Table of Contents
date title user score
2021-05-29 02:59:45 JupyterLite – WASM-powered Jupyter running in the browser ahurmazda 205
2021-05-26 16:05:11 Accenture, GitHub, Microsoft and ThoughtWorks Launch the GSF scottcha 4
2021-05-27 14:21:55 DRAM Alternative Developed: 4X Higher Density at Higher Speed and Lower Power billyharris 14
2021-05-27 11:07:44 Rocky Linux releases its first release candidate sparcpile 147
2021-05-26 06:09:46 USB-C is about to go from 100W to 240W, enough to power beefier laptops Tomte 427
2021-05-25 12:02:06 Half-Double: New hammering technique for DRAM Rowhammer bug fqazi 189
2021-05-20 15:20:29 Setting up a Raspberry Pi with 2 Network Interfaces as a simple router geerlingguy 126
2021-05-19 03:20:31 What to do about GPU packages on PyPI? polm23 123
2021-05-18 17:17:39 Markdown Notes VS Code extension: Navigate notes with [[wiki-links]] julienreszka 2
2021-05-11 14:07:44 Ask HN: Choosing a language to learn for the heck of it bsg75 13
2021-05-10 11:53:54 Show HN: Django SQL Dashboard simonw 202
2021-05-06 13:33:00 Interactive IPA Chart Jeud 243
2021-05-06 16:15:29 Google Dataset Search abraxaz 386
2021-05-04 20:09:49 Ask HN: Cap Table Service Recommendations Ankaios 1
2021-05-02 12:43:15 Hosting SQLite databases on GitHub Pages or any static file hoster phiresky 1808
2021-04-23 13:11:53 Wasm3 compiles itself (using LLVM/Clang compiled to WASM) theBashShell 178
2021-04-24 01:18:52 Remote code execution in Homebrew by compromising the official Cask repository spenvo 387
2021-04-22 12:51:22 Semgrep: Semantic grep for code ievans 415
2021-04-10 09:05:03 Ask HN: What to use instead of Bash / Sh for scripting? lordgroff 52
2021-04-09 13:11:27 Estonian Electronic Identity Card and Its Security Challenges [pdf] IndrekR 72
2021-04-08 20:49:08 Systemd makes life miserable, again, this time by breaking DNS bcrl 5
2021-04-08 21:35:57 Ask HN: How bad is proof-of-work blockchain energy consumption? furrowedbrow 2
2021-03-30 17:42:22 What does a PGP signature on a Git commit prove? JNRowe 147
2021-03-30 06:40:47 Breakthrough for ‘massless’ energy storage reimertz 233
2021-03-25 10:08:52 OpenSSL Security Advisory arkadiyt 327
2021-03-26 14:15:06 How much total throughput can your wi-fi router really provide? giuliomagnifico 84
2021-03-23 17:28:53 The Most Important Scarce Resource Is Legitimacy ve55 119
2021-03-19 11:31:14 A few notes on message passing srijan4 151
2021-03-11 13:41:42 Duolingo's language notes all on one page rococode 265
2021-03-11 12:19:20 Ask HN: The easiest programming language for teaching programming to young kids? simplerman 25
2021-03-07 10:09:22 Raspberry Pi for Kill Mosquitoes by Laser ColinWright 342
2021-03-07 10:16:33 Donate Unrestricted razin 288
2021-03-02 09:55:02 Bitcoin Is Time taylorwc 442
2021-02-28 06:34:44 Foundational Distributed Systems Papers mastabadtomm 253
2021-02-28 21:46:20 Low-Cost Multi-touch Whiteboard using the Wiimote (2007) [video] jstrieb 49
2021-02-27 21:56:01 How to Efficiently Choose the Right Database for Your Applications gesaint 80
2021-02-21 17:26:02 A Data Pipeline Is a Materialized View nchammas 144
2021-02-18 06:17:14 There’s no such thing as “a startup within a big company” isolli 635
2021-02-18 03:21:39 Ask HN: Keyrings: per-package/repo; commit, merge, and release keyrings? westurner 1
2021-02-13 01:42:16 Threat Actors Now Target Docker via Container Escape Features pizza 134
2021-02-11 23:09:15 Ask HN: What security is in place for bank-to-bank EFT? andrewon 1
2021-02-11 09:06:18 Podman: A Daemonless Container Engine lobo_tuerto 320
2021-02-10 07:54:05 Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index apples_oranges 979
2021-02-10 13:41:55 Bitcoin's fundamental value is negative given its environmental impact martinlaz 134
2021-02-05 13:41:13 Ask HN: What are some books where the reader learns by building projects? Shosty123 53
2021-02-05 09:05:57 Is it wrong to demand features in open-source projects? theabbie 8
2021-02-02 09:43:58 CompilerGym: A toolkit for reinforcement learning for compiler optimization azhenley 139
2021-01-24 07:17:14 Turning desalination waste into a useful resource thereare5lights 42
2021-01-26 17:41:26 Evcxr: A Rust REPL and Jupyter Kernel batterylow 170
2021-01-24 16:51:25 Ask HN: What is the cost to launch a SaaS business MVP mikesabbagh 16
2021-01-23 17:03:11 Cryptocurreny crime is way ahead of regulators and law enforcement dgellow 114
2021-01-22 14:39:19 Ask HN: Why aren't micropayments a thing? wppick 106
2021-01-21 18:34:43 Elon Musk announces $100M carbon capture prize tito 11
2021-01-11 08:20:39 Tim Berners-Lee wants to put people in control of their personal data IvanSologub 238
2021-01-11 07:08:49 Governments spurred the rise of solar power jakozaur 133
2021-01-05 07:50:03 Termux no longer updated on Google Play martinlaz 362
2021-01-01 16:57:02 Ask HN: What should go in an Excel-to-Python equivalent of a couch-to-5k? etothepii 9
2020-12-28 08:06:01 Scientists turn CO2 into jet fuel vanburen 61
2020-12-27 14:16:01 Show HN: Stork: A customizable, WASM-powered full-text search plugin for the web jil 137
2020-12-27 14:14:42 Upptime – GitHub-powered open-source uptime monitor and status page fahrradflucht 301
2020-12-26 11:31:47 Show HN: Simple-graph – a graph database in SQLite dpapathanasiou 236
2020-12-24 10:54:18 In CPython, types implemented in C are part of the type tree todsacerdoti 108
2020-12-16 08:15:03 Experiments on a $50 DIY air purifier that takes 30s to assemble dyno-might 292
2020-12-13 06:07:56 Goodreads plans to retire API access, disables existing API keys buttscicles 869
2020-12-11 16:33:14 Turing Tumble Simulator tobias2014 2
2020-11-30 07:53:34 Python Pip 20.3 Released with new resolver groodt 224
2020-11-23 14:39:50 Convolution Is Fancy Multiplication ubac 397
2020-11-18 10:09:55 How to better ventilate your home arunbahl 101
2020-11-06 13:01:34 Quantum-computing pioneer Peter Shor warns of complacency over Internet security headalgorithm 2
2020-11-05 01:11:47 CERN Online introductory lectures on quantum computing from 6 November limist 277
2020-11-03 19:31:07 A Manim Code Template HaoZeke 2
2020-10-21 20:28:21 Startup Financial Modeling: What is a Financial Model? (2016) aaronbski 229
2020-10-16 18:23:29 At what grade level do presidential candidates debate? the_afonseca 51
2020-10-11 14:30:27 ElectricityMap – Live CO₂ emissions of electricity production and consumption jka 221
2020-10-09 02:53:03 Bash Error Handling sohkamyung 287
2020-10-09 18:37:09 A Customer Acquisition Playbook for Consumer Startups jcs87 129
2020-10-06 02:34:07 Gathering all open and sustainable technology projects protontypes 3
2020-10-05 11:50:57 Jupyter Notebooks Gallery jeffnotebook 101
2020-10-03 16:33:30 NestedText, a nice alternative to JSON, YAML, TOML nestedtext 302
2020-10-04 12:21:50 Algorithm discovers how six molecules could evolve into life’s building blocks gmays 390
2020-10-02 14:16:05 Physicists build circuit that generates clean, limitless power from graphene westurner 42
2020-09-29 17:37:53 Mozilla shuts project Iodide: Datascience documents in browsers ritwiksaikia 46
2020-09-27 07:18:50 Ask HN: What are good life skills for people to learn? smarri 254
