routers with a LoRa transmitter/receiver connected over e.g. USB or Mini-PCIe.

LoRa+WiFi ClusterDuck Protocol by Project OWL for Disaster Relief

> Project OWL (Organization, Whereabouts, and Logistics) creates a mesh network of Internet of Things (IoT) devices called DuckLinks. These Wi-Fi-enabled devices can be deployed or activated in disaster areas to quickly re-establish connectivity and improve communication between first responders and civilians in need.

> In OWL, a central portal connects to solar- and battery-powered, water-resistant DuckLinks. These create a Local Area Network (LAN). In turn, these power up a Wi-Fi captive portal using low-frequency Long-range Radio (LoRa) for Internet connectivity. LoRA has a greater range, about 10km, than cellular networks.


> You don't actually need a DuckLink device. The open-source OWL firmware can quickly turn a cheap wireless device into a DuckLink using the -- I swear I'm not making this up -- ClusterDuck Protocol. This is a mesh network node, which can hook up to any other near-by Ducks.

> OWL is more than just hardware and firmware. It's also a cloud-based analytic program. The OWL Data Management Software can be used to facilitate organization, whereabouts, and logistics for disaster response.



The Linux Foundation > Code and Response


An opkg (for e.g. OpenWRT) with this mesh software would make it possible to use WiFi/LTE routers with a LoRa transmitter/receiver connected over e.g. USB or Mini-PCIe.

... cc'ing from :

OpenWRT is a Make-based embedded Linux distro w/ LuCI (Lua + JSON + UCI) web interface).

#OpenWRT runs on RaspberryPis, ARM, x86, ARM, MIPS; there's a Docker image. OpenWRT Supported Devices:

OpenWRT uses opkg packages:

I searched for "Lora" in OpenWRT/packages: lora-gateway-hal opkg package:

lora-packet-forwarder opkg package (w/ UCI integration): :

> Semtech packages and ChirpStack [(LoRaserver)] Network Server stack for OpenWRT

> > [In addition to providing node2node/2net connectivity, #batman-adv can bridge VLANs over a mesh (or link), such as for “trusted” client, guest, IoT, and mgmt networks. It provides an easy-to-configure alternative to other approaches to “backhaul”, […]]

> I have a few different [quad-core, MIMO] ARM devices without 4G. TIL that the @GLiNetWifi devices ship with OpenWRT firmware (and a mobile config app) and some have 1-2 (Mini-PCIe) 4G w/ SIM slots. Also, @turris_cz has OpenWRT w/ LXC in the kernel build.


A Visual Debugger for Jupyter


So, I went looking for the answer to this because in the past I've installed the scratchpad extension by installing jupyter_contrib_nbextensions, but those don't work with JupyterLab because there's a new extension model for JupyterLab that requires node and npm.

Turns out that with JupyterLab, all you have to to is right-click and select "New Console for Notebook" and it opens a console pane below the notebook already attached to the notebook kernel. You can also instead do File > New > Console and select a kernel listed under "Use Kernel From Other Session".

The "New action runInConsole to allow line by line execution of cell content" "PR adds a notebook command `notebook:run-in-console`" but you have to add the associated keyboard shortcut to your config yourself; e.g. `Ctrl Shift Enter` or `Ctrl-G` that calls `notebook:run-in-console`.

"In Jupyter Lab, execute editor code in Python console" describes how to add the associated keyboard shortcut to your config:


Ask HN: What's the Equivalent of 'Hello, World' for a Quantum Computer?

The 'Hello,World' program is one of the simplest programs to demonstrate how to go about writing a program in a new programming language.

What is an equivalent simple program which demonstrates how to write a very simple program for a quantum computer?

I have tried (and failed) to imagine such a program. Can somebody who has actually used a quantum computer show us an actual quantum computer program?

Ask HN: Communication platforms for intermittent disaster relief?

Are there good platforms for disaster relief that work well with intermittent connectivity (i.e. spotty 3G/4G/WiFi/LoRa)?

How can major networks improve in terms of e.g. indicating message delivery status, most recent sync time, sync throttling status due to load, optionally downloading images/audio/video, referring people to local places and/or forms for help with basic needs, etc?

What are some tools that app developers can use to simulate intermittent connectivity when running tests?

How can people find local, legitimate sources for information if they're not already following local disaster relief authorities?

DroneAid: A Symbol Language and ML model for indicating needs to drones, planes

From the README :

> The DroneAid Symbol Language provides a way for those affected by natural disasters to express their needs and make them visible to drones, planes, and satellites when traditional communications are not available.

> Victims can use a pre-packaged symbol kit that has been manufactured and distributed to them, or recreate the symbols manually with whatever materials they have available.

> These symbols include those below, which represent a subset of the icons provided by The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). These can be complemented with numbers to quantify need, such as the number or people who need water.

Each of the symbols are drawn within a triangle pointing up:

- Immediate Help Needed (orange; downward triangle \n SOS),

- Shelter Needed (cyan; like a guy standing in a tall pentagon without a floor),

- OK: No Help Needed (green; upward triangle \n OK),

- First Aid Kit Needed (yellow; briefcase with a first aid cross),

- Water Needed (blue; rain droplet), Area with Children in Need (lilac; baby looking thing with a diaper on),

- Food Needed (red; pan with wheat drawn above it),

- Area with Elderly in Need (purple; person with a cane)

So, we're going to need some artists; something to write large things with; some orange, cyan, green, yellow, blue, lilac, red, and purple things; some people who can tell me the difference between lilac (light purple: babies) and purple (darker purple: old people); and some drones that can capture location and imagery.

Note that DroneAid is also a project of The Linux Foundation Code and Response organization.


Ask HN: Computer Science/History Books?

Hi guys, can you recommend interesting books on Computer Science or computer history (similar to Dealers of Lightning) to read on this quarantine times? I really like that subject and am looking for something to keep myself away from TV at night.

Thank you.


"The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood" starts with "1 | Drums That Talk" re: African drum messaging; a complex coding scheme:

> Here was a messaging system that outpaced the best couriers, the fastest horses on good roads with way stations and relays.,_a_...

From "Polynesian People Used Binary Numbers 600 Years Ago" :

> Binary arithmetic, the basis of all virtually digital computation today, is usually said to have been invented at the start of the eighteenth century by the German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz. But a study now shows that a kind of binary system was already in use 300 years earlier among the people of the tiny Pacific island of Mangareva in French Polynesia.


Open-source security tools for cloud and container applications


> List of CNCF open source security projects without the blog post:

Thanks for this.


YC Companies Responding to Covid-19

Are life sciences and healthcare familiar verticals for YC?

Good to see money and talent going to such good use.

(Edit) Here's the YC Companies list; which doesn't yet list these new investments:

Biomedical vertical:

Healthcare vertical:

"The Y Combinator Database"


Show HN: Neh – Execute any script or program from Nginx location directives


Nginx probably somewhat-deliberately has FastCGI but not regular CGI for a number of reasons.

CGI has process-per-request overhead.

CGI typically runs processes as the user the webserver is running as; said processes can generally read and write to the unsandboxed address space of the calling process (such as x.509 private certs).

Just about any app can be (D)DOS'd. That requires less resources with the process-per-request overhead of CGI.

In order to prevent resource exhaustion due to e.g someone benignly hitting reload a bunch of times and thus creating multiple GET requests, applications should enqueue task messages which a limited number of workers retrieve from a (durable) FIFO or priority queue and update the status of.

Websockets may or may not scale better than long-polling for streaming stdout to a client.


Ask HN: How can a intermediate-beginner learn Unix/Linux and programming?

For a long time, I’ve been in an awkward position with my knowledge of computers. I know basic JavaScript (syntax and booleans and nothing more). I’ve learned the bare basics of Linux from setting up a Pi-hole. I understand the concept of secure hashes. I even know some regex.

The problem is, I know so little that I can’t actually do anything with this knowledge. I suppose I’m looking for a tutorial that will teach me to be comfortable with the command line and a Unix environment, while also teaching me to code a language. Where should I start?


> Also check github for a bunch of repos that contain biolerplate code that is used in most deamons illustrating signal handling, forking, etc.[2]

docker-systemctl-replacement is a (partial) reimplementation of systemd as one python script that can be run as the init process of a container that's helpful for understanding how systemd handles processes:

systemd is written in C:

> examples of how to write secure code

awesome-safety-critical > Coding Guidelines


Math Symbols Explained with Python

Average of a finite series: There's a statistics module in Python 3.4+:

  X = [1, 2, 3]

  from statistics import mean, fmean

  # may or may not be preferable to
  sum(X) / len(X)

Product of a terminating iterable:

  import operator
  from functools import reduce
  # from itertools import accumulate
  reduce(operator.mul, X)
Vector norm:

  from numpy import linalg as LA

Function domains and ranges can be specified and checked at compile-time with type annotations or at runtime with type()/isinstance() or with something like pycontracts or icontracts for checking preconditions and postconditions.

Dot product:

  Y = [4, 5, 6], Y)

Unit vector:

  X / np.linalg.norm(X)


Ask HN: Is there way you can covert smartphone to a no contact thermometer?

Wondering is there an infrared dongle that can convert your phone to a no contact thermometer to read body temperature?

Infrared thermometer:


IDK what the standard error is for medical temperature estimation with an e.g. FLIR ONE thermal imaging camera for an Android/iOS device.

I'd imagine that sanitization would be crucial for any clinical setting.

(Edit) "Prediction of brain tissue temperature using near-infrared spectroscopy" (2017) Neurophotonics

"Nirs body temperature"

"Infrared body temperature"

"Infrared thermometer iOS"

"Infrared thermometer Android"


Employee Scheduling

From "Ask HN: What algorithms should I research to code a conference scheduling app" :

> Resource scheduling, CSP (Constraint Satisfaction programming)


Scheduling (production processes):

Scheduling (computing):

... To an OS, a process thread has a priority and sometimes a CPU affinity.

From :


- Src:

From :

> pyschedule is python package to compute resource-constrained task schedules. Some features are:

- precedence relations: e.g. task A should be done before task B

- resource requirements: e.g. task A can be done by resource X or Y

- resource capacities: e.g. resource X can only process a few tasks

Previous use-cases include:

- school timetables: assign teachers to classes

- beer brewing: assign equipment to brewing stages

- sport schedules: assign stadiums to games

... :

> Slurm is the workload manager on about 60% of the TOP500 supercomputers.[1]

Slurm uses a best fit algorithm based on Hilbert curve scheduling or fat tree network topology in order to optimize locality of task assignments on parallel computers.[2]

... :

> [...] the Hilbert curve scheduling method turns a multidimensional task allocation problem into a one-dimensional space filling problem using Hilbert curves, assigning related tasks to locations with higher levels of proximity.[1] Other space filling curves may also be used in various computing applications for similar purposes.[2]


Show HN: Simulation-based high school physics course notes


WebAssembly brings extensibility to network proxies

FWIW, Ethereum WASM (ewasm) has a cost (in "particles" ("gas")) for each WebAssembly opcode. [1]

Opcode costs help to incentivize efficient code.

ewasm/design / [2] links to the complete WebAssembly instruction set. [3]





Pandemic Ventilator Project

mhb | 2020-03-14 00:29:09 | 318 | # | ^



>> Current Status of the project

>> The main bottleneck currently (2020-03-13) is organization / management.

>> […] This is an organization of experts and hobbyists from around the globe.


I see a "Ventilator Project" heading?

(edit) here's the link to their 'Ventilator' document:


Low-cost ventilator wins Sloan health care prize (2019)


Ventilator availability is limiting our ability to get care to the most people we can.


Robots, then. Robots are the future!


AI can detect coronavirus from CT scans in twenty seconds

Is it possible to detect coronavirus with NIRS (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy)?

FWIU, the equipment costs and scan times are lower with NIRS than with CT or MRI? And infrared is zero rads?

(Edit) I think it was this or the TED video that had the sweet demo: "The Science of Visible Thought & Our Translucent Selves | Mary Lou Jepsen | SU Global Summit"

Are these devices in production?


AutoML-Zero: Evolving machine learning algorithms from scratch


> Would be funny but most of those things are already on AutoML Tables, including the carbon offset

GCP datacenters are 100% offset with PPAs. Are you referring to different functionality for costing AutoML instructions in terms of carbon?


I'd add:

- Setup a Jupyter Notebook environment

> Jupyter Notebooks are one of the most popular development tools for data scientists. They enable you to create interactive, shareable notebooks with code snippets and markdown for explanations. Without leaving Google Cloud's hosted notebook environment, AI Platform Notebooks, you can leverage the power of AutoML technology.

> There are several benefits of using AutoML technology from a notebook. Each step and setting can be codified so that it runs the same every time by everyone. Also, it's common, even with AutoML, to need to manipulate the source data before training the model with it. By using a notebook, you can use common tools like pandas and numpy to preprocess the data in the same workflow. Finally, you have the option of creating a model with another framework, and ensemble that together with the AutoML model, for potentially better results.


> This sounds like the sort of thing that would be useful outside of data science.

The instruction/operation costing or the computational essay/notebook environment setup?

Ethereum ("gas") and EOS have per-instruction costing. SingularityNET is a marketplace for AI solutions hosted on a blockchain, where you pay for AI/ML services with the SingularityNET AGI token. E.g. GridCoin and CureCoin compensate compute resource donations with their own tokens; which also have a floating exchange rate.

TLJH: "The Littlest JupyterHub" describes how to setup multi-user JupyterHub with e.g. Docker spawners that isolate workloads running with shared resources like GPUs and TPUs:

"Zero to BinderHub" describes how to setup BinderHub on a k8s cluster:


REES is one solution to reproducibility of the computational environment.

> BinderHub ( ) creates docker containers from {git repos, Zenodo, FigShare,} and launches them in free cloud instances also running JupyterLab by building containers with repo2docker (with REES (Reproducible Execution Environment Specification)). This means that all I have to do is add an environment.yml to my git repo in order to get Binder support so that people can just click on the badge in the README to launch JupyterLab with all of the dependencies installed.

> REES supports a number of dependency specifications: requirements.txt, Pipfile.lock, environment.yml, aptSources, postBuild. With an environment.yml, I can install the necessary CPython/PyPy version and everything else.


REES configuration files:

Storing a container built with repo2docker in a container registry is one way to increase the likelihood that it'll be possible to run the same analysis pipeline with the same data and get the same results years later.


Pachyderm ( ) does Data Versioning, Data Pipelines (with commands that each run in a container), and Data Lineage (~ "data provenance"). What other platforms are there for versioning data and recording data provenance?


Recording manual procedures is an area where we've somewhat departed from the "write in a lab notebook with a pen" practice. CoCalc records all (collaborative) inputs to the notebook with a timeslider for review.

In practice, people use notebooks for displaying generated charts, manual exploratory analyses (which does introduce bias), for demonstrating APIs, and for teaching.

Is JupyterLab an ideal IDE? Nope, not by a longshot. nbdev makes it easier to write a function in a notebook, sync it to a module, edit it with a more complete data-science IDE (like RStudio, VSCode, Spyder, etc), and then copy it back into the notebook.

> What other platforms are there for versioning data and recording data provenance?

Quilt also versions data and data pipelines: (Python)


Is this an argument in favor of unjustified magic constant arbitrary priors?


Yeah, but cryptographic hashes have some entropy.


Is the question "Does AutoML-Zero minimize or maximize a cost function with error as a primary component, instead of using a binary win/lose classifier like AlphaGoZero?"


Options for giving math talks and lectures online

One option: screencast development of a Jupyter notebook.

Jupyter Notebook supports LaTeX (MathTeX) and inline charts. You can create graded notebooks with nbgrader and/or with CoCalc (which records all (optionally multi-user) input such that you can replay it with a time slider).

Jupyter notebooks can be saved to HTML slides with reveal.js, but if you want to execute code cells within a slide, you'll need to install RISE:

Here are the docs for CoCalc Course Management; Handouts, Assignments, nbgrader:

Here are the docs for nbgrader:

You can also grade Jupyter notebooks in Open edX:

> Auto-grade a student assignment created as a Jupyter notebook, using the nbgrader Jupyter extension, and write the score in the Open edX gradebook

Or just show the Jupyter notebook within an edX course:

There are also ways to integrate Jupyter notebooks with various LMS / LRS systems (like Canvas, Blackboard, etc) "nbgrader and LMS / LRS; LTI, xAPI" on the "Teaching with Jupyter Notebooks" mailing list:!topic/jupyter-education/_U...

"Teaching and Learning with Jupyter" ("An open book about Jupyter and its use in teaching and learning.")

> TLJH: "The Littlest JupyterHub" describes how to setup multi-user JupyterHub with e.g. Docker spawners that isolate workloads running with shared resources like GPUs and TPUs:

> "Zero to BinderHub" describes how to setup BinderHub on a k8s cluster:

If you create a git repository with REES-compatible dependency specification file(s), students can generate a container with all of the same software at home with repo2docker or with BinderHub.

> REES is one solution to reproducibility of the computational environment.

>> BinderHub ( ) creates docker containers from {git repos, Zenodo, FigShare,} and launches them in free cloud instances also running JupyterLab by building containers with repo2docker (with REES (Reproducible Execution Environment Specification)). This means that all I have to do is add an environment.yml to my git repo in order to get Binder support so that people can just click on the badge in the README to launch JupyterLab with all of the dependencies installed.

>> REES supports a number of dependency specifications: requirements.txt, Pipfile.lock, environment.yml, aptSources, postBuild. With an environment.yml, I can install the necessary CPython/PyPy version and everything else.


> REES configuration files:

> Storing a container built with repo2docker in a container registry is one way to increase the likelihood that it'll be possible to run the same analysis pipeline with the same data and get the same results years later.


Aerogel from fruit biowaste produces ultracapacitors

dalf | 2020-03-04 06:29:43 | 152 | # | ^

> "Aerogel from fruit biowaste produces ultracapacitors with high energy density and stability" (2020)

Years ago, I remember reading about supercapacitor electrodes made from what would be waste hemp bast fiber. They used graphene as a control. And IIRC, the natural branching structure in hemp (the strongest natural fiber) was considered ideal for an electrode.

"Hemp Carbon Makes Supercapacitors Superfast"

How do the costs and performance compare? Graphene, hemp, durian, jackfruit

While graphene production costs have fallen due to lots of recent research, IIUC all graphene production is hazardous due to graphene's ability to cross the lungs and the blood-brain barrier?


Hemp textiles are rough, but antimicrobial/antibacterial: hemp textiles resist growth of pneumonia and staph.

AFAIU, when they blend hemp with e.g. rayon it's good enough for underwear, sheets, scrubs.

The government is getting the heck out of the way of hemp, a great rotation crop that can be used for soul remediation.



(Freudian psychoanalytic projections are not supported by neuroimaging)


Technically, the 2013 farm bill (signed into law in 2014) authorized growing hemp for state-registered research purposes.

Turns out UC Berkeley's got an approach for brewing cannabinoids (and I think terpenes) from yeast, and a company in Germany has a provisional patent application to brew cannabinoids from bacteria. We could be absorbing carbon ("sequestering" carbon) and coal ash acid rain with mostly fields of industrial hemp for which there are indeed thousands of uses.


Ask HN: How to Take Good Notes?

I want to improve my note-taking skill. I've started writing a text file with notes from class, however, I don't have a systematic way of writing. This means at this point I just wrote down, arbitrarily, things the professor said, things the professor wrote, how I understood the information, and everything else, mostly all over the place.

I'm wondering if anyone developed a system like this I could adapt to myself, and how did they do it.


> In 2009, psychologist Jackie Andrade asked 40 people to monitor a 2-½ minute dull and rambling voice mail message. Half of the group doodled while they did this (they shaded in a shape), and the other half did not. They were not aware that their memories would be tested after the call. Surprisingly, when both groups were asked to recall details from the call, those that doodled were better at paying attention to the message and recalling the details. They recalled 29% more information! references the same study.

Related articles on GScholar:


Many lectures and meetings may be experienced as similarly dross and irrelevant and a waste of time (though you can't expect people to just read the necessary information ahead of time, as flipped classrooms expect of committed learners).

What would be a better experimental design for measuring effect on memory retention of passively-absorbed lectures?


Ask HN: STEM toy for a 3 years old?

Hello! Can the HN community recommend me a STEM toy (or similar that would educate and entertain him) for my 3 yo boy? He's highly curious but I can't find many things to play with him :( The things that I like bore him and the things that he likes bore me (or are way too messy and dangerous to let him do them)...

"12 Awesome (& Educational) STEM Subscription Boxes for Kids"

Tape measure with big numbers, ruler(s)

Measuring cup, water, ice.

"Melissa & Doug Sunny Patch Dilly Dally Tootle Turtle Target Game (Active Play & Outdoor, Two Color Self-Sticking Bean Bags, Great Gift for Girls and Boys - Best for 3, 4, 5, and 6 Year Olds)"

Set of wooden blocks in a wood box; such as "Melissa & Doug Standard Unit Blocks"

... , GCompris mouse and keyboard games with a trackpad and a mouse, ABCMouse, Khan Academy Kids,, ScratchJr (5-7), K12 Computer Science Framework


OpenAPI v3.1 and JSON Schema 2019-09


Defusedxml lists a number of XML "Attack vectors: billion laughs / exponential entity expansion, quadratic blowup entity expansion, external entity expansion (remote), external entity expansion (local file), DTD retrieval"

Are there similar vulnerabilities in JSON parsers (that would then also need to be monkeypatched)?


Yeah, expressing complex types with only primitives in a portable way is still unfortunately a challenge. For example, how do we encode a datetime without ISO8601 and a schema definition; or, how do we encode complex numbers with units like "1j+1"; or "1.01 USD/meter"?

Fortunately, we can use XSD with RDFS and RDFS with JSON-LD.

LDP: Linked Data Platform and Solid: social linked data (and JSON-LD) are the newer W3C specs for HTTP APIs.

For one, pagination is a native feature of LDP.


It's astounding how often people make claims like this.

There is a whole lot of RDF Linked Data; and it links together without needing ad-hoc implementations of schema-specific relations.

I'll just link to the Linked Open Data Cloud again, for yet another hater that's probably never done anything for data interoperability:

That's a success.


JSON5 supports comments:


When I searched for "JSON5 [language]", I found JSON5 implementations in/for Rust, C, Python, Java, and Haskell on the first page of search results.

I like YAML, but some of the syntax conveniences are gotchas: 'no' must be quoted, for example.


Git for Node.js and the browser using libgit2 compiled to WebAssembly

This looks useful. Are there pending standards for other browser storage mechanisms than an in-memory FS?

Would it be a security risk to grant limited local filesystem access by domain; with a storage quota?

... To answer my own question, it looks like the FileSystem API is still experimental and only browser extensions can request access to the actual filesystem:


Scientists use ML to find an antibiotic able to kill superbugs in mice


The second-order costs avoided by treatments developed so innovatingly could be included in a "value to society" estimation.

"Acknowledgements" lists the grant funders for this federally-funded open access study.

"A Deep Learning Approach to Antibiotic Discovery" (2020)

> Mutant generation

> Chemprop code is available at:

> Message Passing Neural Networks for Molecule Property Prediction

> A web-based version of the antibiotic prediction model described herein is available at:

> This website can be used to predict molecular properties using a Message Passing Neural Network (MPNN). In order to make predictions, an MPNN first needs to be trained on a dataset containing molecules along with known property values for each molecule. Once the MPNN is trained, it can be used to predict those same properties on any new molecules.


Shit – An implementation of Git using POSIX shell

kick | 2020-02-11 17:35:48 | 814 | # | ^

You can also set $GIT_PAGER/core.pager/$PAGER and create an alias to accomplish this:

  #export PAGER='less -SEXIER'
  #export GIT_PAGER='less -SEXIER'
  git config --global core.pager 'less -SEXIER'
  git config --global alias.l 'log --graph --oneline --decorate --color'
  # git diff ~/.gitconfig
  git l

> The order of preference is the $GIT_PAGER environment variable, then core.pager configuration, then $PAGER, and then the default chosen at compile time (usually less).


HTTP 402: Payment Required


> The new W3C Payment Request API [4] makes it easy for browsers to offer a standard (and probably(?) already accessible) interface for the payment data entry screen, at least.


It really could

Salesforce Sustainability Cloud Becomes Generally Available

> - Reduce emissions with trusted analytics from a trusted platform. Analyzing carbon emissions from energy usage and company travel can be daunting and time-consuming. But with all your data flowing directly onto one platform, you can efficiently quantify your carbon footprint. Formulate a climate action plan for your company from a single source of truth, built on our trusted and secure data platform.

> - Take action with data-driven insights. Prove to customers, employees, and potential investors your commitment to carbon-conscious and sustainable practices. Offer regulatory agencies a clear snapshot of your energy usage patterns. Extrapolate energy consumption and track carbon emissions with cutting-edge analytics — and take action.

> - Tackle carbon accounting audits in weeks instead of months. Carbon analysis can be an overwhelming time commitment, even a barrier to action for companies that want to get it right. Use preloaded datasets from the U.S. EPA, IPCC, and others to accurately assess your carbon accounting. Streamline your data gathering and climate action plan with embedded guides and user flows.

> - Empower decision makers with executive-ready dashboard data. Evaluate corporate environmental impact with rich data visualization and dashboards. Track energy patterns and emission trends, then make the business case to executives. Once an organization understands its carbon footprint, decision makers can begin to drive sustainability solutions.

Are there similar services for Sustainability Reporting and accountability?


Httpx: A next-generation HTTP client for Python


FWIW, requests3 has "Type-annotations for all public-facing APIs", asyncio, HTTP/2, connection pooling, timeouts, etc


It looks like requests is now owned by PSF.

But IDK why requests3 wasn't transferred as well, and why issues appear to be disabled on the repo now.

The docs reference a timeout arg (that appears to default to the socket default timeout) for connect and/or read

And the tests reference a timeout argument. If that doesn't work, I wonder how much work it would be to send a PR (instead of just talking s to Ken and not contributing any code)


TIL requests3 beta works with httpx as a backend:

If requests3 is installed, `import requests' imports requests3


BlackRock CEO: Climate Crisis Will Reshape Finance

+1. From the letter:

> The money we manage is not our own. It belongs to people in dozens of countries trying to finance long-term goals like retirement. And we have a deep responsibility to these institutions and individuals – who are shareholders in your company and thousands of others – to promote long-term value.

> Climate change has become a defining factor in companies’ long-term prospects. Last September, when millions of people took to the streets to demand action on climate change, many of them emphasized the significant and lasting impact that it will have on economic growth and prosperity – a risk that markets to date have been slower to reflect. But awareness is rapidly changing, and I believe we are on the edge of a fundamental reshaping of finance.

> The evidence on climate risk is compelling investors to reassess core assumptions about modern finance. Research from a wide range of organizations – including the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the BlackRock Investment Institute, and many others, including new studies from McKinsey on the socioeconomic implications of physical climate risk – is deepening our understanding of how climate risk will impact both our physical world and the global system that finances economic growth.

Environmental, social and corporate governance > Responsible investment:,_social_and_corp...

Corporate social responsibility:

UN-supported PRI: Principles for Responsible Investment (2,350 signatories (2019-04))


A lot of complex “scalable” systems can be done with a simple, single C++ server


Dask groupby example:

> Generally speaking, Dask.dataframe groupby-aggregations are roughly same performance as Pandas groupby-aggregations, just more scalable.

The dask.distributed scheduler can also run on one high-RAM instance (with threads or processes)

Pandas docs > Ecosystem > Out-of-core:

Reading from Parquet into Apache Arrow is much faster than CSV because the data can just be directly loaded into RAM.

If you have GPU instances, cuDF has a Pandas-like API on top of Apache Arrow.

> Built based on the Apache Arrow columnar memory format, cuDF is a GPU DataFrame library for loading, joining, aggregating, filtering, and otherwise manipulating data.

> cuDF provides a pandas-like API that will be familiar to data engineers & data scientists, so they can use it to easily accelerate their workflows without going into the details of CUDA programming.

Dask-ML makes scalable scikit-learn, XGBoost, TensorFlow really easy.

... re: the OT: While it's possible to write C++ code that's really fast, it's generally inflexible, expensive to develop, and dangerous for devs with experience in their respective domains of experience to write. Much saner to put a Python API on top and optimize that during compilation.

There are a few C++ frameworks in the top quartile of the TechEmpower framework benchmarks.

Hardware/hosting is relatively cheap. Developers and memory vulnerabilities aren't.

[+] says dask-jobqueue handles "PBS, SLURM, LSF, SGE and other resource managers"

"Dask on HPC, what works and what doesn't"

Maybe you should spend some time developing a job visualization system for end users from scratch, for end users with lots of C, JS, and HTML experience


Warren Buffett is spending billions to make Iowa 'the Saudi Arabia of wind'

It's both cost-rational and environment-rational to invest heavily in clean energy (with or without the comparatively paltry tax incentives).

The long-term costs of climate change and inaction are unfortunately still mostly external costs to energy producers. We should expect that to change as we start developing competencies in evaluating the costs and frequency of weather disasters exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change. We all get to pay for floods, fires, tornados, hurricanes, landslides, blizzards, and the gosh darn heat.

Insurance firms clearly see these costs. Our military sees the costs of responding to natural disasters. Local economies see the costs of months and years spent on disaster relief; on just getting back up to speed so that they can generate profit from selling goods and services (and pay taxes to support disaster relief efforts essential to operational readiness).

The cost per kilowatt hour of wind (and solar) energy is now lower than operating existing dirty energy plants that dump soot on our crops, air, and water.

With wind, they talk about the "alligator curve". With solar, it's the "duck curve". Grid-scale energy storage is necessary for reaching 100% renewable energy as soon as possible.

Iowa's renewable energy tax incentives are logically aligned with international long-term goals:

UN Sustainable Development Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

Goal 13: Climate Action

SDG Target 12.6: "Encourage companies to adopt sustainable practices and sustainability reporting" (CSR; e.g. GRI Sustainability Reporting Standards that we can score portfolios with) :

> Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities


> Thanks. How can I say "try and only run this [computational workload] in zones with 100% PPA offsets or 100% directly sourced #CleanEnergy"? #Goal7 #Goal11 #Goal12 #Goal13 #GlobalGoals #SDGs

It makes good business sense to invest in clean energy to take advantage of tax incentives, minimize future costs to other business units (e.g. insurance, taxes), and earn the support of investors choosing portfolios with long term environmental (and thus economic) sustainability as a primary objective.


Scientists Likely Found Way to Grow New Teeth for Patients

"Scientists Have Discovered a Drug That Fixes Cavities and Regrows Teeth"



Announcing the New PubMed


This looks great: I like the search timeline, the ability to easily search for free full-text meta-analyses (a selection bias we should all be aware of), the MeSH term listing in a reasonably-sized font, and that there's metadata within the page, but there's no [Medical]ScholarlyArticle metadata?

I've worked with Google Scholar (:o) [1], Semantic Scholar (Allen Institute for AI) [2], Meta (Chan Zuckerberg Institute) [3], Zotero, Mendeley and a number of other tools for indexing and extracting metadata and graph relations from and MedicalScholarlyArticles . Without RDFa (or Microdata, or JSON-LD) in PDF, there's a lot of parsing that has to go down in order to get a graph from the citations in the article. Each service adds value to this graph of resources. Pushing forward on publishing linked research that's reproducible (#LinkedResearch, #LinkedReproducibility) is a worthwhile investment in meta-research that we have barely yet addressed:

> .citation: ... Wouldn't it be great if NewsArticles linked to the ScholarlyArticle and/or Notebook CreativeWorks that they're .about (with reified relations)?