2020-09-23 22:04:25 Four Keys Project metrics for DevOps team performance westurner 3
2020-09-19 09:13:45 Ask HN: Resources to encourage teen on becoming computer engineer? tomrod 111
2020-09-18 14:10:34 CadQuery: A Python parametric CAD scripting framework based on OCCT OJFord 134
2020-09-17 01:31:25 Array Programming with NumPy hardmaru 289
2020-09-17 16:38:37 Do you like the browser bookmark manager? andyware 6
2020-09-17 12:58:46 NIST Samate – Source Code Security Analyzers animationwill 71
2020-09-17 04:19:49 A Handwritten Math Parser in 100 lines of Python gnebehay 64
2020-09-15 06:25:51 PEP – An open source PDF editor for Mac threcius 191
2020-09-12 10:49:38 The Unix timestamp will begin with 16 this Sunday dezmou 452
2020-09-11 07:36:54 Redox: Unix-Like Operating System in Rust bpierre 242
2020-09-11 09:31:37 Ask HN: How are online communities established? jayshua 127
2020-09-10 20:19:41 Python Documentation Using Sphinx keyboardman 1
2020-09-10 07:18:54 Traits of good remote leaders sfg 356
2020-09-09 22:07:59 Show HN: Eiten – open-source tool for portfolio optimization hydershykh 200
2020-09-08 09:51:43 Ask HN: Any well funded tech companies tackling big, meaningful problems? digitalmaster 97
2020-09-07 17:50:02 Column Names as Contracts MaysonL 55
2020-09-06 00:49:07 Graph Representations for Higher-Order Logic and Theorem Proving (2019) brzozowski 104
2020-09-04 22:37:14 Show HN: Linux sysadmin course, eight years on snori74 780
2020-09-03 05:12:02 Software supply chain security mayakacz 82
2020-09-01 13:53:23 Mind Emulation Foundation gk1 93
2020-08-31 22:41:41 13 Beautiful Tools to Enhance Online Teaching and Learning Skills alikayaspor 15
2020-08-28 06:34:50 How close are computers to automating mathematical reasoning? auggierose 100
2020-08-29 11:06:54 New framework for natural capital approach to transform policy decisions westurner 2
2020-08-24 09:19:08 Challenge to scientists: does your ten-year-old code still run? sohkamyung 305
2020-08-19 14:54:09 A deep dive into the official Docker image for Python itamarst 189
2020-08-18 19:01:49 The Consortium for Python Data API Standards BerislavLopac 102
2020-08-07 15:02:57 Tech giants let the Web's metadata schemas and infrastructure languish timhigins 301
2020-08-10 10:39:15 Time-reversal of an unknown quantum state samizdis 23
2020-08-08 12:48:07 Electric cooker an easy, efficient way to sanitize N95 masks, study finds johnny313 201
2020-08-09 19:13:33 Fed announces details of new interbank service to support instant payments tigerlily 682
2020-08-08 21:17:02 Shrinking deep learning’s carbon footprint dsavant 4
2020-08-02 10:44:33 Show HN: Starboard – Fully in-browser literate notebooks like Jupyter Notebook protoduction 369
2020-07-23 16:11:55 Ask HN: Learning about distributed systems? shahrk 35
2020-08-01 22:13:32 Ask HN: How can I “work-out” critical thinking skills as I age? treyfitty 87
2020-07-29 17:21:42 The tragedy of FireWire: Collaborative tech torpedoed by corporations segfaultbuserr 3
2020-07-29 17:17:29 The Developer’s Guide to Audit Logs / SIEM endingwithali 9
2020-07-29 04:26:06 kome 1649
2020-07-24 19:37:41 Ask HN: Recommendations for Books on Writing? wwright 5
2020-07-23 14:10:29 Ask HN: How did you learn x86-64 assembly? spacechild1 48
2020-07-22 09:39:11 Brain connectivity levels are equal in all mammals, including humans: study hhs 197
2020-07-22 04:21:32 Ask HN: Resources to start learning about quantum computing? edu 185
2020-07-21 11:58:25 Launch HN: Charityvest (YC S20) – Employee charitable funds and gift matching Leonidas243 64
2020-07-20 16:52:03 We Need a Yelp for Doctoral Programs etattva 180
2020-07-20 01:21:29 All of the World’s Money and Markets in One Visualization hippich 135
2020-07-18 21:06:28 Why companies lose their best innovators (2019) hhs 190
2020-07-17 16:48:58 Powerful AI Can Now Be Trained on a Single Computer MindGods 282
2020-07-10 12:30:36 Ask HN: Something like Khan Academy but full curriculum for grade schoolers? jmspring 283
2020-07-09 13:35:44 AutoML-Zero: Evolving Code That Learns theafh 34
2020-07-06 08:25:22 SymPy - a Python library for symbolic mathematics ogogmad 209
2020-07-03 17:05:31 Ask HN: Are there any messaging apps supporting Markdown? 5986043handy 19
2020-06-24 12:36:53 What vertical farming and ag startups don't understand about agriculture kickout 348
2020-06-15 05:26:29 Ask HN: What are your go to SaaS products for startups/MVPs? lbj 169
2020-06-13 08:31:58 Ask HN: Do you read aloud or silently in your minds? Onceagain 6
2020-06-08 08:42:33 Ask HN: How do you deploy a Django app in 2020? eptakilo 3
2020-06-04 21:35:38 Containers from first principles setheron 102
2020-05-27 17:16:56 How many people did it take to build the Great Pyramid? samizdis 136
2020-05-14 16:44:28 Solar’s Future is Insanely Cheap epistasis 152
2020-05-20 14:52:29 Demo of an OpenAI language model applied to code generation [video] cjlovett 281
2020-05-04 18:51:16 Future of the human climate niche origgm 96
2020-05-15 06:25:43 Ask HN: Best resources for non-technical founders to understand hacker mindset? jamiecollinson 114
2020-05-11 10:08:31 Dissecting the code responsible for the Bitcoin halving Mojah 39
2020-04-30 13:06:53 Ask HN: Does mounting servers parallel with the temperature gradient trap heat? westurner 2
2020-04-26 16:33:13 Psychological techniques to practice Stoicism hoanhan101 173
2020-04-25 10:00:05 What does the 'rc' in `.bashrc`, etc. mean? janvdberg 297
2020-04-23 16:19:24 Google ditched tipping feature for donating money to sites caution 2
2020-04-23 15:58:23 Innovating on Web Monetization: Coil and Firefox Reality stareatgoats 2
2020-04-19 22:24:07 Ask HN: Recommendations for online essay grading systems? westurner 1
2020-04-19 22:28:00 Ask HN: Systems for supporting Evidence-Based Policy? westurner 1
2020-04-19 14:54:31 Facebook, Google to be forced to share ad revenue with Australian media docdeek 148
2020-04-11 12:36:55 France rules Google must pay news firms for content us0r 134
2020-04-05 03:00:45 Adafruit Thermal Camera Imager for Fever Screening jonbaer 2
2020-03-31 18:08:57 The end of an Era – changing every single instance of a 32-bit time_t in Linux zdw 165
2020-04-01 01:16:29 Ask HN: What's the ROI of Y Combinator investments? longtermd 4
2020-04-01 00:41:15 Microsoft announces Money in Excel powered by Plaid chirau 3
2020-03-30 02:02:12 Lora-based device-to-device smartphone communication for crisis scenarios [pdf] oliver2213 90
2020-03-27 17:56:01 LoRa+WiFi ClusterDuck Protocol by Project OWL for Disaster Relief westurner 3
2020-03-26 02:53:34 A Visual Debugger for Jupyter sandGorgon 197
2020-03-27 18:45:26 Ask HN: What's the Equivalent of 'Hello, World' for a Quantum Computer? simonblack 2
2020-03-27 18:43:58 Ask HN: Communication platforms for intermittent disaster relief? westurner 1
2020-03-27 18:06:49 DroneAid: A Symbol Language and ML model for indicating needs to drones, planes westurner 2
2020-03-26 06:52:53 Ask HN: Computer Science/History Books? jackofalltrades 327
2020-03-26 06:07:26 Open-source security tools for cloud and container applications alexellisuk 53
2020-03-25 14:26:44 YC Companies Responding to Covid-19 no_gravity 144
2020-03-23 18:21:18 Show HN: Neh – Execute any script or program from Nginx location directives oap_bram 27
2020-03-21 15:39:25 Ask HN: How can a intermediate-beginner learn Unix/Linux and programming? learnTemp229462 146
2020-03-20 09:40:37 Math Symbols Explained with Python amitness 130
2020-03-20 00:16:15 Ask HN: Is there way you can covert smartphone to a no contact thermometer? shreyshrey 9
2020-03-15 05:47:35 Employee Scheduling weitzj 641
2020-03-14 07:01:16 Show HN: Simulation-based high school physics course notes lilgreenland 295
2020-03-15 04:58:04 WebAssembly brings extensibility to network proxies pjmlp 132
2020-03-14 00:29:09 Pandemic Ventilator Project mhb 318
2020-03-14 02:53:51 Low-cost ventilator wins Sloan health care prize (2019) tomcam 99
2020-03-13 19:22:55 AI can detect coronavirus from CT scans in twenty seconds laurex 109
2020-03-10 16:08:03 AutoML-Zero: Evolving machine learning algorithms from scratch lainon 260
2020-03-10 16:48:16 Options for giving math talks and lectures online chmaynard 143
2020-03-04 06:29:43 Aerogel from fruit biowaste produces ultracapacitors dalf 152
2020-03-03 05:09:35 Ask HN: How to Take Good Notes? romes 293
2020-03-03 06:36:58 Ask HN: STEM toy for a 3 years old? spapas82 117
2020-02-29 14:17:55 OpenAPI v3.1 and JSON Schema 2019-09 BerislavLopac 88
2020-02-26 03:06:01 Git for Node.js and the browser using libgit2 compiled to WebAssembly mstade 16
2020-02-20 21:02:47 Scientists use ML to find an antibiotic able to kill superbugs in mice adventured 438
2020-02-11 17:35:48 Shit – An implementation of Git using POSIX shell kick 814
2020-02-01 19:01:19 HTTP 402: Payment Required jpomykala 224
2020-01-16 15:28:07 Salesforce Sustainability Cloud Becomes Generally Available westurner 1
2020-01-09 07:07:33 Httpx: A next-generation HTTP client for Python tomchristie 462
2020-01-14 06:07:53 BlackRock CEO: Climate Crisis Will Reshape Finance vo2maxer 13
2019-12-29 13:32:58 A lot of complex “scalable” systems can be done with a simple, single C++ server Impossible 398
2019-12-31 10:19:32 Warren Buffett is spending billions to make Iowa 'the Saudi Arabia of wind' corporate_shi11 52
2019-12-27 07:08:54 Scientists Likely Found Way to Grow New Teeth for Patients elorant 243
2019-12-26 13:32:34 Announcing the New PubMed vo2maxer 119
2019-12-25 08:16:17 Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C in 2020? zabana 11
2019-12-21 07:55:04 Free and Open-Source Mathematics Textbooks vo2maxer 321
2019-12-18 09:24:05 Make CPython segfault in 5 lines of code coolreader18 130
2019-12-10 12:05:36 Applications Are Now Open for YC Startup School – Starts in January erohead 48
2019-12-10 14:37:28 ‘Adulting’ is hard. UC Berkeley has a class for that incomplete 2
2019-12-10 13:55:50 Founder came back after 8 years to rewrite flash photoshop in canvas/WebGL poniko 9
2019-12-09 09:56:35 Five cities account for vast majority of growth in U.S. tech jobs: study Bostonian 93
2019-12-01 12:45:50 Don’t Blame Tech Bros for the Housing Crisis mistersquid 30
2019-11-25 09:07:30 Docker is just static linking for millenials DyslexicAtheist 38
2019-11-14 04:01:54 Show HN: Bamboolib – A GUI for Pandas (Python Data Science) __tobals__ 119
2019-11-25 01:39:22 Battery-Electric Heavy-Duty Equipment: It's Sort of Like a Cybertruck duck 3
2019-11-09 09:26:55 Tools for turning descriptions into diagrams: text-to-picture resources ingve 61
2019-10-16 00:42:33 CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility westurner 2
2019-10-19 08:28:01 GTD Tickler file – a proposal for text file format vivekv 3
2019-10-20 02:07:48 Ask HN: Any suggestion on how to test CLI applications? pdappollonio 3
2019-10-16 00:34:32 The Golden Butterfly and the All Weather Portfolio westurner 1
2019-10-12 07:19:23 Canada's Decision To Make Public More Clinical Trial Data Puts Pressure On FDA pseudolus 192
2019-10-10 23:35:35 Python Alternative to Docker gilad 3
2019-10-09 00:17:45 $6B United Nations Agency Launches Bitcoin, Ethereum Crypto Fund zed88 8
2019-10-08 16:03:02 Timsort, the Python sorting algorithm alexchamberlain 407
2019-10-07 22:29:21 Supreme Court allows blind people to sue retailers if websites aren't accessible justadudeama 743
2019-10-04 11:15:12 Streamlit: Turn a Python script into an interactive data analysis tool danicgross 467
2019-09-23 16:43:51 Scott’s Supreme Quantum Supremacy FAQ xmmrm 600
2019-09-23 18:31:40 Ask HN: How do you handle/maintain local Python environments? PascLeRasc 103
2019-09-23 12:35:51 Is the era of the $100 graphing calculator coming to an end? prostoalex 361
2019-09-23 03:17:17 Reinventing Home Directories Schiphol 118
2019-09-23 03:00:38 Serverless: slower and more expensive kiyanwang 1787
2019-09-22 17:32:04 Entropy can be used to understand systems acgan 3
2019-09-18 07:24:36 New Query Language for Graph Databases to Become International Standard Anon84 290
2019-09-21 13:21:03 A Python Interpreter Written in Python nnnmnten 2
2019-09-21 11:51:00 Reinventing Home Directories – systemd-homed [pdf] signa11 3
2019-09-21 13:08:28 Weld: Accelerating numpy, scikit and pandas as much as 100x with Rust and LLVM unbalancedparen 585
2019-09-19 20:00:14 Craftsmanship–The Alternative to the 4 Hour Work Week oglowo3 4
2019-09-19 09:31:43 Solar and Wind Power So Cheap They’re Outgrowing Subsidies ph0rque 623
2019-09-18 06:52:46 Show HN: Python Tests That Write Themselves timothycrosley 131
2019-09-09 10:52:49 Most Americans see catastrophic weather events worsening elorant 102
2019-09-17 12:00:54 Emergent Tool Use from Multi-Agent Interaction gdb 332
2019-09-17 22:32:25 Inkscape 1.0 Beta 1 nkoren 603
2019-09-08 13:45:57 Where Dollar Bills Come From danso 69
2019-09-05 07:13:24 Monetary Policy Is the Root Cause of the Millennials’ Struggle joshuafkon 52
2019-08-30 15:42:12 Non-root containers, Kubernetes CVE-2019-11245 and why you should care zelivans 8
2019-08-25 23:49:46 How do black holes destroy information and why is that a problem? sohkamyung 195
2019-08-25 09:48:11 Banned C standard library functions in Git source code susam 502
2019-08-25 10:01:30 Ask HN: What's the hardest thing to secure in a web-app? juansgaitan 7
2019-08-22 01:29:43 Crystal growers who sparked a revolution in graphene electronics sohkamyung 85
2019-08-22 16:27:43 Things to Know About GNU Readline matt_d 204
2019-08-22 16:16:41 Show HN: Termpage – Build a webpage that behaves like a terminal brisky 5
2019-08-21 22:49:19 Vimer - Avoid multiple instances of GVim with gvim –remote[-tab]-silent wrapper grepgeek 6
2019-08-22 16:06:27 Electric Dump Truck Produces More Energy Than It Uses mreome 3
2019-08-21 17:34:53 Ask HN: Let's make an open source/free SaaS platform to tackle school forms busymichael 12
2019-08-21 14:18:17 Ask HN: Is there a CRUD front end for databases (especially SQLite)? Tomte 2
2019-08-20 06:43:31 California approves solar-powered EV charging network and electric school buses elorant 15
2019-08-17 10:58:03 You May Be Better Off Picking Stocks at Random, Study Finds Vaslo 146
2019-08-12 08:15:23 Root: CERN's scientific data analysis framework for C++ z3phyr 137
2019-08-13 02:09:30 MesaPy: A Memory-Safe Python Implementation based on PyPy (2018) ospider 119