> A practical use case: Alice wants to publish a ScholarlyArticle [1] (in HTML with structured data, as a PDF) predicated upon Datasets [2] (as CSV, CSVW JSONLD, XLSX (DataDownload)) with static HTML (and no special HTTP headers). 1 2*

> B wants to build a meta analysis: to collect a # of ScholarlyArticles and Dataset DataDownloads; review study controls and data; merge, join, & concatenate Datasets if appropriate, and inductively or deductively infer a conclusion and suggestions for further studies of variance*

The Linked Open Data Cloud shows the edges, the relations, the structured data links between very many (life sciences) datasets: . lists TimBL's suggested 5-start deployment schema for Open Data; which culuminates in publishing linked open data in non-proprietary formats that uses URIs to describe and link to things.

Could any of these [1][2][3][4][5] services cross-link the described resources, given a common URI identifier such as and/or ? ORCID is a service for generating stable identifiers for researchers and publishers who have names in common but different emails. W3C DID solves for this need in a different way.

When I check an article result page with the OpenLink OSDS extension (or any of a number of other tools for extracting structured data from HTML pages (and documents!) ), there could be quite a bit more data there for search engines, browser extensions, and meta-research tools.

Is this something like ElasticSearch on the backend? It is possible to store JSON-LD documents in the search index. I threw together elasticsearchjsonld to "Generate JSON-LD @contexts from ElasticSearch JSON Mappings" for the OpenFDA FAERS data a few year ago. That's not GraphQL or SPARQL, but it's something and it's Linked Data.

re: "Canada's Decision To Make Public More Clinical Trial Data Puts Pressure On FDA"

> We really could get more out of this data through international collaboration and through linked data (e.g. URIs for columns). See: "Open, and Linked, FDA data" and "ENH: Adverse Event Count / 'Use' Count Heatmap" . With sales/usage counts, we'd have a denominator with which we could calculate relative hazard.

W3C Web Annotations handle threaded comments and highlights; reviewing the reviewers is left as an exercise for the reader. Does Zotero still make it easy to save the bibliographic metadata for one or more ScholarlyArticles from PubMed to a collection in the cloud (and add metadata/annotations)?

Sorry to toot my own horn here. Great job on this. This opens up many new opportunities for research.







Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C in 2020?

The GNU/Linux kernel, FreeBSD kernel, Windows kernel, MacOS kernel, Python, Ruby, Perl, PHP, NodeJS, and NumPy are all written in C. If you want to review and contribute code, you'd need to learn C.

There are a number of coding guidelines e.g. for safety-critical systems where bounded running time and resource consumption are essential. These coding guidelines and standards are basically only available for C, C++, and Ada.

Even though modern languages have garbage-collection that runs whenever it feels like it, It's helpful to learn about memory management in C (or C++). You'll appreciate object destructor methods that free memory and sockets and file handles that much more. Reference cycles in object graphs are easier to handle with modern C++ than with C. Are there RAII (Resource Acquisition is Initialization) "smart pointers" that track reference counts in C?

Without OO namespacing, in C, function names are often prefixed with namespaces. How many ways could a struct be initialized? When can I free that memory?

When strace prints a syscall, what is that?

Is it necessary to learn C? Somebody needs to maintain and improve the C-based foundation for most of our OSs and very many of our fancy scripting languages. C can be very unforgiving: it's really easy to do it wrong, and there's a lot to keep in mind at once: the cognitive burden is higher with C (and then still with ASM and WebASM) than with an interpreted (or compiled) duck-typed 3GL scripting language with first-class functions.

What's a good progression that includes syntax, finding and reading the libc docs, Make/CMake/Autotools, secure recommended compiler flags for GCC (CPPFLAGS, CFLAGS, LDFLAGS) and LLVM Clang?



Links to the docs for Libc and other tools:

xeus-cling is a Jupyter kernel for C++ (and most of C) that works with nbgrader.

What's a better unit-testing library for C/C++ than gtest?


For network programming, you might consider asynchronous programming with coroutines. C++20 has them and they're already supported in LLVM. For C, there are a number of implementations of coroutines:

> Once a second call stack has been obtained with one of the methods listed above, the setjmp and longjmp functions in the standard C library can then be used to implement the switches between coroutines. These functions save and restore, respectively, the stack pointer, program counter, callee-saved registers, and any other internal state as required by the ABI, such that returning to a coroutine after having yielded restores all the state that would be restored upon returning from a function call. Minimalist implementations, which do not piggyback off the setjmp and longjmp functions, may achieve the same result via a small block of inline assembly which swaps merely the stack pointer and program counter, and clobbers all other registers. This can be significantly faster, as setjmp and longjmp must conservatively store all registers which may be in use according to the ABI, whereas the clobber method allows the compiler to store (by spilling to the stack) only what it knows is actually in use.

CPython's asyncio implementation (originally codenamed 'tulip') is written in C and IMHO much easier to use than callbacks like Twisted and JS before Promises and the inclusion of tulip-like async/await keywords in ECMAscript. Uvloop - based on libuv, like Node - is apparently the fastest asyncio event loop. CPython Asyncio C module source: Asyncio docs:

(When things like file or network I/O are I/O bound, the program can yield to allow other asynchronous coroutines ('async') to run on that core. With network programming, we're typically waiting for things to send or reply.)

Return-oriented-programming > Return-into-library technique is an interesting read regarding system programming :)


Free and Open-Source Mathematics Textbooks

This is a good list of books. Unfortunately many of the links are broken? Probably just my luck, but the first few "with Sage" books I excitedly selected unfortunately 404'd. I'll send an email.

> Moreover, the American Institute of Mathematics maintains a list of approved open-source textbooks.

I also like the (free) Green Tea Press books: Think Stats, Think Bayes, Think DSP, Think Complexity, Modeling and Simulation in Python, Think Python 2e: How To Think Like a Computer Scientist

And IDK how many times I've recommended the book for the OCW "Mathematics for Computer Science" course:

There may be a newer edition than the 2017 version of the book:


Make CPython segfault in 5 lines of code

FWIW, this segfaults CPython in 2 lines:

  import ctypes
  ctypes.cast(1, ctypes.py_object)
Interestingly, this works:

  import ctypes, gc
  x = 22
  _id = id(x)
  del x
  y = ctypes.cast(_id, ctypes.py_object).value
  assert y == 22


Applications Are Now Open for YC Startup School – Starts in January


> In the town of 14,000 I currently reside in it's pretty difficult to network in a meaningful way and talk about my company with folks that can give guidance and feedback

GitLab and Zapier are examples of all remote former YC companies.

"GitLab Handbook"

"The Ultimate Guide to Remote Work: Lessons from a team of over 200 remote workers"


Startup School is now designed as a remote program.

It'd be interesting to hear from them about building all remote team culture with transparency and accountability. Are text-chat "digital stand up meetings" with quality transcripts of each team member's responses to the three questions enough? ( Yesterday / Today and Tomorrow / Obstacles // What did I do since the last time we met? What will I do before the next time we meet? What obstacles are blocking my progress? )

Or are there longer term planning sessions focusing on a plan for delivering value on a far longer term than first getting the MVP down and maximizing marginal profit by minimizing costs?


‘Adulting’ is hard. UC Berkeley has a class for that

+1 for Life Skills for Adulting and also Home Economics including Family and Meal Planning.

A bunch of resources from "Consumer science (a.k.a. home economics) as a college major" : CS 007: Personal Finance for Engineers, r/personalfinance/wiki, Healthy Eating Plate, Khan Academy > Science > Health and Medicine

And also, Instant Pot. The Instant Pot pressure cooker is your key to nutrient preservation and ultimate happiness.


Five cities account for vast majority of growth in U.S. tech jobs: study


> To that end, the present paper proposes that Congress assemble and award to a select set of metropolitan areas a major package of federal innovation inputs and supports that would accelerate their innovation-sector scale-up. Along these lines, we envision Congress establishing a rigorous competitive process by which the most promising eight to 10 potential growth centers would receive substantial financial and regulatory support for 10 years to become self-sustaining new innovation centers. Such an initiative would not only bring significant economic opportunity to more parts of the nation, but also boost U.S. competitiveness on the global stage.

"Potential growth centers" sounds promising.


Don’t Blame Tech Bros for the Housing Crisis

If there is demand for housing, we would expect people to be finding land and building housing unless there are policies that prevent this (and/or long commutes that people don't want to suffer) or higher-value opportunities.

If the city wanted residential areas (over commercial tax revenue giants), the city should have zoned residential.

The people elect city leaders. The people all want affordable housing.

With $4.5b from corporations and nowhere to build but out or up, high rise residential is the most likely outcome. (Which is typical for dense urban areas that have prioritized and attracted corporate tax revenue over affordable housing)

... Effing scooter bros with their scooters and their gold rush money and their tiny houses.

[Edit: more than] One company says "I will pay you $10,000 to leave the Bay Area / Silicon Valley" Because there's a lot of tech talent (because universities and opportunities) but ridiculously high expenses.

What an effectual headline from NY.


Docker is just static linking for millenials

No, LXC does quite a bit more than static linking. An inability to recognize that likely has nothing to do with generation.

Can you launch a process in a chroot, with cgroups? Okay, now upgrade everything it's linked with (without breaking the host/build system)

Configure a host-only network for a few processes – running in separate cgroups – without DHCP.

Criticize Docker? Rootless builds and containers are essentially impossible. Buildah and podman make rootless builds possible without a socket. Like sysvinit, though, IDK how well centralized logging (and logshipping, and logged crashes and restarts) works without that socket.

Given comments like this, it's likely that you've never built a chroot for a different distro. Or launchd a process with cgroups.


Show HN: Bamboolib – A GUI for Pandas (Python Data Science)

This looks excellent. The ability to generate the Python code for the pandas dataframe transformations looks to be more useful than OpenRefine, TBH.

How much work would it be to use Dask (and Dask-ML) as a backend?

I see the OneHotEncoder button. Have you considered integration with Yellowbrick? They've probably already implemented a few of your near-future and someday roadmap items involving hyperparameter selection and model selection and visualization?

This video shows more of the advanced bamboolib features:

The live histogram rebinning looks useful. Recently I read about a 'shadowgram' / ~KDE approach with very many possible bin widths translucently overlaid in one chart.

Yellowbrick also has a bin width optimization visualization in

Great work.


In the past, I've looked at OpenRefine and Jupyter integration. Once I've learned to do data transformation with pandas and sklearn with code, I'll report back to you.

Pandas-profiling has a number of cool descriptive statistics features as well.

There's a new IterativeImputer in Scikit-learn 0.22 that it'd be cool to see visualizations of.

A plugin model would be cool; though configuring the container every time wouldn't be fun. Some ideas about how we could create a desktop version of binderhub in order to launch REES-compatible environments on our own resources:


Set difference and/or intersection of dir(pd.DataFrame) and dir(dask.DataFrame) with inspect.getargspec and inspect.doc would be a useful document for either or both projects.

pyfilemods generates a ReStructuredText document with introspected API comparisons. "Identify and compare Python file functions/methods and attributes from os, os.path, shutil, pathlib, and"


Battery-Electric Heavy-Duty Equipment: It's Sort of Like a Cybertruck

> They’ve created a single platform that can be easily modified to do any number of jobs. For instance, their flagship product, the Dannar 4.00, can accept over 250 attachments from CAT, John Deere, or Bobcat. […] Having interoperability with so many different types of equipment, one platform can easily perform many tasks over the course of a year. This is a huge win for cash strapped municipalities. Why would a company or municipality opt to have a backhoe parked all winter long when it could be doing another job?

Does it have regenerative brakes?

CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility

> Proponents argue that corporations increase long-term profits by operating with a CSR perspective, while critics argue that CSR distracts from businesses' economic role.

... The 3 Pillars of Corporate Sustainability: Environmental, Social, Economic

Three dimensions of sustainability: (Environment (Society (Economy)))

What are some of the corporate sustainability reporting standards?

How can I score a candidate portfolio with sustainability metrics in order to impact invest with maximum impact?

> What are some of the corporate sustainability reporting standards?

From :

>> Organizations can improve their sustainability performance by measuring (EthicalQuote (CEQ)), monitoring and reporting on it, helping them have a positive impact on society, the economy, and a sustainable future. The key drivers for the quality of sustainability reports are the guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI),[3] (ACCA) award schemes or rankings. The GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines enable all organizations worldwide to assess their sustainability performance and disclose the results in a similar way to financial reporting.[4] The largest database of corporate sustainability reports can be found on the website of the United Nations Global Compact initiative.

The GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) Standards are now aligned with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (#GlobalGoals).

>> In 2017, 63 percent of the largest 100 companies (N100), and 75 percent of the Global Fortune 250 (G250) reported applying the GRI reporting framework.[3]

> How can I score a candidate portfolio with sustainability metrics in order to impact invest with maximum impact?

Does anybody have solutions for this? AFAIU, existing cleantech funds are more hand-picked than screened according to sustainability fundamentals.


GTD Tickler file – a proposal for text file format

Taskwarrior is also built upon the todo.txt format. [1]

Taskw supports various task dates – { due: scheduled: wait: until: recur: } [2]

Taskw supports various named dates like soq/eocq, som/eom (start/end of [current] quarter, start/end of month), tomorrow, later [3]

Taskw recurring tasks (recur:) use the duration syntax: weekly/wk/w, monthly/mo, quarterly/qtr, yearly/yr, … [4]

Pandas has a "date offset" "frequency string" microsyntax that supports business days, quarters, and years; e.g. BQuarterEnd, BQuarterBegin [5]

IDK how usable by other tools these date string parsers are.

W/ just a text editor, having `todo.txt`, `daily.todo.txt`, and `weekly.todo.txt` (and `cleanhome.todo.txt` and `hygiene.todo.txt` with "## heading" tasks that get lost @where +sorting) works okay.

I have physical 43 folders, too: A 12 month and a 31 day expanding file. [6]








Ask HN: Any suggestion on how to test CLI applications?

Hello HN!

I've been looking at alternatives on how to test command line applications, specifically, for example, exit codes, output messages and whatnot. I've seen "bats" and Bazel for testing but I'm curious as what other tools people use in a day to day basis. UI testing is nice with tools like and maybe there's something out there that isn't as popular but it's useful.




pytest with subprocess.popen (or Sarge) may be sufficient for checking return codes and checking stdout and stderr output streams. Pytest has tmp_path and tmpdir fixtures that provide less test isolation than Docker containers:

sarge.Capture.expect() takes a regex and returns None if there's no match:

The Golden Butterfly and the All Weather Portfolio

The Golden Butterfly (is a modified All Weather Portfolio)

> Stocks: 20% Domestic Large Cap Fund (Vanguard’s VTI or Goldman Sach’s JUST), 20% Domestic Small Cap Value (Vanguard’s VBR)

> Bonds: 20% Long Term (Vanguard’s BLV), 20% Short Term (Vanguard’s BSV)

> Real Assets: 20% Gold (SPDR’s GLD)

The All Weather Portfolio:

> Stocks: 30% Domestic Total Stock Market (VG total stock)

> Bonds: 40% Long Term, 15% Intermediate-Term

> Real Assets: 7.5% Commodities, 7.5% Gold

What about investing in sustainable, innovative startups and small businesses (and crowdfunding campaigns)? What about direct capital investment? What about the American dream?

(Small businesses are a significant source of growth in our economy today and for the future)


Canada's Decision To Make Public More Clinical Trial Data Puts Pressure On FDA

We really could get more out of this data through international collaboration and through linked data (e.g. URIs for columns). See: "Open, and Linked, FDA data" and "ENH: Adverse Event Count / 'Use' Count Heatmap"

With sales/usage counts, we'd have a denominator with which we could calculate relative hazard.


Python Alternative to Docker

Shiv does not solve for what containers and Docker/Podman/Buildah/Containerd solve for: re-launching processes at boot and failure, launching processes in chroots or cgroups (with least privileges), limiting access to network ports, limiting access to the host filesystem, building chroots / images, [...]