2019-08-11 16:22:30 Ask HN: Configuration Management for Personal Computer? jacquesm 197
2019-08-08 13:11:06 GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories dstaheli 680
2019-08-05 17:19:30 The Fed is getting into the Real-Time payments business apo 96
2019-07-08 15:26:38 A Giant Asteroid of Gold Won’t Make Us Richer pseudolus 92
2019-07-08 10:52:06 Abusing the PHP Query String Parser to Bypass IDS, IPS, and WAF lelf 92
2019-06-28 14:23:33 Ask HN: Scripts/commands for extracting URL article text? (links -dump but) WCityMike 1
2019-07-02 11:02:08 NPR's Guide to Hypothesis-Driven Design for Editorial Projects danso 101
2019-06-20 14:56:56 Gryphon: An open-source framework for algorithmic trading in cryptocurrency reso 236
2019-06-21 00:18:36 Wind-Powered Car Travels Downwind Faster Than the Wind J253 5
2019-06-13 19:39:58 NOAA upgrades the U.S. global weather forecast model mehrdadn 214
2019-06-12 08:16:17 A plan to change how Harvard teaches economics carlosgg 116
2019-06-12 17:41:58 The New York Times course to teach its reporters data skills is now open-source espeed 423
2019-06-11 10:21:59 No Kings: How Do You Make Good Decisions Efficiently in a Flat Organization? eugenegamma 743
2019-06-01 23:13:28 4 Years of College, $0 in Debt: How Some Countries Make Education Affordable pseudolus 2
2019-05-26 10:16:10 Ask HN: What jobs can a software engineer take to tackle climate change? envfriendly 67
2019-05-23 12:59:05 YC's request for startups: Government 2.0 simonebrunozzi 194
2019-05-23 13:52:23 Almost 40% of Americans Would Struggle to Cover a $400 Emergency Geeek 112
2019-05-19 16:01:51 Congress should grow the Digital Services budget, it more than pays for itself rmason 68
2019-05-20 01:20:05 The Trillion-Dollar Annual Interest Payment westurner 2
2019-05-15 07:09:29 Oak, a Free and Open Certificate Transparency Log dankohn1 143
2019-05-14 09:36:21 Death rates from energy production per TWh peter_retief 122
2019-05-11 22:37:32 Use links not keys to represent relationships in APIs sarego 342
2019-05-09 23:49:28 No Python in Red Hat Linux 8? jandeboevrie 19
2019-05-06 09:16:47 JMAP: A modern, open email protocol okket 307
2019-05-09 14:51:33 Grid Optimization Competition zeristor 2
2019-05-02 16:11:54 Blockchain's present opportunity: data interchange standardization ivoras 2
2019-04-30 12:45:38 Ask HN: Value of “Shares of Stock options” when joining a startup cdeveloper 5
2019-04-28 13:46:48 CMU Computer Systems: Self-Grading Lab Assignments (2018) georgecmu 205
2019-04-28 14:50:29 Show HN: Debugging-Friendly Tracebacks for Python cknd 121
2019-04-28 07:41:27 Why isn't 1 a prime number? gpvos 273
2019-04-28 07:26:37 How do we know when we’ve fallen in love? (2016) rohmanhakim 157
2019-04-27 21:50:58 Rare and strange ICD-10 codes zdw 68
2019-04-20 15:10:14 Python Requests III maximilianroos 19
2019-04-17 09:43:04 Post-surgical deaths in Scotland drop by a third, attributed to a checklist fanf2 1036
2019-04-17 16:06:09 Apply to Y Combinator dlhntestuser 3
2019-04-02 03:51:50 Trunk-Based Development vs. Git Flow kiyanwang 4
2019-04-01 17:25:58 Ask HN: Anyone else write the commit message before they start coding? xkapastel 25
2019-03-27 03:29:30 Ask HN: Datalog as the only language for web programming, logic and database truth_seeker 21
2019-03-24 19:46:33 The cortex is a neural network of neural networks curtis 297
2019-03-22 21:51:49 Is there a program like codeacademy but for learning sysadmin? tayvz 7
2019-03-22 17:18:44 Maybe You Don't Need Kubernetes ra7 500
2019-03-21 08:04:34 Quantum Machine Appears to Defy Universe’s Push for Disorder biofox 78
2019-03-21 12:45:42 Pytype checks and infers types for your Python code mkesper 4
2019-03-20 21:56:26 How I'm able to take notes in mathematics lectures using LaTeX and Vim tambourine_man 674
2019-03-21 05:18:51 LHCb discovers matter-antimatter asymmetry in charm quarks rbanffy 269
2019-03-21 00:22:37 React Router v5 jsdev93 153
2019-03-15 18:23:21 Experimental rejection of observer-independence in the quantum world lisper 186
2019-03-15 08:14:22 Show HN: A simple Prolog Interpreter written in a few lines of Python 3 photon_lines 148
2019-03-07 17:57:28 How to earn your macroeconomics and finance white belt as a software developer andrenth 307
2019-03-02 14:24:35 Ask HN: Relationship between set theory and category theory fmihaila 4
2019-02-26 11:24:41 The most popular docker images each contain at least 30 vulnerabilities vinnyglennon 562
2019-02-24 22:39:39 Tinycoin: A small, horrible cryptocurrency in Python for educational purposes MrXOR 4
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2019-02-20 22:53:23 Simdjson – Parsing Gigabytes of JSON per Second cmsimike 597
2019-02-18 10:13:02 A faster, more efficient cryptocurrency salvadormon 583
2019-02-17 05:52:11 Git-signatures – Multiple PGP signatures for your commits Couto 75
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2019-02-06 07:15:56 Compounding Knowledge golyi 481
2019-02-16 14:49:30 Why CISA Issued Our First Emergency Directive ca98am79 211
2019-02-14 23:22:11 Chrome will Soon Let You Share Links to a Specific Word or Sentence on a Page kumaranvpl 359
2019-02-09 12:21:30 Guidelines for keeping a laboratory notebook Tomte 87
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2019-02-06 14:50:35 Show HN: React-Schemaorg: Strongly-Typed JSON-LD for React Eyas 16
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2019-02-05 01:56:30 Lectures in Quantitative Economics as Python and Julia Notebooks westurner 355
2019-02-04 11:55:50 If Software Is Funded from a Public Source, Its Code Should Be Open Source jrepinc 1138
2019-02-04 23:55:48 Apache Arrow 0.12.0 westurner 1
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2019-02-04 20:03:28 U.S. Federal District Court Declared Bitcoin as Legal Money obilgic 12
2019-01-30 12:42:06 Post Quantum Crypto Standardization Process – Second Round Candidates Announced dlgeek 2
2019-01-30 13:59:56 Ask HN: How do you evaluate security of OSS before importing? riyakhanna1983 5
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2019-01-29 19:43:16 Ask HN: Steps to forming a company? jxr006 4
2019-01-29 13:48:48 A Self-Learning, Modern Computer Science Curriculum hacknrk 394
2019-01-24 00:34:14 MVP Spec hyperpallium 2
2019-01-21 12:10:37 Can we merge Certificate Transparency with blockchain? fedotovcorp 3
2019-01-21 20:38:23 Why Don't People Use Formal Methods? pplonski86 419
2019-01-20 20:29:25 Steps to a clean dataset with Pandas NicoJuicy 4
2019-01-19 19:38:48 Reahl – A Python-only web framework kim0 165
2019-01-12 19:56:20 Ask HN: How can you save money while living on poverty level? ccdev 8
2019-01-11 14:46:52 A DNS hijacking wave is targeting companies at an almost unprecedented scale Elof 112
2019-01-09 23:09:59 Show HN: Generate dank mnemonic seed phrases in the terminal mofle 3
2019-01-08 15:28:29 Can you sign a quantum state? zdw 3
2019-01-09 18:04:41 Lattice Attacks Against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies [pdf] soohyung 11
2019-01-09 12:00:44 REMME – A blockchain-based protocol for issuing X.509 client certificates fedotovcorp 33
2019-01-08 09:51:20 California grid data is live – solar developers take note Osiris30 2
2019-01-05 12:30:30 Why attend predatory colleges in the US? azhenley 3
2018-12-31 15:43:54 Ask HN: Data analysis workflow? tucaz 1
2018-12-28 16:25:15 The U.S. is spending millions to solve mystery sonic attacks on diplomats johnshades 5
2018-12-27 10:00:38 Ask HN: What is your favorite open-source job scheduler bohinjc 6
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2018-12-04 10:25:47 Teaching and Learning with Jupyter (A book by Jupyter for Education) westurner 5
2018-11-27 17:48:54 Margin Notes: Automatic code documentation with recorded examples from runtime mpweiher 67
2018-11-24 15:33:08 Time to break academic publishing's stranglehold on research joeyespo 692
2018-11-22 10:32:27 Ask HN: How can I learn to read mathematical notation? cursorial 211
2018-10-18 18:07:59 New law lets you defer capital gains taxes by investing in opportunity zones rmason 88
2018-10-15 19:55:06 How to Write a Technical Paper [pdf] boricensis 360
2018-10-15 15:19:40 JSON-LD 1.0: A JSON-Based Serialization for Linked Data geezerjay 2
2018-10-14 15:30:29 Jeff Hawkins Is Finally Ready to Explain His Brain Research tysone 489
2018-10-12 03:02:01 Interstellar Visitor Found to Be Unlike a Comet or an Asteroid Bootvis 204
2018-10-12 02:15:03 Publishing more data behind our reporting gballan 146
2018-10-10 22:23:44 CSV 1.1 – CSV Evolved (for Humans) polm23 84
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2018-10-08 10:23:38 Graduate Student Solves Quantum Verification Problem digital55 267
2018-10-05 07:53:30 The down side to wind power todd8 63
2018-10-05 05:47:19 Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki westurner 2
2018-10-04 09:27:48 Why Do Computers Use So Much Energy? tshannon 220
2018-09-30 22:11:07 Justice Department Sues to Stop California Net Neutrality Law jonburs 201
2018-09-22 10:52:45 White House Drafts Order to Probe Google, Facebook Practices Jerry2 105
2018-09-19 20:37:52 Ask HN: Books about applying the open source model to society kennu 1
2018-09-12 16:02:35 Today, Europe Lost The Internet. Now, We Fight Back DiabloD3 433
2018-09-01 14:13:52 Consumer science (a.k.a. home economics) as a college major guard0g 4
2018-08-28 11:18:26 Facebook vows to run on 100 percent renewable energy by 2020 TamoC 2
2018-08-30 12:51:10 California Moves to Require 100% Clean Electricity by 2045 dsr12 407
2018-08-29 11:15:59 Miami Will Be Underwater Soon. Its Drinking Water Could Go First hourislate 264
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2018-08-29 12:18:35 The Burden: Fossil Fuel, the Military and National Security westurner 3
2018-08-29 02:27:58 Scientists Warn the UN of Capitalism's Imminent Demise westurner 1
2018-08-28 14:41:52 Firefox Nightly Secure DNS Experimental Results Vinnl 40
2018-08-28 08:31:48 Long-sought decay of Higgs boson observed at CERN chmaynard 243
2018-08-28 09:00:54 Sen. Wyden Confirms Cell-Site Simulators Disrupt Emergency Calls DiabloD3 518
2018-08-23 00:01:34 Building a Model for Retirement Savings in Python koblenski 3
2018-08-20 21:38:10 New E.P.A. Rollback of Coal Pollution Regulations Takes a Major Step Forward yaseen-rob 3
2018-08-20 14:21:22 Researchers Build Room-Temp Quantum Transistor Using a Single Atom jonbaer 3
2018-08-20 10:55:17 New “Turning Tables” Technique Bypasses All Windows Kernel Mitigations yaseen-rob 2
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2018-08-15 03:46:23 SQLite Release 3.25.0 adds support for window functions MarkusWinand 333
2018-08-15 19:53:03 Update on the Distrust of Symantec TLS Certificates dumpsterkid 3
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2018-08-12 08:56:52 Academic Torrents – Making 27TB of research data available jacquesm 1081
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2018-07-10 23:53:58 Causal Inference Book luu 104
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2018-06-25 16:57:46 FDA approves first marijuana-derived drug and it may spark DEA rescheduling mikece 150
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2018-06-17 20:19:20 New US Solar Record – 2.155 Cents per KWh prostoalex 4
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2018-05-22 23:15:18 Banks Adopt Military-Style Tactics to Fight Cybercrime petethomas 3
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2018-04-09 23:51:08 Apple says it’s now powered by renewable energy worldwide iamspoilt 272
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2018-02-27 10:37:54 A framework for evaluating data scientist competency schaunwheeler 3
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2018-02-16 00:16:09 The Benjamin Franklin method for learning more from programming books nancyhua 566
2018-02-10 20:41:21 Avoiding blackouts with 100% renewable energy ramonvillasante 2
2018-02-10 11:25:54 Ask HN: What are some common abbreviations you use as a developer? yagamidev 3
2018-02-09 19:42:21 There Might Be No Way to Live Comfortably Without Also Ruining the Planet SirLJ 43
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2018-01-18 19:51:30 Kimbal Musk is leading a $25M mission to fix food in US schools rmason 2
2018-01-13 21:42:47 Spinzero – A Minimal Jupyter Notebook Theme neilpanchal 5
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2018-01-10 14:02:09 Git is a blockchain Swizec 13
2018-01-07 12:06:03 Show HN: Convert Matlab/NumPy matrices to LaTeX tables tpaschalis 4
2018-01-02 10:48:10 A Year of Spaced Repetition Software in the Classroom misiti3780 4
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2017-12-21 14:30:35 Mathematicians Find Wrinkle in Famed Fluid Equations digital55 240
2017-12-20 10:43:31 Bitcoin is an energy arbitrage js4 51
2017-12-19 17:03:30 There are now more than 200k pending Bitcoin transactions OyoKooN 192
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2017-12-17 07:32:06 Show HN: An educational blockchain implementation in Python jre 412
2017-12-16 08:12:44 MSU Scholars Find $21T in Unauthorized Government Spending sillypuddy 137
2017-12-13 04:59:42 Universities spend millions on accessing results of publicly funded research versteegen 624
2017-12-11 19:49:44 An Interactive Introduction to Quantum Computing kevlened 254
2017-12-12 12:34:46 Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them (ECDSA, SHA256) westurner 2
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2017-12-12 10:17:39 Who’s Afraid of Bitcoin? The Futures Traders Going Short thisisit 54
2017-12-11 19:21:38 Statement on Cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings corbinpage 811
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2017-12-01 21:55:26 The 5 most ridiculous things the FCC says in its new net neutrality propaganda pulisse 164
2017-12-01 13:15:47 FCC's Pai, addressing net neutrality rules, calls Twitter biased joeyespo 13
2017-12-01 05:49:25 A curated list of Chaos Engineering resources dastergon 51
2017-12-01 11:24:06 Technology behind Bitcoin could aid science, report says digital55 13
2017-11-30 15:07:26 Git hash function transition plan vszakats 215
2017-11-30 22:04:20 Vintage Cray Supercomputer Rolls Up to Auction ohjeez 3