You can run build tools like shiv with a RUN instruction in a Dockerfile and get some caching.

You can build a zipapp with shiv (in a build container) and run the zipapp in a container.

Should the zipapp contain the test suite(s) and test_requires so that the tests can be run in an environment most similar to production?

It's much easier to develop with code on the filesystem (instead of in a zipapp).

It's definitely faster to read the whole zipapp into RAM than to stat and read each imported module from the filesystem once at startup.

There may be a better post title than the current "Python Alternative to Docker"? Shiv is a packaging utility for building Python zipapps. Shiv is not an alternative to process isolation with containers (or VMs)


$6B United Nations Agency Launches Bitcoin, Ethereum Crypto Fund

"UNICEF launches Cryptocurrency Fund: UN Children’s agency becomes first UN Organization to hold and make transactions in cryptocurrency"

From :

> UNICEF USA helps save and protect the world's most vulnerable children. UNICEF USA is rated one of the best charities to donate to: 89% of every dollar spent goes directly to help children.


Supreme Court allows blind people to sue retailers if websites aren't accessible

"a11y": Accessibility has patterns, a checklist for checking web accessibility, resources, and events.

awesome-a11y has a list of a number of great resources for developing accessible applications:

In terms of W3C specifications [1], you've got: WAI-ARIA (Web Accessibility Initiative: Accessibile Rich Internet Applications) [2], and WCAG: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines [3]. The new W3C Payment Request API [4] makes it easy for browsers to offer a standard (and probably(?) already accessible) interface for the payment data entry screen, at least.

There are a number of automated accessibility testing platforms. "[W3C WAI] Web Accessibility Evaluation Tools List" [5] lists quite a few. Can someone recommend a good accessibility testing tools? Is Google Lighthouse (now included with Chrome Devtools and as a standalone script) a good tool for accessibility reviews?







Streamlit: Turn a Python script into an interactive data analysis tool


requests_cache caches HTML requests into one SQLite database. [1] pandas-datareader can cache external data requests with requests-cache. [2]

dask.cache can do opportunistic caching (of 2GB of data). [3]

How does streamlit compare to jupyter voila dashboards (with widgets and callbacks)? They just launched a new separate github org for the project. [4] There's a gallery of voila dashboard examples. [5]

> Voila serves live Jupyter notebooks including Jupyter interactive widgets.

> Unlike the usual HTML-converted notebooks, each user connecting to the Voila tornado application gets a dedicated Jupyter kernel which can execute the callbacks to changes in Jupyter interactive widgets.

> - By default, voila disallows execute requests from the front-end, preventing execution of arbitrary code.






Acess control and resource exhaustion are challenges with building any {Flask, framework_x,} app [from Jupyter notebooks]. First it's "HTTP Digest authentication should be enough for now"; then it's "let's use SSO and LDAP" (and review every release); then it's "why is it so sloww?". JupyterHub has authentication backends, spawners, and per-user-container/vm resource limits.

> Each user on your JupyterHub gets a slice of memory and CPU to use. There are two ways to specify how much users get to use: resource guarantees and resource limits. [6]


Some notes re: voila and JupyterHub:

> The reason for having a single instance running voila only is to allow non JupyterHub users to have access to the dashboards. So without going through the Hub auth flow.

> What are the requirements in your case? Voila can be installed in the single user Docker image, so that each user can also use it on their own server (as a server extension for example). [7]



Scott’s Supreme Quantum Supremacy FAQ

Who even asked these questions?

I question this. All of this.


I believe Feynman originally asked the QC question many many years ago. What an exciting milestone and a great FAQ.

"Always naysaying! Everything I create!"


Ask HN: How do you handle/maintain local Python environments?

I'm having some trouble figuring out how to handle my local Python. I'm not asking about 2 vs 3 - that ship has sailed - I'm confused on which binary to be using. From the way I see it, there's at least 4 different Pythons I could be using:

1 - Python shipped with OS X/Ubuntu

2 - brew/apt install python

3 - Anaconda

4 - Getting Python from

And that's before getting into how you get numpy et al installed. What's the general consensus on which to use? It seems like the OS X default is compiled with Clang while brew's version is with GCC. I've been working through this book [1] and found this thread [2]. I really want to make sure I'm using fast/optimized linear algebra libraries, is there an easy way to make sure? I use Python for learning data science/bioinformatics, learning MicroPython for embedded, and general automation stuff - is it possible to have one environment that performs well for all of these?




I also prefer conda for the same reasons.

Precompiled MKL is really nice. Conda and conda-forge now build for aarch64. There are very few wheels for aarch64 on PyPI. Conda can install things like Qt (IPython-qt, spyder,) and NodeJS (JupyterLab extensions).

If I want to switch python versions for a given condaenv (instead of just creating a new condaenv for a different CPython/PyPy version), I can just run e.g. `conda install -y python=3.7` and it'll reinstall everything in the depgraph that depended on the previous python version.

I always just install miniconda instead of the whole anaconda distribution. I always create condaenvs (and avoid installing anything in the root condaenv) so that I can `conda-env export -f environment.yml` and clean that up.

BinderHub ( ) creates docker containers from {git repos, Zenodo, FigShare,} and launches them in free cloud instances also running JupyterLab by building containers with repo2docker (with REES (Reproducible Execution Environment Specification)). This means that all I have to do is add an environment.yml to my git repo in order to get Binder support so that people can just click on the badge in the README to launch JupyterLab with all of the dependencies installed.

REES supports a number of dependency specifications: requirements.txt, Pipfile.lock, environment.yml, aptSources, postBuild. With an environment.yml, I can install the necessary CPython/PyPy version and everything else.


In my dotfiles, I have a script that installs miniconda into per-CPython-version CONDA_ROOT and then creates a CONDA_ENVS_PATH for the condaenvs. It may be overkill because I could just specify a different python version for all of the conda envs in one CONDA_ENVS_PATH, but it keeps things relatively organized and easily diffable: CONDA_ROOT="~/-wrk/-conda37" CONDA_ENVS_PATH="~/-wrk/-ce37"

I run `_setup_conda 37; workon_conda|wec dotfiles` to work on the ~/-wrk/-ce37/dotfiles condaenv and set _WRD=~/-wrk/-ce37/dotfiles/src/dotfiles.

Similarly, for virtualenvwrapper virtualenvs, I run `WORKON_HOME=~/-wrk/-ve37 workon|we dotfiles` to set all of the venv cdaliases; i.e. then _WRD="~/-wrk/-ve37/dotfiles/src/dotfiles" and I can just type `cdwrd|cdw` to cd to the working directory. (Some of the other cdaliases are: {cdwrk, cdve|cdce, cdvirtualenv|cdv, cdsrc|cds}. So far, I have implemented cdalias support for bash, IPython, and vim)

One nice thing about defining _WRD is I can run `makew <tab>` and `gitw` to `cd $_WRD; make <tab>` and `git -C $_WRD` without having to change directory and then `cd -` to return to where I was.

So, for development, I use a combination of virtualenvwrapper, pipsi, conda, and some shell scripts in my dotfiles that I should get around to releasing and maintaining someday.

For publishing projects, I like environment.yml because of the REES support.


Is the era of the $100 graphing calculator coming to an end?

For $100, you can buy a Pinebook with an 11" or 14" screen, a multitouch trackpad, gigabytes of storage, WiFi, a keyboard without a numpad, and an ARM processor.

On this machine, you can create reproducible analyses with JupyterLab; do arithmetic with Python; work with multidimensional arrays with NumPy, SciPy, Pandas, xarray, Dask; do machine learning with Statsmodels, Scikit-learn, Dask-ML, TPOT; create books of these notebooks (containing code and notes (in Markdown, which easily transformed to HTML) and LaTeX equations) with jupyter-book, nbsphinx, git + BinderHub; store the revision history of your discoveries; publish what you've discovered and learned to public or private git repositories; and complete graded exercises with nbgrader.

But the task is to prepare for a world of mental arithmetic, no validation, no tests, no reference materials, and no search engines; and CAS (Computer Algebra Systems) systems like SymPy and Sage are not allowed.

On this machine, you can run write code, write papers, build spreadsheets and/or Jupyter notebooks, run physical simulations, explore the stars, and play games and watch videos. Videos like: Khan Academy videos and exercises that you can watch and do, with validation, until you've achieved mastery and move on to the next task on your todo.txt list.

But the task is to preserve your creativity and natural curiosity despite the compulsory education system's demands for quality control and allocative efficiency; in an environment where drama and popularity are the solutions to relatedness and acceptance needs.

I have three of these $100 calculators in my toolbox. It's been so long since I've powered them on that I'm concerned that the rechargeable AAA batteries are leaking battery acid.

For $100, you can buy an ARM notebook and install conda and conda-forge packages and build sweet visualizations to collaborate with colleagues on (with Seaborn (matplotlib), HoloViews, Altair, Plotly)

"You must buy a $100 calculator that only runs BASIC and ASM, and only use it for arithmetic so that we can measure you."

Hand tools are fun, but please don't waste any more of my compulsory time.


Reinventing Home Directories


Why do you think that is? Why have production grade Linux distributions all chosen to adopt systemd?

With SysV init, how do you securely launch processes in cgroups, such that they'll consistently restart when the process happens to terminate, with stdout and stderr logged with consistent timestamps, with process dependency models that allow for faster boots due to parallelization?


Journalctl is far better than `tail -f /var/log/starstar` and parsing all of those timestamps and inconsistently escaped logfile formats. There's no good way to modify everything in /etc/init.d in order to log to syslog-ng or rsyslog. Systemd and journalctl solve for that; for unified logging.

IMO, there's no question that systemd is the better way and I have zero nostalgia for spawning everything from a probably a shell specified in an /etc/init.d shebang without process restarting (and logging thereof), cgroups, and consistent logging.


When journald logfile corruption occurs, it's detected and it starts writing a new logfile.

When flatfile logfile corruption occurs, it's not detected and there are multiple logfile formats to contend with. And multiple haphazard logrotate configs.

Here's how to use a separate process to ship journald logs - from one file handle - to a remote logging service:

While there is a systemd-journal-remote, it's not necessary for journald to try and replicate what's already solved and tested in rsyslog and syslog-ng.

It's quite a bit more work to add every new service to the syslog-ng or rsyslog configuration than to just ship one journald log.

Furthermore, service start/stop events are already in the same stream (with the same timestamp format) with the services' stdout and stderr.

Why hasn't anyone written fsck for corrupted journald recovery?


I have not needed to makedev and chown and chatted and chcon anything in very many years. When you accidentally newbishly delete something from a static /dev and rebooting doesn't work and you have no idea what the major minor is or was, it sucks bad.

When you're trying to boot a system on a different machine but it doesn't work because the NIC is in a different bus, it's really annoying to have to symlink /dev or modify /etc. With udevd, all you need to do is define a rule to map the busid device name to e.g. eth0. I can remember encountering the devfs race condition resulting in eth0 and eth1 being mapped to different devices on different boots; which was dangerous because firewall rules are applied to device names.

Udev has been in the kernel since 2.6.

"What problems does udev actually solve?"

With integrated udev and systemd, I have no reason to run a separate hotplugd with a different config format (again with no cgroup support) and a different logstream.

Perhaps ironically, here's a link to the presentation PDF that was posted yesterday:

And my comments there:

> What a good idea.

> Here's the hyperlinkified link to the {systemd-homed.service, systemd-userdbd.service, homectl, userdbctl} sources from the PDF:

> Hadn't heard of varlink:

> Is there a FIPS-like subset of the most-widely-available LUKS configs? Otherwise home directories won't work on systems that have a limited set of LUKS modules.


Serverless: slower and more expensive

It'd be interesting to see how much this same workload would cost with e.g. OpenFaaS on k8s with autoscaling to zero; but there also you'd need to include maintenance costs like OS and FaaS stack upgrades.


Entropy can be used to understand systems

Maximum entropy:

Here's a quote of a tweet about a (my own): comment on a schema:BlogPost:

> “When Bayes, Ockham, and Shannon come together to define machine learning”

> Comment: "How does this relate to the Principle of Maximum Entropy? How does Minimum Description Length relate to Kolmogorov Complexity?"


New Query Language for Graph Databases to Become International Standard

Graph query languages are nice and all, but what about Linked Data here? Queries of schemaless graphs miss lots of data because without a schema this graph calls it "color" and that graph calls it "colour" and that graph calls it "色" or "カラー". (Of course this is also an issue even when there is a defined schema; but it's hardly possible to just happen to have comprehensible inter or even intra-organizational cohesion without e.g. RDFS and/or OWL and/or SHACL for describing (and changing) the shape of the data)

So, the task is then to compile schema-aware SPARQL to GQL or GraphQL or SQL or interminable recursive SQL queries or whatever it is.

For GraphQL, there's GraphQL-LD (which somewhat unfortunately contains a hashtag-indeterminate dash). I cite this in full here because it's very relevant to the GQL task at hand:

"GraphQL-LD: Linked Data Querying with GraphQL" (2018)

> GraphQL is a query language that has proven to be a popular among developers. In 2015, the GraphQL framework [3] was introduced by Facebook as an alternative way of querying data through interfaces. Since then, GraphQL has been gaining increasing attention among developers, partly due to its simplicity in usage, and its large collection of supporting tools. One major disadvantage of GraphQL compared to SPARQL is the fact that it has no notion of semantics, i.e., it requires an interface-specific schema. This therefore makes it difficult to combine GraphQL data that originates from different sources. This is then further complicated by the fact that GraphQL has no notion of global identifiers, which is possible in RDF through the use of URIs. Furthermore, GraphQL is however not as expressive as SPARQL, as GraphQL queries represent trees [4], and not full graphs as in SPARQL.

> In this work, we introduce GraphQL-LD, an approach for extending GraphQL queries with a JSON-LD context [5], so that they can be used to evaluate queries over RDF data. This results in a query language that is less expressive than SPARQL, but can still achieve many of the typical data retrieval tasks in applications. Our approach consists of an algorithm that translates GraphQL-LD queries to SPARQL algebra [6]. This allows such queries to be used as an alternative input to SPARQL engines, and thereby opens up the world of RDF data to the large amount of people that already know GraphQL. Furthermore, results can be translated into the GraphQL-prescribed shapes. The only additional requirement is their queries would now also need a JSON-LD context, which could be provided by external domain experts.

> In related work, HyperGraphQL [7] was introduced as a way to expose access to RDF sources through GraphQL queries and emit results as JSON-LD. The difference with our approach is that HyperGraphQL requires a service to be set up that acts as a intermediary between the GraphQL client and the RDF sources. Instead, our approach enables agents to directly query RDF sources by translating GraphQL queries client-side.

All of these RDFS vocabularies and OWL ontologies provide structure that minimizes the costs of merging and/or querying multiple datasets:

All of these s in the "Linked Open Data Cloud" are easier to query than a schemaless graph: . Though one can query schemaless graphs with SPARQL, as well.

For reference, RDFLib has a bunch of RDF graph implementations over various key/value and SQL store backends. RDFLib-sqlachemy does query parametrization correctly in order to minimize the risk of query injection. FOR THE RECORD, SQL Injection is the CWE Top 25 #1 most prevalent security weakness; which is something that any new spec and implementation should really consider before launching anything other than an e.g. overly-verbose JSON-based query language that people end up bolting a micro-DSL onto.

Most practically, I frequently want to read a graph of objects into RAM; update, extend, and interlink; and then transactionally save the delta back to the store. This requires a few things: (1) an efficient binary serialization protocol like Apache Arrow (SIMD), Parquet, or any of the BSON binary JSONs; (2) a transactional local store that can be manually synchronized with the remote store until it's consistent.