2017-11-30 21:21:09 Google is officially 100% sun and wind powered – 3.0 gigawatts worth rippsu 163
2017-11-29 12:29:30 Interactive workflows for C++ with Jupyter SylvainCorlay 292
2017-11-28 16:01:32 Vanguard Founder Jack Bogle Says ‘Avoid Bitcoin Like the Plague’ dionmanu 105
2017-11-29 11:22:54 Nasdaq Plans to Introduce Bitcoin Futures knwang 416
2017-11-28 17:49:07 Ask HN: Where do you think Bitcoin will be by 2020? rblion 10
2017-11-28 18:03:11 Ask HN: Why would anyone share trading algorithms and compare by performance? westurner 1
2017-11-25 06:28:39 Ask HN: CS papers for software architecture and design? avrmav 513
2017-11-15 10:24:27 Keeping a Lab Notebook [pdf] Tomte 327
2017-10-28 08:12:53 How to teach technical concepts with cartoons Tomte 170
2017-10-22 16:43:03 Fact Checks fanf2 126
2017-10-19 05:51:13 DHS orders agencies to adopt DMARC email security puppetmaster30 2
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2017-10-19 05:20:26 PAC Fundraising with Ethereum Contracts? westurner 1
2017-10-19 05:16:25 SolarWindow Completes Financing ($2.5m) westurner 2
2017-10-16 12:48:08 Here’s what you can do to protect yourself from the KRACK WiFi vulnerability tdrnd 2
2017-10-14 12:41:29 The Solar Garage Door – A Possible Alternative to the Emergency Generator curtis 2
2017-10-14 07:34:07 Using the Web Audio API to Make a Modem maaaats 307
2017-10-11 18:25:17 Ask HN: How to introduce someone to programming concepts during 12-hour drive? nkkollaw 9
2017-09-27 01:24:13 American Red Cross Asks for Ham Radio Operators for Puerto Rico Relief Effort kw71 346
2017-09-26 14:58:38 Technical and non-technical tips for rocking your coding interview duck 259
2017-09-23 12:12:36 Django 2.0 alpha orf 156
2017-09-24 00:15:28 Ask HN: What is the best way to spend my time as a 17-year-old who can code? jmeyer2k 161
2017-09-21 14:18:33 Democrats fight FCC's plans to redefine “broadband” from 25+ to 10+ Mbps gnicholas 18
2017-09-17 12:49:37 Ask HN: Any detailed explanation of computer science smithmayowa 2
2017-09-16 18:40:33 Ask HN: What algorithms should I research to code a conference scheduling app viertaxa 55
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2017-09-15 23:22:02 Ask HN: What can't you do in Excel? (2017) danso 37
2017-09-08 20:04:36 Open Source Ruling Confirms Enforceability of Dual-Licensing and Breach of GPL t3f 116
2017-09-01 11:27:30 Elon Musk Describes What Great Communication Looks Like endswapper 90
2017-09-01 04:05:12 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science tu7001 290
2017-08-28 16:06:24 Ask HN: How do you, as a developer, set measurable and actionable goals? humaninstrument 24
2017-08-26 16:06:24 Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index schwabacher 256
2017-08-26 09:59:19 Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain brahmwg 71
2017-08-26 09:03:19 Rumours swell over new kind of gravitational-wave sighting indescions_2017 258
2017-08-20 12:56:37 New Discovery Simplifies Quantum Physics wolfgke 2
2017-08-23 03:22:00 OpenAI has developed new baseline tool for improving deep reinforcement learning grey_shirts 3
2017-08-24 23:19:03 The prior can generally only be understood in the context of the likelihood selimthegrim 94
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2017-08-15 15:45:47 Ask HN: What are your favorite entrepreneurship resources brianbreslin 13
2017-05-09 12:59:38 CPU Utilization is Wrong dmit 624
2017-05-06 17:13:03 Ask HN: Can I use convolutional neural networks to clasify videos on a CPU Faizann20 1
2017-05-01 10:17:36 Esoteric programming paradigms SlyShy 397
2017-04-27 04:41:09 gRPC-Web: Moving past REST+JSON towards type-safe Web APIs bestan 329
2017-04-16 03:59:55 Reasons blog posts can be of higher scientific quality than journal articles vixen99 233
2017-04-07 12:50:38 Fact Check now available in Google Search and News fouadmatin 302
2017-04-07 20:07:05 Ask HN: Is anyone working on CRISPR for happiness? arikr 4
2017-03-26 14:58:59 Roadmap to becoming a web developer in 2017 miguelarauj1o 4
2017-03-20 19:14:10 Beautiful Online SICP Dangeranger 762
2017-03-19 11:52:48 Ask HN: How do you keep track/save your learnings?(so that you can revisit them) mezod 4
2017-03-11 13:26:30 Ask HN: Criticisms of Bayesian statistics? muraiki 1
2017-01-16 18:53:09 80,000 Hours career plan worksheet BreakoutList 230
2017-01-07 18:27:31 World's first smartphone with a molecular sensor is coming in 2017 walterbell 19
2016-12-31 12:11:14 Ask HN: How would one build a business that only develops free software? anondon 12
2016-12-29 00:40:11 Ask HN: If your job involves continually importing CSVs, what industry is it? iamwil 12
2016-12-09 17:21:13 Ask HN: Maybe I kind of suck as a programmer – how do I supercharge my work? tastyface 328
2016-11-20 06:33:34 Ask HN: Anything Like Carl Sagan's Cosmos for Computer Science? leksak 32
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2016-11-13 00:23:33 Ask HN: Best Git workflow for small teams tmaly 166
2016-11-10 15:46:57 TDD Doesn't Work narfz 153
2016-11-07 14:13:48 C for Python programmers (2011) bogomipz 314
2016-10-26 02:19:06 Ask HN: How do you organise/integrate all the information in your life? tonteldoos 323
2016-10-23 14:06:00 Ask HN: What are the best web tools to build basic web apps as of October 2016? arikr 114
2016-10-16 10:55:18 Harvard and M.I.T. Are Sued Over Lack of Closed Captions lsh123 45
2016-10-06 11:15:16 Jack Dorsey Is Losing Control of Twitter miraj 283
2016-09-18 09:09:04 Mission, Project, Goal, Objective, Task westurner 49
2016-09-18 08:59:41 This week is #GlobalGoals week (and week of The World's Largest Lesson) westurner 1
2016-08-19 08:12:25 The Open Source Data Science Masters nns 95
2016-07-29 06:08:29 We Should Not Accept Scientific Results That Have Not Been Repeated dnetesn 910
2016-05-30 07:39:05 The SQL filter clause: selective aggregates MarkusWinand 138
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2016-05-10 08:55:01 A Reboot of the Legendary Physics Site ArXiv Could Shape Open Science tonybeltramelli 174
2014-03-23 14:27:04 Principles of good data analysis gjreda 108
2014-03-11 08:16:38 Why Puppet, Chef, Ansible aren't good enough iElectric2 362
2014-03-11 20:12:16 Python vs Julia – an example from machine learning ajtulloch 170
2014-02-17 10:23:21 Free static page hosting on Google App Engine in minutes fizerkhan 95
2014-02-03 09:15:30 “Don’t Reinvent the Wheel, Use a Framework” They All Say mogosselin 79
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2013-08-11 01:56:12 PEP 450: Adding A Statistics Module To The Standard Library petsos 185
2013-08-02 21:03:51 Functional Programming with Python llambda 107
2013-08-01 10:59:55 PEP 8 Modernisation tristaneuan 213
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2013-07-13 11:35:40 The data visualization community needs its own Hacker News ejfox 11
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2013-05-04 10:40:20 Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat Sheet ashleyblackmore 520
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2013-05-04 14:04:39 Norton Ghost discontinued ruchirablog 42



JupyterLite – WASM-powered Jupyter running in the browser


From re: Starboard:

> : "Subresource Integrity (SRI) is a security feature that enables browsers to verify that resources they fetch (for example, from a CDN) are delivered without unexpected manipulation. It works by allowing you to provide a cryptographic hash that a fetched resource must match."

> There's a new Native Filesystem API: "The new Native File System API allows web apps to read or save changes directly to files and folders on the user's device."

> We'll need a way to grant specific URLs specific, limited amounts of storage.


> :

> Would [Micromamba] and conda-forge build a WASM architecture target?


Accenture, GitHub, Microsoft and ThoughtWorks Launch the GSF

> With data centers around the world accounting for 1% of global electricity demand, and projections to consume 3-8% in the next decade, it’s imperative we address this as an industry.

> To help in that endeavor, we’re excited to announce the formation of The Green Software Foundation – a nonprofit founded by Accenture, GitHub, Microsoft and ThoughtWorks established with the Linux Foundation and the Joint Development Foundation Projects LLC to build a trusted ecosystem of people, standards, tooling and leading practices for building green software. The Green Software Foundation was born out of a mutual desire and need to collaborate across the software industry. Organizations with a shared commitment to sustainability and an interest in green software development principles are encouraged to join the foundation to help grow the field of green software engineering, contribute to standards for the industry, and work together to reduce the carbon emissions of software. The foundation aims to help the software industry contribute to the information and communications technology sector’s broader targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 45% by 2030, in line with the Paris Climate Agreement.

Here's to now hand-optimized efficient EC, SHA-256, SHA-3, and Scrypt routines due to incentives. See also The Crypto Climate Accord, which is also inspired by the Paris Agreement:

... "Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki"

Is 100% offset by PPAs always 200% Green?

From "Ask HN: What jobs can a software engineer take to tackle climate change?" :

> [ ] We should create some sort of a badge and structured data (JSONLD, RDFa, Microdata) for site headers and/or footers that lets consumers know that we're working toward '200% green' so that we can vote with our money.


No, under the Paris Agreement, countries set voluntary targets for themselves and regularly reassess.


TBF, the glut of [Chinese,] solar panels has significantly helped lower the cost of renewables; which is in everyone's interest.


"What are you doing to help solve that problem?"


Rocky Linux releases its first release candidate


Would Rocky Linux be an option for CERN?

I'm assuming the Centos 8 install instructions for e.g. GitLab also work with Rocky Linux? Conda/Micromamba definitely should.


USB-C is about to go from 100W to 240W, enough to power beefier laptops

What are the costs to add a USB PD module to an electronic device?‑c-power-for-all-you...

- [ ] Create an industry standard interface for charging and using [power tool,] battery packs; and adapters


Half-Double: New hammering technique for DRAM Rowhammer bug

From "Rowhammer for qubits: is it possible?" :

> Sometimes bits just flip due to "cosmic rays"; or, logically, also due to e.g. neutron beams and magnetic fields.

> With rowhammer, there are read/write (?) access patterns which cause predictable-enough information "leakage" to be useful for data exfiltration and privilege escalation.

> With the objective of modeling qubit interactions using quantum-mechanical properties of fields of electrons in e.g. DRAM, Is there a way to use DRAM electron "soft errors" to model quantum interactions; to build a quantum computer from what we currently see as errors in DRAM?

> If not with current DRAM, could one apply a magnetic field to DRAM in order to exploit quantum properties of electrons moving in a magnetic field?

> [...] are there DRAM read/write patterns which cause errors due to interference which approximate quantum logic gates? Probably not, but maybe; especially with an applied magnetic field (which then isn't the DRAM sitting on our desks, it's then DRAM + a constant or variable field).

> I suppose to test this longshot theory, one would need to fuzz low-level RAM loads and search for outputs that look like quantum gate outputs. Or, monitor normal workloads which result in RAM faults which approximate quantum logic gate outputs and train a network to recognize the features.

> I am reminded of a recent approach to in-RAM computing that's not memristors.

> Soft errors caused by cosmic rays are obviously more frequent at higher altitudes (and outside of the Van Allen radiation belt).

Thought I'd ask this here as well.

Quantum tunneling was the perceived barrier at like DDR5 and higher densities FWIU? Barring new non-electron-based tech, how can we prevent adjacent electrons from just flipping at that gate grid gap size?

Other Quantum-on-Silicon approaches have coherence issues, too


Setting up a Raspberry Pi with 2 Network Interfaces as a simple router


> This page shows devices which have a LTE modem built in and are supported by OpenWrt.

It looks like this table is neither current nor complete though. And there's a different table of OpenWRT compatible devices that have a battery as well.

> [The Amarok (GL-X1200) Industrial IoT Gateway has] 2x SIM card slots for 2x 4G LTE modems (probably miniPCI-E so maybe upgradeable to 5G later), external antenna connectors for the LTE modems, MicroSD, #OpenWRT:

The Turris Omnia also has 4G LTE SIM card support (and LXC in their OpenWRT build).

There's also a [Dockerized] x86 build of OpenWRT that probably also supports Mini PCI-E modules for 4G LTE, LoRa, and 5G. Route metrics determine which [gateway] route is tried first.

From "How much total throughput can your wi-fi router really provide?" :

> In 2021, most routers - even with OpenWRT and hardware-offloading - cannot actually push 1 Gigabit over wired Ethernet, though the port spec does say 1000 Mbps


What to do about GPU packages on PyPI?


[Huge GPU] packages can be cached locally: persist ~/.cache/pip between builds with e.g. Docker, run a PyPI caching proxy,

"[Discussions on] [Packaging] Draft PEP: PyPI cost solutions: CI, mirrors, containers, and caching to scale"

> Continuous Integration automated build and testing services can help reduce the costs of hosting PyPI by running local mirrors and advising clients in regards to how to efficiently re-build software hundreds or thousands of times a month without re-downloading everything from PyPI every time.


> Request from and advisory for CI Services and CI Implementors:

> Dear CI Service,

> - Please consider running local package mirrors and enabling use of local package mirrors by default for clients’ CI builds.

> - Please advise clients regarding more efficient containerized software build and test strategies.

> Running local package mirrors will save PyPI (the Python Package Index, a service maintained by PyPA, a group within the non-profit Python Software Foundation) generously donated resources. (At present (March 2020), PyPI costs ~ $800,000 USD a month to operate; even with generously donated resources).

Looks like the current figure is significantly higher than $800K/mo for science.

How to persist ~/.cache/pip between builds with e.g. Docker in order to minimize unnecessary GPU package re-downloads:

  RUN --mount=type=cache,target=/root/.cache/pip

  RUN --mount=type=cache,target=/home/appuser/.cache/pip


Markdown Notes VS Code extension: Navigate notes with [[wiki-links]]

> Syntax highlighting for #tags.