SPARQL Update was somewhat of an out-of-scope afterthought. Here's SPARQL 1.1 Update:

Here's SOLID, which could be implemented with SPARQL on GQL, too; though all the re-serialization really shouldn't be necessary for EAV triples with a named graph URI identifier:

5 star data: PDF -> XLS -> CSV -> RDF (GQL, AFAIU (but with no URIs(!?))) -> LOD


> Linked Data tends to live in a semantic web world that has a lot of open world assumptions. While there are a few systems like this out there, there aren't many. More practically focused systems collapse this worldview down into a much simpler model, and property graphs suit just fine.

Data integration is cost prohibitive. In n years time, the task is "Let's move all of these data silos into a data lake housed in our singular data warehouse; and then synchronize and also copy data around to efficiently query it in one form or another"

Linked data enables data integration from day one: enables the linking of tragically-silo'd records within disparate databases

There are very very many systems that share linked data. Some only label some of the properties with URIs in templates. Some enable federated online querying.

When you develop a schema for only one application implementation, you're tragically limiting the future value of the data.

> There's nothing wrong with enabling linked data use cases, but you don't need RDF+SPARQL+OWL and the like to do that.

Can you name a property graph use case that cannot be solved with RDFS and SPARQL?

> The "semantic web stack" I think has been shown by time and implementation experience to be an elegant set of standards and solutions for problems that very few real world systems want to tackle.

TBH, I think the problem is that people don't understand the value in linking our data silos through URIs; and so they don't take the time to learn RDFS or JSON-LD (which is pretty simple and useful for very important things like SEO: search engine result cards come from linked data embedded in HTML attributes (RDFa, Microdata) or JSON-LD)

The action buttons to 'RSVP', 'Track Package', anf 'View Issue' on Gmail emails are JSON-LD.

Applications can use linked data in any part of the stack: the database, the messages on the message queue, in the UI.

You might take a look at all of the use cases that SOLID solves for and realize how much unnecessary re-work has gone into indexing structs and forms validation. These are all the same app with UIs for interlinked subclasses of with unique inferred properties and aggregations thereof.

> In the intervening 2 full generations of tech development that have happened since a lot of those standards were born, some of the underlying stuff too (most particularly XML and XML-NS) went from indispensable to just plain irritating.

Without XSD, for example, we have no portable way to share complex fractions.

There's a compact representation of JSON-LD that minimizes record schema overhead (which gzip or lzma generally handle anyway) is not a trivial or insignificant amount of linked data: there's real value in structuring property graphs with standard semantics.

Are our brains URI-labeled graphs? Nope, and we spend a ton of time talking to share data. Eventually, it's "well let's just get a spreadsheet and define some columns" for these property graph objects. And then, the other teams' spreadsheets have very similar columns with different labels and no portable datatypes (instead of URIs)


What was the vision?

The RDFJS "Comparison of RDFJS libraries" wiki page lists a number of implementations; though none for React or AngularJS yet, unfortunately.

There's extra work to build general purpose frameworks for Linked Data. It may have been hard for any firm with limited resources to justify doing it the harder way (for collective returns)

Dokieli (SOLID (LDP,), WebID, W3C Web Annotations,) is a pretty cool - if deceptively simple-looking - showcase of what's possible with Linked Data; it just needs some CSS and a revenue model to pay for moderation.

> property graphs are demonstrably easier to work with for most use cases.

How do you see property graphs as distinct from RDF?

People build terrible apps without schema or validation and leave others to clean that up.


I added an answer in context to the comments on the answer you've linked but didn't add a link from the comments to the answer. Here's that answer:

> (in reply to the comments on this answer: )

> When an owl:inverseOf production rule is defined, the inverse property triple is inferred by the reasoner either when adding or updating the store, or when selecting from the store. This is a "materialized relation"

> - an RDFS vocabulary - defines, for example, as the inverse property of hasPart. If both are specified, it's not necessary to run another graph pattern query to traverse a directed relation in the other direction. (:book1 schema:hasPart ?o), (?o schema:isPartOf :book1), (?s schema:hasPart :chapter2)

> It's certainly possible to use RDFS and OWL to describe schema for and within neo4j property graphs; but there's no reasoner to e.g. infer inverse properties or do schema validation.

> Is there any RDF graph that neo4j cannot store? RDF has datatypes and languages for objects: you'd need to reify properties where datatypes and/or languages are specified (and you'd be re-implementing well-defined semantics)

> Can every neo4j graph be represented with RDF? Yes.

> RDF is a representation for graphs for which there are very many store implementations that are optimized for various use cases like insert and query performance.

> Comparing neo4j to a particular triplestore (with reasoning support) might be a more useful comparison given that all neo4j graphs can be expressed as RDF.

And then, some time later, I realize that I want/need to: (3) apply production rules to do inference at INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE time or SELECT time (and indicate which properties were inferred (x is a :Shape and a :Square, so x is also a :Rectangle; x is a :Rectangle and :width and :height are defined, so x has an :area)); (4) run triggers (that execute code written in a different language) when data is inserted, updated, modified, or linked to; (5) asynchronously yield streaming results to message queue subscribers who were disconnected when the cached pages were updated


A Python Interpreter Written in Python

What an excellent 500 lines introduction to the byterun bytecode interpreter / virtual machine:

Also, proceeds from optional purchases of the AOSA books go to Amnesty International.


Reinventing Home Directories – systemd-homed [pdf]

What a good idea.

Here's the hyperlinkified link to the {systemd-homed.service, systemd-userdbd.service, homectl, userdbctl} sources from the PDF:

Hadn't heard of varlink:

Is there a FIPS-like subset of the most-widely-available LUKS configs? Otherwise home directories won't work on systems that have a limited set of LUKS modules.


Weld: Accelerating numpy, scikit and pandas as much as 100x with Rust and LLVM

There's also RustPython, a Rust implementation of CPython 3.5+:



Craftsmanship–The Alternative to the 4 Hour Work Week

> To be successful over the course of a career requires the application and accumulation of expertise. This assumes that for any given undertaking you either provide expertise or you are just a bystander. It’s the experts that are the drivers — an expertise that is gained from a curiosity, and a mindset of treating one’s craft very seriously.


Solar and Wind Power So Cheap They’re Outgrowing Subsidies


No, you're splitting hairs.

There are direct and indirect subsidies. Indirect subsidies include externalities: external costs paid by everyone else (that the government should be incentivizing reductions in by requiring the folks causing them to pay)

Semantic digressions aside, they're earning while everyone else pays costs resultant from their operations (and from our apparent inability to allocate with e.g. long term security, health, and prosperity as primary objectives for the public sphere)


"subsidies" includes both direct and indirect subsidies.

We can measure direct subsidies by measuring real and effective tax rates.

We can measure indirect subsidies like healthcare costs paid by Medicare with subjective valuations of human life and rough estimates of the value of a person's health and contribution to growth in GDP, and future economic security.

But who has the time for this when we're busy paying to help folks who require disaster relief services from the government and NGOs (neither of which are preventing further escalations in costs)


Show HN: Python Tests That Write Themselves


pytype (Google) [1], PyAnnotate (Dropbox) [2], and MonkeyType (Instagram) [3] all do dynamic / runtime PEP-484 type annotation type inference [4]






Most Americans see catastrophic weather events worsening

The stratifications on this are troubling.

> But there are wide differences in assessments by partisanship. Nine in 10 Democrats think weather disasters are more extreme, compared with about half of Republicans.

It's not a partisan issue: we all pay these costs.

> Majorities of adults across demographic groups think weather disasters are getting more severe, according to the poll. College-educated Americans are slightly more likely than those without a degree to say so, 79 percent versus 69 percent.

Weather disasters are getting more severe. It is objectively, quantitatively true that weather disasters are getting more frequent and more severe.


> Source? What definitions are being used for severity? How is the sample of events selected? Is there a statistically-significant effect or might it be random variation?

These are great questions that any good skeptic / data scientist should always be asking. Here are some summary opinions based upon meta analyses with varyingly stringent inclusion criteria.

( I had hoped that the other top-level post I posted here would develop into a discussion, but these excerpts seem to have bubbled up. )

"Scientific consensus on climate change" lists concurring, non-commital, and opposing groups of persons with and without conflicting interests:

USGCRP, "2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I" [Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 470 pp, doi: 10.7930/J0J964J6.

"Chapter 8: Droughts, Floods, and Wildfire"

"Chapter 9: Extreme Storms"

"Appendix A: Observational Datasets Used in Climate Studies"

The key findings in this report do list supporting evidence and degrees of confidence in predictions about the frequency and severity of severe weather events.

I'll now proceed to support the challenged claim that disaster severity and frequency are increasing by citing disaster relief cost charts which do not directly support the claim. Unlike your typical televised debate or congressional session, I have: visual aids, a computer, linked to the sources I've referenced. Finding the datasets ( ) for these charts may be something that someone has time for while the costs to taxpayers and insurance holders are certainly increasing for a number of reasons.

"Taxpayer spending on U.S. disaster fund explodes amid climate change, population trends" (2019) has a nice chart displaying "Disaster-relief appropriations, 10-year rolling median"

"2018's Billion Dollar Disasters in Context" includes a chart from NOAA: "Billion-Dollar Disaster Event Types by Year (CPI-Adjusted)" with the title embedded in the image text - which I searched for - and eventually found the source of: [1]

[1] "Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Time Series" (1980-2019)


The article seems to have focused on perceptions of persons who aren't concerned with taking an evidence-based look (at various types of storms: floods, cyclones (i.e. hurricanes), severe thunderstorms, windstorms. Regardless, costs are increasing. I've listed a few sources here:

"2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I" > "Chapter 9: Extreme Storms" lists a number of relevant Key Findings with supporting evidence (citations) and degrees of confidence:


"Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Time Series" (1980-2019)


> My guess is you and I see very different things despite consuming the very same article. I lean conservative/libertarian (generally speaking),

HN specifically avoids politics. In context to the in-scope article, when you say "conservative/libertarian" do you mean: fiscally conservative (haven't seen a deficit hawk in decades other than "Read my lips. No new taxes" followed by responsibly raising taxes), socially libertarian (Liberty as a fundamental right; if you're not violating the rights of others the government is not obligated or even granted the right to intervene at all), or conservative as in imposing your particular traditional standard of moral values which you believe are particular to a particular side of the aisle?

Or, do you mean that you're libertarian in regards to the need and the right to regulate business and industry in the interest of consumers ("laissez faire")? I'm certainly not the only person to observe that lack of regulation results in smog-filled cities due to un-costed 'externalities' in a blind pursuit of optimization for short-term profit.

At issue here, I think, is whether we think we can avert future escalations of costs by banding together to address climate change now; and how best to achieve the Paris Agreement targets that we set for ourselves (despite partisan denial, delusion, and indifference to increasing YoY costs [1])

I'm personally and financially far more concerned about the long-term costs of climate change than a limited number of special interests who can very easily diversify and/or divest to take advantage of the exact same opportunities.

> and I am deeply distrustful of government (for extremely good reasons I believe), so I know for a fact that my interpretation of the article is going to be heavily distorted by that. Any logical inconsistency, ambiguousness, disingenuousness, technical dishonesty, or anything else along those lines is going to get red flagged in my mind, whereas others will read it in a much more forgiving fashion. And in an article on a different political hot topic, we will switch our behaviors.

While governments (and militaries (TODO)) do contribute substantially to emissions and resultant climate change, I think it unnecessary to qualify that unregulated decisions by industry should be the primary focus here. Industry has done far more to cause climate change than governments (which can more efficiently provide certain services useful to all citizens)

> In such threads, I think it would be extremely interesting for people with opposing views to post excerpts of the parts that "catch your attention", with an explanation of why. This is kind of what happens anyway, but I'm thinking with a completely different motive: rather than quoting excerpts with commentary to argue your ~political side of the issue with the goal of "winning the argument", take an unemotional, more abstract view of your personal cognitive processing of the article,

These people aren't doing jack about the problem because they haven't reviewed this chart: "Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Time Series" (1980-2019)

Maybe they want insurance payouts, which result in higher premiums. Maybe the people who built in those locations should be paying the costs.

> and post commentary on ~why/how you believe you feel you consider that important on a psychological level. Psychological self-analysis is famously difficult, but even with moderate success I suspect some very interesting things would rise to the surface.*

They don't even care because they refuse to accept that it's a problem.

The article was ineffectual at addressing the very real problem.

From :

> ( I had hoped that the other top-level post I posted here would develop into a discussion, but these excerpts seem to have bubbled up. )

In this observational study of perceptions, college education was less predictive than party affiliation.

Maybe reframing this as a short-term money problem [1] would result in compassion for people who are suffering billions of dollars of loss every year.


> "2017: Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I" > "Chapter 9: Extreme Storms" lists a number of relevant Key Findings with supporting evidence (citations) and degrees of confidence:

How about a link to a chart indicating frequency and severity of severe weather events?

The Paris Agreement is predicated upon the link between human actions, climate change, and severe weather events. 195 countries have signed the Paris Agreement with consensus that what we're doing is causing climate change.

Here are some climate-relevant poll questions:

Do you think the costs of disaster relief will continue to increase due to frequency and severity of severe weather events?

Does it make sense to spend more on avoiding further climate change now rather than even more on disaster relief later?

How can you help climate refugees? Do you donate to DoD and National Guards? Do you donate to NGOs? How can we get better at handling more frequent and more severe disasters?


Emergent Tool Use from Multi-Agent Interaction

gdb | 2019-09-17 12:00:54 | 332 | # | ^

I, for one, really appreciate the raytracing in these visualizations. I wish for more box surfing examples.


Inkscape 1.0 Beta 1

`Ctrl + 4` to center view on page!

Pressure sensitive pencil for the PowerStroke Live Path Effect (LPE) "if a pressure sensitive device is available"!


Where Dollar Bills Come From

The 1914 $10 Dollar Bill was printed on hemp paper. Today, they're worth like $49.99. IDK how steady that price is over time; relative to the prices of other CPI All goods.


Monetary Policy Is the Root Cause of the Millennials’ Struggle

Volatility works out for people who save (who park capital in liquid assets that aren't doing work in order to have wheat for the eventual famine). These guys. They save, short like heck when the market is falling, and swoop in to save the day. What a great time to be selling 0% loans.

Personal Savings Rate (PSR) stratified by greatest generation and not greatest generation is also relevant. Are relatively fixed living expenses higher now? Yes. Is my generation just blowing what they could invest into interest-bearing investments on unnecessary stuff from Amazon? Yes. And expensive meals and drinks.

How have corporate profits and wages changed?

In their day, you put you gosh-danged money aside. For later. So that you have money later.

And that is why you should buy my book, entitled: "Invest in things with long term returns: don't buy shtuff you don't f need, save for tomorrow; and other financial advice"

Which brings me to: the cost of college textbooks and a college education in terms of average hourly wages.

By the way, over the longer term, index funds are likely to outperform funds. Gold may be likely to outperform the stock market. And, over the recent term -- this is for all you suckers out there -- cryptocurrencies have outperformed all stock and commodities markets. How much total wealth is being created on an annual basis here?

Payday loans have something like 300% APY.

How does 2% inflation affect trade when other central banking cabals haven't chosen the same target? "Devaluation"! "Treachery"!


Non-root containers, Kubernetes CVE-2019-11245 and why you should care

> At the same time, all the current implementations of rootless containers rely on user namespaces at their core. Not to be confused with what is referred to as non-root containers in this article, rootless containers are containers that can be run and managed by unprivileged users on the host. While Docker and other runtimes require a daemon running as root, rootless containers can be run by any user without additional capabilities.

non-root / rootless


How do black holes destroy information and why is that a problem?


"Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed" re: determinism and T-Symmetry ("time-reversal symmetry") by PBS SpaceTime

Classical information is 'collapsed' quantum information, so that would mean that classical information is never lost either.

There appear to be multiple solutions for Navier-Stokes; i.e. somewhat chaotic.

If white holes are on the other side of black holes, Hawking radiation would not account for the entirety of the collected energy/information. Is our visible universe within a white hole? Is everything that's ever been embedded in the sidewall of a black hole shredder?

Maybe even recordings of dinosaurs walking; or is that lemurs walking in reverse?

Do 1/n, 1/∞, and n/∞ approach a symbolic limit where scalars should not be discarded; with piecewise operators?


Banned C standard library functions in Git source code

FWIW, here's awesome-static-analysis > Programming Languages > C/C++:

These tools have lists of functions not to use. Most of them — at least the security-focused ones — likely also include: strcpy, strcat, strncpy, strncat, sprints, and vsprintf just like banned.h


Ask HN: What's the hardest thing to secure in a web-app?

"OWASP Top 10 Most Critical Web Application Security Risks"

> A1:2017-Injection, A2:2017-Broken Authentication, A3:2017-Sensitive Data Exposure, A4:2017-XML External Entities (XXE), A5:2017-Broken Access Control, A6:2017-Security Misconfiguration, A7:2017-Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), A8:2017-Insecure Deserialization, A9:2017-Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities, A10:2017-Insufficient Logging&Monitoring

"OWASP Top 10 compared to SANS CWE 25"


Crystal growers who sparked a revolution in graphene electronics

> This seven-metre-tall machine can squeeze carbon into diamonds

OT but, is this a thing now? Diamonds can be entangled.


Does it take more energy than mining for diamonds?

> Quantum Entanglement Links 2 Diamonds: Usually a finicky phenomenon limited to tiny, ultracold objects, entanglement has now been achieved for macroscopic diamonds at room temperature (2011)


Things to Know About GNU Readline

I map <up> to history-search-backward in my .inputrc; so I can type 'sudo ' and press <up> to cycle through everything starting with sudo:

    #  <up>      -- history search backward (match current input)
    "\e[A": history-search-backward
    #  <down>    -- history search forward (match current input)
    "\e[B": history-search-forward


Is this macro from the article dangerous because it doesn't quote the argument?

  Control-j: "\C-a$(\C-e)"
I can never remember how expansion and variable substitution work in shells.


Yeah, but this and this do different things:

  # prints a newline
  echo $(echo "-e a\nb")

  # prints "-e a\nb"
  echo "$(echo "-e a\nb")"


Show HN: Termpage – Build a webpage that behaves like a terminal

This looks useful.

FWIW, you can build a curses-style terminal GUI with Urwid (in Python) and use that through the web. AFAIU, it requires Apache; but it's built on Tornado (which is now built on Asyncio) so something more lightweight than Apache on a Pi should definitely be doable. Termpage with like a Go or Rust REST API may still be more lightweight, but more work.


Vimer - Avoid multiple instances of GVim with gvim –remote[-tab]-silent wrapper

I have a shell script I named 'e' (for edit) that does basically this. If VIRTUAL_ENV_NAME is set (by virtualenvwrapper), e opens a new tab in that gui vim remote if gvim or macvim are on PATH, or just in a console vim if not.

'editwrd'/'ewrd'/'ew' does tab-completion relative to whatever $_WRD (working directory) is set to (e.g. by venv) and calls 'e' with that full path:

It's unfortunately not platform portable like vimer, though.


Electric Dump Truck Produces More Energy Than It Uses

What a cool use of gravitational potential energy. It would be interesting to learn how much more energy is produced by the regenerative breaking system on the downhill and whether they use the excess to load the truck?


Ask HN: Let's make an open source/free SaaS platform to tackle school forms

I have 4 kids. I am filling out all the start of school forms for each kid. I have to fill out these same forms each year. Are you doing the same thing? Let's make this year the last year we are manually filling out forms -- let's build a SaaS platform for school forms. Community built, open-sourced, free.

Brief sketch of the idea: survey monkey + docusign, but with a 100 pre-built templates for K-12 school situations. Medical emergency form. Carpool form. Field trip permission form. Backend gives schools an easy way to customize and track forms. Forms are emailed to parents and filled out online. Parent's information is saved so that any new form is pre-filled in with as much known info as possible.

Anyone feeling the same pain? Anyone want to join with me and do it?

Technically, a checkbox may qualify as a digital signature; however, identification / authentication and storage integrity are fairly challengeable (just as a written signature on a piece of paper with a date written on it is challengeable)

Given that notarization is not required for parental consent forms, I'm not sure what sort of server security expense is justified or feasible.

How much does processing all of the paper forms cost each school? Per-student?

In terms of storing digital record of authorization, a private set of per-student OpenBadges with each OpenBadge issued by the school would be easy enough. W3C Verified Claims (and Linked Data Signatures) are the latest standards for this sort of thing.

We could evaluate our current standards for chain of custody in regards to the level of trust we place in commercial e-signature platforms.

The school could send home a sheet with a QR code and a shorturl, but that would be more expensive than running hundreds of copies of the same sheet of paper.

The school could require a parent or guardian's email address for each student in the SIS Student Information System and email unique links to prefilled forms requesting authorization(s).

Just as with e-Voting, assuring that the person who checks a checkbox or tries to scribble their signature with a mouse or touchscreen is the authorized individual may be more difficult than verifying that a given written signature is that of the parent or guardian authorized to authorize.

AFAIU, Google Forms for School can include the logged-in user's username; but parents don't have school domain accounts with Google Apps for Education or Google Classroom.

How would the solution integrate with schools' existing SIS (Student Information Systems)? Upload a CSV of (student, {student info}, {guardian email (s)})? This is private information that deserves security, which costs money.

Which users can log-in for the school and/or district to check the state of the permission / authorization requests and PII personally-identifiable information.

While cryptographic signatures may be overkill as a substitute for permission slips, FWIW, a timestamp within a cryptographically-signed document only indicates what the local clock was set to at the time. Blockchains have relatively indisputable timestamps ("certainly no later than the time that the tx made it into a block"), but blockchains don't solve for proving the key-person relation at a given point in time.

And also, my parent or guardian said you can take me on field trips if you want.


Ask HN: Is there a CRUD front end for databases (especially SQLite)?

I'm currently looking for a program (a simple executable) that "opens" an SQLite database and (via introspection of the schema) without any further configuration allows simple CRUD operations on the database.

Yes, there is DB Browser and a gazillion other database administration frontends, but it should really be limited to CRUD operations. No changing the table, the schema, the indexes. Simple UI.

For users that have no idea about SQL or databases.

Is there anything like that already done and ready to use?

There are lots of apps that do database introspection. Some also generate forms on the fly, but eventually it's necessary to: specify a forms widget for a particular field because SQL schema only describes the data and not the UI; and specify security authorization restrictions on who can create, read, update, or delete data.

And then you want to write arbitrary queries to filter on columns that aren't indexed; but it's really dangerous to allow clients to run arbitrary SQL queries because there basically are no row/object-level database permissions (the application must enforce row-level permissions).

Datasette is a great tool for read-only database introspection and queries of SQLite databases.

Sandman2 generates a REST API for an arbitrary database.

You can generate Django models and then write files for each model/table that you want to expose in the django.contrib.admin interface.

There are a number of apps for providing a GraphQL API given introspection of a database that occurs at every startup or at runtime; but that doesn't solve for row-level permissions (or web forms)

If you have an OpenAPI spec for the REST API that runs atop The database, you can generate forms ("scaffolding") from the OpenAPI spec and then customize those with form widgets; optionally with something like json-schema.

It's not safe to allow introspected CRUD like e.g. phpMyAdmin for anything but development. If there are no e.g. foreign-key constraints specified in the SQL schema,a blindly-introspected UI very easily results in database corruption due to invalid foreign key references (because the SQL schema doesn't specify what table.column a foreign key references).

Django models, for example, unify SQL schema and forms UI in; is optional but really useful for scaffolding (such as when you're doing manual testing because you haven't yet written automated tests)


California approves solar-powered EV charging network and electric school buses

> The press release from the company said, “heavy-duty vehicles produce more particulate matter than all of the state’s power plants combined”.

> […] for instance why only “10 school buses”?

IARC has recognized diesel exhaust as carcinogenic (lung cancer) since 2012.

Are there other electric school bus programs in the US?


> Most school systems don’t have sufficient capital to finance the high initial costs of electric bus purchases and charging infrastructure development, he said.

> In the U.S., the school bus market is about 33,000 to 35,000 vehicles per year – about six times more than transit buses.


You May Be Better Off Picking Stocks at Random, Study Finds


In addition to diversification that reduces risk of overexposure to down sectors or typically over-performing assets, index funds have survivorship bias: underperforming assets are replaced by assets that meet the fund's criteria.


Root: CERN's scientific data analysis framework for C++


> With frameworks like Python pandas, you always end up having to manually partition your data if it doesn’t fit in memory.

"Pandas Docs > Pandas Ecosystem > Out of Core" lists a number of solutions for working with datasets that don't fit into RAM: Blaze, Dask, Dask-ML (dask-distributed; Scikit-Learn, XGBoost, TensorFlow), Koalas, Odo, Ray, Vaex

The dask API is very similar to the pandas API.

Are there any plans for ROOT to gain support for Apache Parquet, and/or Apache Arrow zero-copy reads and SIMD support, and/or (Arrow, numba, Dask, pandas, scikit-learn, XGboost, spark, CUDA-X GPU acceleration, HPC)? (2015)

> Yet another milestone of the integration plan of ROOT with the Jupyter technology has been reached: ROOT now offers a Jupyter kernel! You can try it already now.

> ROOT is the 54th entry in this list and this is pretty cool. Now not only the PyROOT, the ROOT Python bindings, are integrated with notebooks but it's also possible to express your data mining in C++ within a notebook, taking advantage of all the powerful features of ROOT - plotting (now also interactive thanks to (Javascript ROOT](, multivariate analysis, linear algebra, I/O and reflection: all available within a notebook.

Does this work with JupyterLab now? (edit) Here's the JupyterLab extension developer guide: (edit) here's the gh issue:


ROOT is now installable with conda: `conda install -c conda-forge root metakernel jupyterlab # notebook`


MesaPy: A Memory-Safe Python Implementation based on PyPy (2018)


> Since then, I’ve found RustPython [0] which is progressing toward feature parity with CPython but entirely written in Rust (!). A side benefit is that it compiles to Web Assembly, so if you could sandbox it without too much extra overhead.

It's now possible to run JupyterLab entirely within a browser with jyve (JupyterLab + pyodide)


> Pyodide brings the Python runtime to the browser via WebAssembly, along with the Python scientific stack including NumPy, Pandas, Matplotlib, parts of SciPy, and NetworkX. The packages directory lists over 35 packages which are currently available.

Is the RustPython WASM build more performant or otherwise preferable to brython or pyodide?


Ask HN: Configuration Management for Personal Computer?

Hello HN,

Every couple of years I find myself facing the same old tired routine: migrating my stuff off some laptop or desktop to a new one, usually combined with an OS upgrade. Is there anything like the kind of luxuries we now consider normal on the server side (IaaS; Terraform; maybe Ansible) that can be used to manage your PC and that would make re-imaging it as easy as it is on the server side?

Ansible is worth the extra few minutes, IMHO.

+ (minimal) Bootstrap System playbook

+ Complete System playbook (that references group_vars and host_vars)

+ Per-machine playbooks stored alongside the ansible inventory, group_vars, and host_vars in a separate repo (for machine-specific kernel modules and e.g. touchpad config)

+ User playbook that calls my bootstrap dotfiles shell script

+ Bootstrap dotfiles shell script, which creates symlinks and optionally installs virtualenv+virtualenvwrapper, gitflow and hubflow, and some things with pipsi.

+ that creates a CONDA_ROOT and CONDA_ENVS_PATH for each version of CPython (currently py27-py37)

Over the years, I've worked with Bash, Fabric, Puppet, SaltStack, and now Ansible + Bash

I log shell commands with a script called that creates a $USER and per-virtualenv tab-delimited logfiles with unique per-terminal-session identifiers and ISO8601 timestamps; so it's really easy to just grep for the apt/yum/dnf commands that I ran ad-hoc when I should've just taken a second to create an Ansible role with `ansible-galaxy init ansible-role-name ` and referenced that in a consolidated system playbook with a `when` clause.

A couple weeks ago I added an old i386 netbook to my master Ansible inventory and system playbook and VScode wouldn't install because VScode Linux is x86-64 only and the machine doesn't have enough RAM; so I created when clauses to exclude VScode and extensions on that box (with host_vars). Gvim with my dotvim works great there too though. Someday I'll merge my dotvim with SpaceVim and give SpaceMacs a try; `git clone; make install` works great, but vim-enhanced/vim-full needs to be installed with the system package manager first so that the vimscript plugin installer works and so that the vim binary gets updated when I update all.

I've tested plenty of Ansible server configs with molecule (in docker containers), but haven't yet taken the time to do a full workstation build with e.g. KVM or VirtualBox or write tests with testinfra. It should be easy enough to just run Ansible as a provisioner in a Vagrantfile or a Packer JSON config. VirtualBox supports multi-monitor VMs and makes USB passthrough easy, but lately Docker is enough for everything but Windows (with a PowerShell script that installs NuGet packages with chocolatey) and MacOS (with a few setup scripts that download and install .dmg's and brew) VMs. Someday I'll write or adapt Ansible roles for Windows and Mac, too.

I still configure browser profiles by hand; but it's pretty easy because I just saved all the links in my tools doc:

Someday, I'll do bookmarks sync correctly with e.g. Chromium and Firefox; which'll require extending westurner/pbm to support Firefox SQLite or a rewrite in JS with the WebExtension bookmarks API.

A few times, I've decided to write docs for my dotfiles and configuration management policies like someone else is actually going to use them; it seemed like a good exercise at the time, but invariably I have to figure out what the ultimate command sequence was and put that in a shell script (or a Makefile, which adds a dependency on GNU make that's often worth it)

Clonezilla is great and free, but things get out of date fast in a golden master image. It's actually possible to PXE boot clonezilla with Cobbler, but, AFAICT, there's no good way to secure e.g. per-machine disk or other config with PXE. Apt-cacher-ng can proxy-cache-mirror yum repos, too. Pulp requires a bit of RAM but looks like a solid package caching system. I haven't yet tested how well Squid works as a package cache when all of the machines are simultaneously downloading the exact same packages before a canary system (e.g. in a VM) has populated the package cache.

I'm still learning to do as much as possible with Docker containers and Dockerfiles or REES (Reproducible Execution Environment Specifications) -compatible dependency configs that work with e.g. repo2docker and (BinderHub)


GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories


You can create a separate repo with your own CI config that pulls in the code you want to test; and thus ignore the code's CI config file. When something breaks, you'd then need to determine in which repo something changed: in the CI config repo, or the code repo. And then, you have CI events attached to PRs in the CI config repository.

IMHO it makes sense to have CI config version controlled in the same repo as the code. Unless there's a good tool for bisecting across multiple repos and subrepos?


The Fed is getting into the Real-Time payments business

apo | 2019-08-05 17:19:30 | 96 | # | ^

This system will need to interface with other domestic and international settlement and payments networks.

There is thus an opportunity for standards, a need for federation, and a need to make it easy for big players to offer liquidity.

As far as I understand, e.g. Ripple and Stellar solve basically exactly the 24x7x365 RTGS problem that FedNow intends to solve; and, they allow all sorts of assets to be plugged into the network. Could FedNow just use a different UNL (Unique Node List) with participating banks operating trusted validators and/or offering liquidity ("liquidity provisioning")?

Notably, Ripple is specifically positioned to do international interbank real time gross settlement (RTGS) and remittances. Ripple could integrate with FedNow directly. Most efficiently, if it complies with KYC/AML requirements, FedNow could operate an XRP Ledger. Or, each bank could operate XRP Ledgers.

Getting thousands of banks to comply with an evolving API / EDI spec is no small task. Blockchain solutions require API compliance, have solutions for governance where there are a number of stakeholders seeking to reach consensus, and lack single points of failure.

Here's to hoping that we've learned something about decentralizing distributed systems for resiliency.

>> In contrast, the XRP Ledger requires 80 percent of validators on the entire network, over a two-week period, to continuously support a change before it is applied. Of the approximately 150 validators today, Ripple runs only 10. Unlike Bitcoin and Ethereum — where one miner could have 51 percent of the hashing power — each Ripple validator only has one vote in support of an exchange or ordering a transaction.

So, you want to get banks onboard with only one s'coin USD stablecoin; but you don't want to deal with exchanges or FOREX or anything because that's a different thing? And, this is not just yet another ACH with lower clearance time?

> Interledger Architecture

> Interledger provides for secure payments across multiple assets on different ledgers. The architecture consists of a conceptual model for interledger payments, a mechanism for securing payments, and a suite of protocols that implement this design.

> The Interledger Protocol (ILP) is the core of the Interledger protocol suite. Colloquially, the whole Interledger stack is sometimes referred to as "ILP". Technically, however, the Interledger Protocol is only one layer in the stack.

> Interledger is not a blockchain, a token, nor a central service. Interledger is a standard way of bridging financial systems. The Interledger architecture is heavily inspired by the Internet architecture described in RFC 1122, RFC 1123 and RFC 1009.


> You can envision the Interledger as a graph where the points are individual nodes and the edges are accounts between two parties. Parties with only one account can send or receive through the party on the other side of that account. Parties with two or more accounts are connectors, who can facilitate payments to or from anyone they're connected to.

> Connectors provide a service of forwarding packets and relaying money, and they take on some risk when they do so. In exchange, connectors can charge fees and derive a profit from these services. In the open network of the Interledger, connectors are expected to compete among one another to offer the best balance of speed, reliability, coverage, and cost.

Why should we prefer an immutable, cryptographically-signed blockchain solution over SQL/BigTable/MQ for FedNow?

Blockchain and payments standards:

... Here's the notice and request for comment PDF: "Docket No. OP – 1670: Federal Reserve Actions to Support Interbank Settlement of Faster Payments"

"Federal Reserve announces plan to develop a new round-the-clock real-time payment and settlement service to support faster payments"


A Giant Asteroid of Gold Won’t Make Us Richer

> this example shows that real wealth doesn’t actually come from golden hoards. It comes from the productive activities of human beings creating things that other human beings desire.

Value, Price, and Wealth


Good call. I don't know where I was going with that. Cost, price, value, and wealth.

Are there better examples for illustrating the differences between these kind of distinct terms?

Less convertible collectibles like coins and baseball cards (that require energy for exchange) have (over time t): costs of production, marketing, and distribution; retail sales price; market price; and 'value' which is abstract relative (opportunity cost in terms of fiat currency (which is somehow distinct from price at time t (possibly due to 'speculative information')))

Wealth comes from relationships, margins between costs and prices, long term planning, […]


Abusing the PHP Query String Parser to Bypass IDS, IPS, and WAF


Possible solutions:

(1) Change all underscores in WAF rule URL attribute names to the appropriate non-greedy regex. Though I'm not sure about the regex the article suggests: '.' only matches one character, AFAIU.

(2) Add a config parameter to PHP that turns off the magical url parameter name mangling that no webapp should ever depend on ( and have it default to off because if you rely on this 'feature' you should have to change a setting in php.ini anyway )


Ask HN: Scripts/commands for extracting URL article text? (links -dump but)

I'd like to have a Unix script that basically generates a text file named, with the page title, with the article text neatly formatted.

This seems to me to be something that would be so commonly desired by people that it would've been done and done and done a hundred times over by now, but I haven't found the magic search terms to dig up people's creations.

I imagine it starts with "links -dump", but then there's using the title as the filename, and removing the padded left margin, wrapping the text, and removing all the excess linkage.

I'm a beginner-amateur when it comes to shell scripting, python, etc. - I can Google well and usually understand script or program logic but don't have terms memorized.

Is this exotic enough that people haven't done it, or as I suspect does this already exist and I'm just not finding it? Much obliged for any help.


There could be collisions where `fname2` is the same for different pages; resulting in unintentionally overwriting. A couple possible solutions: generate a random string and append it to the filename, set fname2 to a hash of the URL, replace unsafe filename characters like '/' and/or '\' and/or '\n' with e.g. underscores. IIRC, URLs can be longer than the max filename length of many filesystems, so hashes as filenames are the safest solution. You can generate an index of the fetched URLs and store it with JSON or e.g. SQLite (with Records and/or SQLAlchemy, for example).

If or when you want to parallelize (to do multiple requests at once because most of the time is spent waiting for responses from the network) write-contention for the index may be an issue that SQLite solves for better than a flatfile locking mechanism like creating and deleting an index.json.lock. requests3 and aiohttp-requests support asyncio. requests3 supports HTTP/2 and connection pooling.

SQLite can probably handle storing the text of as many pages as you throw at it with the added benefit of full-text search. Datasette is a really cool interface for sqlite databases of all sorts.


Apache Nutch + ElasticSearch / Lucene / Solr are production-proven crawling and search applications:

> I imagine it starts with "links -dump", but then there's using the title as the filename,

The title tag may exceed the filename length limit, be the same for nested pages, or contain newlines that must be escaped.

These might be helpful for your use case:

"Newspaper3k: Article scraping & curation"

lazyNLP "Library to scrape and clean web pages to create massive datasets"


> extruct is a library for extracting embedded metadata from HTML markup.

> It also has a built-in HTTP server to test its output as JSON.

> Currently, extruct supports:

> - W3C's HTML Microdata

> - embedded JSON-LD

> - Microformat via mf2py

> - Facebook's Open Graph

> - (experimental) RDFa via rdflib


NPR's Guide to Hypothesis-Driven Design for Editorial Projects

HDD – Hypothesis-Driven Development – Research, Plan, Prototype, Develop, Launch, Review.

The article lists (and links to!) "Lean UX" [1] and Google Ventures' Design Sprint Methodology as inspirations.

[1] "Lean UX: Applying Lean Principles to Improve User Experience"


"How To Write A Technical Paper" [3][4] has: (Related Work, System Model, Problem Statement), (Your Solution), (Analysis), (Simulation, Experimentation), (Conclusion)




Gryphon: An open-source framework for algorithmic trading in cryptocurrency

reso | 2019-06-20 14:56:56 | 236 | # | ^

> As far as I know there isn't anything out there like this, in any market (not just cryptocurrencies).

How does Gryphon compare to Catalyst (Zipline)?

They list a few example algorithms:

"Ask HN: Why would anyone share trading algorithms and compare by performance?" (pyfolio, popular [Zipline] algos shared through Quantopian)

"Superalgos and the Trading Singularity" (awesome-quant,)


Would CCXT be useful here?

> The ccxt library currently supports the following 135 cryptocurrency exchange markets and trading APIs:


> In any case Gryphon uses Cython to compile itself down to C, which isn't quite as good as writing in native C but is a good chunk of the way there.

Would there be any advantage to asyncio with uvloop (also written in Cython (on libuv like Node) like Pandas)?

IDK how many e.g. signals routines benefit from asyncio yet.


Whether there's anything like an equilibrium in cryptoasset markets where there are no underlying fundamentals is debatable. While there's no book price, PoW coin prices might be rationally describable in terms of (average_estimated cost of energy + cost per GH/s + 'speculative value')

A proxy for energy costs, chip costs, and speculative information

Are there standard symbols for this?

Can cryptoasset market returns be predicted with quantum harmonic oscillators as well? What NN topology can learn a quantum harmonic model?

"The Carbon Footprint of Bitcoin" (2019) defines a number of symbols that could be standard in [crypto]economics texts. Figure 2 shows the "profitable efficiency" (which says nothing of investor confidence and speculative information and how we maybe overvalue teh security (in 2007-2009)). Figure 5 lists upper and lower estimates for the BTC network's electricity use.

Here's a cautionary dialogue about correlative and causal models that may also be relevant to a cryptoasset price NN learning experiment:


Wind-Powered Car Travels Downwind Faster Than the Wind

> The unusual wind-powered car hit a top speed 2.86 times faster than the wind during one recent run,

I can't even.


NOAA upgrades the U.S. global weather forecast model

> Working with other scientists, Lin developed a model to represent how flowing air carries these substances. The new model divided the atmosphere into cells or boxes and used computer code based on the laws of physics to simulate how air and chemical substances move through each cell and around the globe.

> The model paid close attention to conserving energy, mass and momentum in the atmosphere in each box. This precision resulted in dramatic improvements in the accuracy and realism of the atmospheric chemistry.

Global Forecast System > Future


A plan to change how Harvard teaches economics


> apologists for the continuation of rent-seeking policies that entrench the rich and mighty.




> The IMF report, authored by five economists, presents a scathing rejection of the trickle-down approach, arguing that the monetary philosophy has been used as a justification for growing income inequality over the past several decades. "Income distribution matters for growth," they write. "Specifically, if the income share of the top 20 percent increases, then GDP growth actually declined over the medium term, suggesting that the benefits do not trickle down."

"Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality: A Global Perspective" (2015)

I'll add that we tend to overlook the level of government spending during periods trickle-down economics and confound. Change in government spending (somewhat unfortunately regardless of revenues) is a relevant factor.

Let's make this economy great again? How about you identify the decade(s) you're referring to and I'll show you the tax revenue (on income and now capital gains), federal debt per capital, and the growth in GDP.


> All this is to say that, while data is useful for validation, it is not useful for prediction. The last thing we need is a black-box machine learning model to make major economic decisions off of. What we do need is proper models that are then validated, which don't necessarily need 'big data.'

Hand-wavy theory - predicated upon physical-world models of equillibrium which are themselves classical and incomplete - without validation is preferable to empirical models? Please.

Estimating the predictive power of some LaTeX equations is a different task than measuring error of a trained model.

If the model does not fit all of the big data, the error term is higher; regardless of whether the model was pulled out of a hat in front of a captive audience or deduced though inference from actual data fed through an unbiased analysis pipeline.

If the 'black-box predictive model' has lower error for all available data, the task is then to reverse the model! Not to argue for unvalidated theory.

Here are a few discussions regarding validating economic models, some excellent open econometric lectures (as notebooks that are unfortunately not in an easily-testable programmatic form), the lack of responsible validation, and some tools and datasets that may be useful for validating hand-wavy classical economic theories:

"When does the concept of equilibrium work in economics?"

> "Lectures in Quantitative Economics as Python and Julia Notebooks" (data sources (pandas-datareader, pandaSDMX), tools, latex2sympy)

That's just an equation in a PDF.

(edit) Here's another useful thread: "Ask HN: Data analysis workflow?"


Backtesting algorithmic trading algorithms is fairly simple: what actions would the model have taken given the available data at that time, and how would those trading decisions have affected the single objective dependent variable. Backtesting, paper trading, live trading.

Medicine (and also social sciences) is indeed more complex; but classification and prediction are still the basis for making treatment recommendations, for example.

Still, the task really is the same. A NN (like those that Torch, Theano, TensorFlow, and PyTorch produce; now with the ONNX standard for neural network model interchange) learns complex relations and really doesn't care about causality: minimize the error term. Recent progress in reducing the size of NN models e.g. for offline natural language classification on mobile devices has centered around identifying redundant neuronal connections ("from 100GB to just 0.5GB"). Reversing a NN into a far less complex symbolic model (with variable names) is not a new objective. NNs are being applied for feature selection, XGBoost wins many Kaggle competitions, and combinations thereof appear to be promising.

Actually testing second-order effects of evidence-based economic policy recommendations is certainly a complex highly-multivariate task (with unfortunate ideological digression that presumes a higher-order understanding based upon seeming truisms that are not at all validated given, in many instances, any data). A causal model may not be necessary or even reasonably explainable; and what objective dependent variables should we optimize for? Short term growth or long-term prosperity with environmental sustainability?

... "Please highly weight voluntary sustainability reporting metrics along with fundamentals" when making investments and policy decisions?

Were/are the World3 models causal? Many of their predictions have subsequently been validated. Are those policy recommendations (e.g. in "The Limits to Growth") even more applicable today, or do we need to add more labeled data and "Restart and Run All"?


From :

> FREDcast™ is an interactive forecasting game in which players make forecasts for four economic releases: GDP, inflation, employment, and unemployment. All forecasts are for the current month—or current quarter in the case of GDP. Forecasts must be submitted by the 20th of the current month. For real GDP growth, players submit a forecast for current-quarter GDP each month during the current quarter. Forecasts for each of the four variables are scored for accuracy, and a total monthly score is obtained from these scores. Scores for each monthly forecast are based on the magnitude of the forecast error. These monthly scores are weighted over time and accumulated to give an overall performance.

> Higher scores reflect greater accuracy over time. Past months' performances are downweighted so that more-recent performance plays a larger part in the scoring.

The #GobalGoals Targets and Indicators may be our best set of variables to optimize for from 2015 through 2030; I suppose all of them are economic.


Yes, some combination of variables/features grouped and connected with operators that correlate to an optima (some of which are parameters we can specify) that occurs immediately or after a period of lag during which other variables of the given complex system are dangerously assumed to remain constant.

> In fact, this is exactly the blindness that led to people missing the financial crisis

ML was not necessary to recognize the yield curve inversion as a strongly predictive signal correlating to subsequent contraction.

An NN can certainly learn to predict according to the presence or magnitude of a yield curve inversion and which combinations of other features.

- [ ] Exercise: Learning this and other predictive signals by cherry-picking data and hand-optimizing features may be an extremely appropriate exercise.

"This field is different because it's nonlinear, very complex, there are unquantified and/or uncollected human factors, and temporal"

Maybe we're not in agreement about whether AI and ML can do causal inference just as well if not better than humans manipulating symbols with human cognition and physical world intuition. The time is nigh!

In general, while skepticism and caution are appropriate, many fields suffer from a degree of hubris which prevents them from truly embracing stronger AI in their problem domain. (A human person cannot mutate symbol trees and validate with shuffled and split test data all night long)

> Anyone trying to understand economic phenomena needs to be keenly aware of how inference can be done, which requires an understanding (or an approach to) - that is, a theory - of the underlying mechanisms.

I read this as "must be biased by the literature and willing to disregard an unacceptable error term"; but also caution against rationalizing blind findings which can easily be rationalized as logical due to any number of cognitive biases.

Compared to AI, we're not too rigorous about inductive or deductive inference; we simply store generalizations about human behavior and predict according to syntheses of activations in our human NNs.

If you're suggesting that the information theory that underlies AI and ML is insufficient to learn what we humans have learned in a few hundred years of observing and attempting to optimize, I must disagree (regardless of the hardness or softness of the given complex field). Beyond a few combinations/scenarios, our puny little brains are no match for our department's new willing AI scientist.


> AI, ML and stats will merge, if they haven't already. The distinction will disappear. I believe the issues will not.

All tools are misapplied; including economics professionals and their advice.

Here's a beautiful Venn diagram of "Colliding Web Sciences" which includes economics as a partially independent category:

A causal model is a predictive model. We must validate the error of a causal model.

Why are theoretic models hand-wavy? "That's just because noise, the model is correct." No, such a model is insufficient to predict changes in dependent variables when in the presence of noise; which is always the case. How does validating a causal model differ from validating a predictive model with historical and future data?

Yield-curve inversion as a signal can be learned by human and artificial NNs. Period. There are a few false positives in historical data: indeed, describe the variance due to "noise" by searching for additional causal and correlative relations in additional datasets.

I searched for "python causal inference" and found a few resources on the first page of search results:



CausalImpact (Python port of the R package):

"What is the best Python package for causal inference?"

Search: graphical model "information theory" [causal]

Search: opencog causal inference (MOSES, PLN,)

If you were to write a pseudocode algorithm for an econometric researcher's process of causal inference (and also their cognitive processes (as executed in a NN with a topology)), how would that read?

(Edit) Something about the sufficiency of RL (Reinforcement Learning) for controlling cybernetic systems.


> What's the point of dumping a bunch of Google results here? At least half the results are about implementations of pretty traditional etatistical / econometric inference techniques.

Here are some tools for causal inference (and a process for finding projects to contribute to instead of arguing about insufficiency of AI/ML for our very special problem domain here). At least one AGI implementation doesn't need to do causal inference in order to predict the outcomes of actions in a noisy field.

Weather forecasting models don't / don't need to do causal inference.

> A/B testing

Is multi-armed bandit feasible for the domain? Or, in practice, are there too many concurrent changes in variables to have any sort of a controlled experiment. Then, aren't you trying to do causal inference with mostly observational data.

> I really don't see how a RL would help with any of this. Care to come up with something concrete?

The practice of developing models and continuing on with them when they seem to fit and citations or impact reinforce is very much entirely an exercise in RL. This is a control system with a feedback loop. A "Cybernetic system". It's not unique. It's not too hard for symbolic or neural AI/ML. Stronger AI can or could do [causal] inference.


> By extension, it is impossible for any ML mechanism to predict unobserved interventions without being a causal model.

In lieu of a causal model, when I ask an economist what they think is going to happen and they aren't aware of any historical data - there is no observational data collected following the given combination of variables we'd call an event or an intervention - is it causal inference that they're doing in their head? (With their NN)

> Now, you and me, we can both agree that your model with yield curves is good enough.

Yield curves alone are insufficient due to the rate of false positives. (See: ROC curves for model evalutation just like everyone else)

> We could even agree that you would have found it before the financial crashes,

The given signal was disregarded as a false positive by the appointed individuals at the time; why?

> Some alien that has been analyzing financial systems all across the universe may disagree,

You're going to run out of clean water and energy, and people will be willing to pay for unhealthy sugar water and energy-inefficient transaction networks with a perception of greater security.

That we need Martian scientist as an approach is, IMHO, necessary because of our learned biases; where we've inferred relations that have been reinforced which cloud our assessment of new and novel solutions.

> Such is the difficulty of causal analysis.

What a helpful discussion. Thanks for explaining all of this to me.

Now, I need to go write my own definitions for counterfactual and DGP and include graphical models in there somewhere.


How can you possibly be arguing that we should not be testing models with all available data?

All models are limited by the data they're trained from; regardless of whether they are derived through rigorous, standardized, unbiased analysis or though laudable divine inspiration.

From :

> pandas-datareader can pull data from e.g. FRED, Eurostat, Quandl, World Bank:

> pandaSDMX can pull SDMX data from e.g. ECB, Eurostat, ILO, IMF, OECD, UNSD, UNESCO, World Bank; with requests-cache for caching data requests:


> To get out of this we have to consider not only what people have done in the past but how they are likely to respond to a given policy change, for which we have no historical data prior to when the policy is enacted, and so we need to make those predictions based on logic in addition to data or we go astray.

"Pete, it's a fool who looks for logic in the chambers of the human heart."

Logically, we might have said "prohibition will reduce substance abuse harms" but the actual data indicates that margins increased. Then, we look at the success of Portugal's decriminalization efforts and cannot at all validate our logical models.

Similarly, we might've logically claimed that "deregulation of the financial industry will help everyone" or "lowering taxes will help everyone" and the data does not support.

So, while I share the concerns about Responsible AI and encoding biases (and second-order effects of making policy recommendations according to non-causal models without critically, logically thinking first) I am very skeptical about our ability to deduce causal relations without e.g. blind, randomized, longitudinal, interventional studies (which are unfortunately basically impossible to do with [economic] policy because there is no "ceteris paribus")

"Causal Inference Book"


> Causal inference (Causal reasoning) ( )


> If you think prohibition will reduce substance abuse but then you try it and it doesn't, well, you were wrong, so end prohibition.

Maybe we're at a local optima, though. Maybe this is a sign that we should just double down, surge on in there and get the job done by continuing to do the same thing and expecting different results. Maybe it's not the spec but the implementation.

Recommend a play according to all available data, and logic.

> This is also a strong argument for "laboratories of democracy" and local control -- if everybody agrees what to do then there is no dispute, but if they don't then let each local region have their own choice, and then we get to see what happens. It allows more experiments to be run at once. Then in the worst case the damage of doing the wrong thing is limited to a smaller area than having the same wrong policy be set nationally or internationally, and in the best case different choices are good in different ways and we get more local diversity.

"Adjusting for other factors," the analysis began.

- [ ] Exercise / procedure to be coded: Brainstorm and identify [non-independent] features that may create a more predictive model (a model with a lower error term). Search for confounding variables outside of the given data.


The New York Times course to teach its reporters data skills is now open-source

It's more work to verify all formulas that reference unnamed variables in a spreadsheet than to review the code inputs and outputs in a notebook.

"Teaching Pandas and Jupyter to Northwestern journalism students" [in DC]


You can also develop d3.js visualizations — just like NYT — with jupyter notebooks and whichever language(s).

"Data-Driven Journalism" ("ddj")

"The Data Journalism Handbook 1"

"The Data Journalism Handbook 2"

While there are a number of ScholarlyArticle journals that can publish notebooks, I'm not aware of any newspapers that are prepared to publish notebooks as NewsArticles. It's pretty easy to `jupyter convert --to html` and `--to markdown` or just 'Save as'

Regarding expressing facts as verifiable claims with structured data in HTML and/or blockchains: "Fact Checks"

Does this course recommend linking to every source dataset and/or including full citations (with DOI) in the article? Does this course recommend getting a free DOI for the published revision of an e.g. GitHub project repository (containing data, and notebooks and/or the article text) with Zenodo?


No Kings: How Do You Make Good Decisions Efficiently in a Flat Organization?

Group decision-making > Formal systems:

> Consensus decision-making, Voting-based methods, Delphi method, Dotmocracy

Consensus decision-making:

There's a field that some people are all calling "Collaboration Engineering". I learned about this from a university course in Collaboration.

6 Patterns of Collaboration [GRCOEB] — Generate, Reduce, Clarify, Organize, Evaluate, Build Consensus

7 Layers of Collaboration [GPrAPTeToS] — Goals, Products, Activities, Patterns of Collaboration, Techniques, Tools, Scripts

The group decision making processes described in the article may already be defined with the thinkLets design pattern language.

A person could argue against humming for various unspecified reasons.

I'll just CC this here from my notes, which everyone can read here [1]:

“Collaboration Engineering: Foundations and Opportunities” de Vreede (2009)

“A Seven-Layer Model of Collaboration: Separation of Concerns for Designers of Collaboration Systems” Briggs (2009)

Six Patterns of Collaboration “Defining Key Concepts for Collaboration Engineering” Briggs (2006)

“ThinkLets: Achieving Predictable, Repeatable Patterns of Group Interaction with Group Support Systems (GSS)”



4 Years of College, $0 in Debt: How Some Countries Make Education Affordable

It at least makes sense to pay for doctors and nurses to go to school, right? If you want to care for others and you do the work to earn satisfactory grades, I think that investing in your education would have positive ROI.

We had plans here in the US to pay for two years of community college for whoever ("America's College Promise"). IDK what happened to that? We should have called it #ObamaCollege so that everyone could attack corporate welfare and bad investments with no ROI.

New York has the Excelsior scholarship for CUNY and SUNY. Tennessee pays for college with lottery proceeds. Are there other state-level efforts to fund higher education in the US such that students can finish school debt-free or close to it?

There are MOOCs (online courses) which are worth credit hours for the percentage of people that commit to finishing the course.

Khan Academy has free SAT, MCAT, NCLEX-RN, GMAT, and LSAT test prep and primary and supplementary learning resources.

Free education:


Ask HN: What jobs can a software engineer take to tackle climate change?

I'm a software engineer with a diverse background in backend, frontend development.

How do I find jobs related to tackling global warming and climate change in Europe for an English speaker?

Open to ideas and thoughts.

> I'm a software engineer with a diverse background in backend, frontend development.

> How do I find jobs related to tackling global warming and climate change in Europe for an English speaker?

While not directly answering the question, here are some ideas for purchasing, donating, creating new positions, and hiring people that care:

Write more efficient code. Write more efficient compilers. Optimize interpretation and compilation so that the code written by people with domain knowledge who aren't that great at programming who are trying to solve other important problems is more efficient.

Push for PPAs (Power Purchase Agreements) that offset energy use. Push for directly sourcing clean energy.

Use services that at least have 100% PPAs for the energy they use: services that run on clean energy sources.

Choose green datacenters.

- [ ] Add the capability for cloud resource schedulers like Kubernetes and Terraform to prefer or require clean energy datacenters.

Choose to work with companies that voluntarily choose to do sustainability reporting.

Work to help develop (and popularize) blockchain solutions that are more energy efficient and that have equal or better security assurances as less efficient chains.

Advocate for clean energy. Donate to NGOs working for our environment and for clean energy.

Invest in clean energy. There are a number of clean energy ETFs, for example. Better energy storage is a good investment.

Push for certified green buildings and datacenters.

- [ ] We should create some sort of a badge and structured data (JSONLD, RDFa, Microdata) for site headers and/or footers that lets consumers know that we're working toward '200% green' so that we can vote with our money.

Do not vote for people who are rolling back regulations that protect our environment. Pay an organization that pays lobbyists to work the system: that's the game.

Help explain why it's both environment-rational and cost-rational to align with national and international environmental sustainability and clean energy objectives.

Argue that we should make external costs internal in order that markets will optimize for what we actually want.

Thermodynamics is part of the physics curriculum for many software engineering and computer science degrees.

There are a number of existing solutions that solve for energy inefficiency due to unreclaimed waste heat.

"Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki"

"Why Do Computers Use So Much Energy?"


YC's request for startups: Government 2.0

There's money to be earned in solving for the #GlobalGoals Goals, Targets, and Indicators:

The Global Goals

1. No Poverty

2. Zero Hunger

3. Good Health & Well-Being

4. Quality Education

5. Gender Equality

6. Clean Water & Sanitation

7. Affordable & Clean Energy

8. Decent Work & Economic Growth

9. Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure

10. Reduced Inequalities

11. Sustainable Cities and Communities

12. Responsible Consumption & Production

13. Climate Action

14. Life Below Water

15. Life on Land

16. Peace and Justice & Strong Institutions

17. Partnerships for the Goals


Almost 40% of Americans Would Struggle to Cover a $400 Emergency


> I always wonder what proportion of that group is due to insufficient income

According to the Social Security Administration [1]:

2017 Average net compensation: 48,251.57

2017 Median net compensation: 31,561.49

The FPL (Federal Poverty Level) income numbers for Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility [2]:

>> $12,140 for individuals, $16,460 for a family of 2, $20,780 for a family of 3, $25,100 for a family of 4, $29,420 for a family of 5, $33,740 for a family of 6, $38,060 for a family of 7, $42,380 for a family of 8

Wages are not keeping up with corporate profits. That can't all be due to automation.

The minimum wage is only one factor linked to price inflation. We can raise wages and still keep inflation down to an ideal range.

Maybe it's that we don't understand what it's like to live on $12K or $32K a year (without healthcare due to lack of Medicaid expansion; due to our collective failure to instill charity as a virtue and getting people back on their feet as a good investment). How could we learn (or remember!) about what it's like to be in this position (without zero-interest bank loans to bail us out)?

> and what proportion is due to terrible financial literacy.

The r/personalfinance wiki is one good resource for personal finance. From [3]:

>> Personal Finance (budgets, interest, growth, inflation, retirement)

Personal Finance

Khan Academy > College, careers, and more > Personal finance

"CS 007: Personal Finance For Engineers"

... How can we make personal finance a required middle and high school curriculum component? [4]

"What are some ways that you can save money in order to meet or exceed inflation?"

Dave Ramsey's 7 Baby Steps to financial freedom [5] seem like good advice? Is the debt snowball method ideal for minimizing interest payments?



[3] "Ask HN: How can you save money while living on poverty level?"

[4] "Consumer science (a.k.a. home economics) as a college major"



Congress should grow the Digital Services budget, it more than pays for itself

> The U.S. Digital Service isn’t perfect, but it is clearly working. The team estimates that for every $1 million invested in USDS that the government will avoid spending $5 million and save thousands of labor hours. Over a five-year period, the team’s efforts will save $1.1 billion, redirect almost 2,000 labor years towards higher value work, and generate over 400 percent return on investment. Most importantly, USDS will continue to deliver better government services for the American people, including Veterans who deserve better.

> In the private sector, these kinds of numbers would not lead to a 50 percent cut in budget. Instead, you’d clearly invest further with that kind of return. Considering the ambitious goals set out in the President’s Management Agenda, the Trump Administration should double down on better support for the public, our troops, and our veterans. The best way to do that is clearly through investments like USDS.

Why would you halve the budget of a team that's yielding a more than 400% ROI (in terms of cost savings)?


USDS reports 400% ROI in savings to the taxpayers who fund the government with tax revenue (instead of kicking the can down the road with debt financing) and improvements in customer service quality. (Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (Obama, McCain, Carper, Coburn)) has more fine-grained spending data, but not credit-free immutable distributed ledger transaction IDs, quantitative ROI stats, or and #globalgoals goal alignment. We'd need a metadata field on spending bills to link to and SDG Goals, Targets, and Indicators.

"Transparency and Accountability"

IIRC, here on HN, I've mentioned a number of times -- and quoted in the full from -- the 13 plays of the USDS Digital Services Playbook; all of which are applicable to and should probably be required reading for all government IT and govtech:

There are forms with workflow states that need human review sometimes. USDS helps with getting those processes online in order to reduce costs, increase cost-efficiency, and increase quality of service.

The Trillion-Dollar Annual Interest Payment

> Given the recent actions of Congress, and the years of prior inaction in changing the nation’s fiscal path, the U.S. government’s annual interest payment will eclipse annual defense spending in only six years. By 2025, annual interest costs on the national debt will reach $724 billion, while annual defense spending will reach $706 billion. To put that into perspective, in the 2018 fiscal year, the U.S. government spent $325 billion in interest payments and spent $622 billion in defense (Exhibit 2).

Why would you cut taxes and debt finance our nation's future?


Oak, a Free and Open Certificate Transparency Log


> Great use case for blockchain technology

>> CT logs are already chained

Trillian is a centralized Merkle tree: it doesn't support native replication (AFAIU?) and there is a still a password that can delete or recreate the chain (though we can track for any such inappropriate or errant modifications (due to e.g. solar flares) by manually replicating and verifying every entry in the chain, or trusting that everything before whatever we consider to be a known hash (that could be colliding) is unmodified (since the last time we never verified those entries)).

According to the trillian README, trillian depends upon MySQL/MariaDB and thus internal/private replication is as good as the SQL replication model (which doesn't have a distributed consensus algorithm like e.g. paxos).

A Merkle tree alone is not a blockchain; though it provides more assurance of data integrity than a regular tree, verifying that the whole chain of hashes actually is good and distributed replication without configuring e.g. SSL certs are primary features of blockchains.


Which components of the system are we discussing?

PKI is necessarily centralized: certs depend upon CA certs which can depend upon CA certs. If any CA is compromised (e.g. by theft or brute force (which is inestimably infeasible given current ASIC resources' preference for legit income)) that CA can sign any CRL. A CT log and a CT log verifier can help us discover that a redundant and so possibly unauthorized cert has been issued for a given domain listed in an x.509 cert CN/SAN.

The CT log itself - trillian, for Google and now LetsEncrypt, too - though, runs on MySQL; which has one root password.

The system of multiple independent, redundant CT logs is built upon databases that depend upon presumably manually configured replication keys.

Does my browser call a remote log verifier API over (hopefully pinned with a better fingerprint than MD5) HTTPS?


Centralized and decentralized are overloaded terms. We could argue that every system that depends upon DNS is a centralized (and thus has a single point of failure).

We could describe replication models as centralized or decentralized. Master/master SQL replication is still not decentralized (regardless of whether there are multiple A records or multiple static IPs configured in the client).

With PKI, we choose the convenience of trusting a CA bundle