What's the best way to search for #tags with VS Code? Are #tags indexed into an e.g. ctags file within a project or a directory?

> @bibtex-citations: Use pandoc-style citations in your notes (eg @author_title_year) to get syntax highlighting, autocompletion and go to definition, if you setup a global BibTeX file with your references.


Thanks, yeah. Is there anything that does stemming or at least depluralization of the word around the cursor or the full selection before brute searching for it?


Ask HN: Choosing a language to learn for the heck of it

I'm a technical manager, which means I do a lot of administrative stuff and a little coding. The coding has become a nice distraction when I need to take a break.

For "real work" I write mostly Python, a lot of SQL, a little bit of Go, and some shell scripting to glue it together. I'd like to learn something I have no need of for work. If it becomes useful later, that is OK, but not a goal. The goal is in creating something just for fun. That something is undefined, so general purpose languages are the population.

I have become curious lately in Nim, Crystal, and Zig. Small, modern, high performance languages. Curiousity comes from the cases when they are mentioned here, sometime for similar reasons I list above.

Nim is on top of the list: Sort of Python like, supported on Windows (I use Win/Mac/Linux), appears to have libraries for the things I do: Process text for insights, play projects would use interesting data instead of business data.

Crystal does not support Windows (yet), but appears to closer to Ruby. Its performance may be a bit better.

Zig came on my radar recently, I know less about it, compared to the little I know of the others.

Suggestions on choosing one as a hobby language?

> Suggestions on choosing one as a hobby language?

IDK how much of a hobby it'd remain, but: Rust compiles to WASM, C++ now has auto and coroutines (and real live memory management)

"Ask HN: Is it worth it to learn C in 2020?"


Show HN: Django SQL Dashboard


This launches the web-based Werkzeug debugger on Exception:

  pip install django-extensions
  python runserver_plus

This should run IPython Notebook with database models already imported :

  python shell_plus --notebook
But writing fixtures, tests and (celery / dask-labextension) tasks is probably the better way to do things. Django-rest-assured is one way to get a tested REST API with DRF and e.g. factory_boy for generating test data.


Interactive IPA Chart

Jeud | 2021-05-06 13:33:00 | 243 | # | ^

Is there a [Linked Data] resource with the information in this interactive IPA chart (which is from Wikipedia FWICS) in addition to?:

- phoneme, ns:"US English letter combinations", []

- phoneme, ns:" which feature said phoneme", []

AFAIU, WordNet RDF doesn't have links to any IPA RDFS/OWL vocabulary/ontology yet.


Google Dataset Search


Use cases for such [LD: Linked Data] metadata:

1. #StructuredPremises:

> (How do I indicate that this is a predicated upon premises including this Dataset and these logical propositions?)

2. #LinkedMetaAnalyses; #LinkedResearch "#StudyGraph"

3. [CSVW (Tabular Data Model),] with per column (per-feature) physical quantity and unit URIs with e.g. QUDT and/or metadata for maximum data reusability.

4. JupyterLab notebooks:

4a. JupyterLab Metadata Service extension: :

> - displays linked data about the resources you are interacting with in JuyterLab.

> - enables other extensions to register as linked data providers to expose JSON LD about an entity given the entity's URL.

> - exposes linked data to the user as a Linked Data viewer in the Data Browser pane.

4b. JupyterLab Data Explorer: :

> - Data changing on you? Use RxJS observables to represent data over time.

> - Have a new way to look at your data? Create React or lumino components to view a certain type.

> - Built-in data explorer UI to find and use available datasets.


Ask HN: Cap Table Service Recommendations

Recent founders, do you have any recommendations for services for managing a cap table? Or do you do it yourself? Any suggestions for how to choose?


Hosting SQLite databases on GitHub Pages or any static file hoster


This looks pretty efficient. Some chains can be interacted with without e.g. web3.js? LevelDB indexes aren't SQLite.

Datasette is one application for views of read-only SQLite dbs with out-of-band replication.

There are a bunch of *-to-sqlite utilities in corresponding dogsheep project.

Arrow JS for 'paged' browser client access to DuckDB might be possible and faster but without full SQLite SQL compatibility and the SQLite test suite. :

> Direct Parquet & CSV querying

In-browser notebooks like Pyodide and Jyve have local filesystem access with the new "Filesystem Access API", but downloading/copying all data to the browser for every run of a browser-hosted notebook may not be necessary.


Wasm3 compiles itself (using LLVM/Clang compiled to WASM)

Self-hosting (compilers) :

> In computer programming, self-hosting is the use of a program as part of the toolchain or operating system that produces new versions of that same program—for example, a compiler that can compile its own source code


The wikipedia article lists quite a few languages for which there are self-hosting compilers.

JS can already write more JS. Are there advantages and risks introduced by this new capability for browser-hosted (?) WASM LLVM to compile WASM?


Semgrep: Semantic grep for code

Is there a more complete example of how to call semgrep from pre-commit (which gets called before every git commit) in order to prevent e.g. Python print calls (print(), print \\n(), etc.) from being checked in? describes how to do pre-commit.

Nvm, here's semgrep's own .pre-commit-config.yml for semgrep itself:


Yeah but that githook will only be installed on that one repo on that one machine. And they may have no or a different version of bash installed (on e.g. MacOS or Windows). IMHO, POSIX-compatible portable shell scripts are more trouble than portable Python scripts.

Pre-commit requires Python and pre-commit to be installed (and then it downloads every hook function).

This fetches the latest version of every hook defined in the .pre-commit-config.yml:

  pre-commit autoupdate

A person could easily `ln -s repo/.hooks/hook*.sh repo/.git/hooks/` after every git clone.


IDE plugins are not at all consistent from one IDE to another. Pre-commit is great for teams with different IDEs because all everyone needs to do is:

  [pip,] install pre-commit
  pre-commit install
  # git commit
  #   pre-commit run --all-files

  # pre-commit autoupdate


Ask HN: What to use instead of Bash / Sh for scripting?

I'm at the point where I feel a certain fatigue writing Bash scripts, but I am just not sure of what the alternative is for medium sized (say, ~150-500 LOC) scripts.

The common refrain of "use Python" hasn't really worked fantastically: I don't know what version of Python I'm going to have on the system, installing dependencies is not fun, shelling out when needed is not pleasant, and the size of program always seemingly doubles.

I'm willing to accept something that's not on the system as long as it's one smallish binary that's available in multiple architectures. Right now, I've settled on (ab)using jq, using it whenever tasks get too complex, but I'm wondering if anyone else has found a better way that should also hopefully not be completely a black box to my colleagues?

A configuration management system may have you write e.g. YAML with Jinja2 so that you don't reinvent the idempotent wheel.

It's really easy to write dangerous shell scripts ("${@}" vs ${@} for example) and also easy to write dangerous Python scripts (cmd="{}; {}").

Sarge is one way to use subprocess in Python.

If you're doing installation and configuration, the most team-maintainable thing is to avoid custom code and work with a configuration management system test runner.

When you "A shell script will be fine, all I have to do is [...]" and then you realize that you need a portable POSIX shell script and to be merged it must have actual automated tests of things that are supposed to run as root - now in a fresh vm/container for testing - and manual verification of `set +xev` output isn't an automated assertion.

> avoid custom code and work with a configuration management system test runner

ansible-molecule is a test runner for Ansible playbooks that can create VMs or containers on local or remote resources.

You can definitely just call shell scripts from Ansible, but the (parallel) script output is only logged after the script returns a return code unless you pipe the script output somewhere and tail that .

> manual verification of `set +xev` output isn't an automated assertion.

From "Bash Error Handling" : you can display the line number in `set -x` output by setting $PS4:

  export PS4='+(${BASH_SOURCE}:${LINENO}) '
  set -x
But that's no substitute for automated tests and a test runner that produces e.g. TAP output from test runner results:


Estonian Electronic Identity Card and Its Security Challenges [pdf]


FWIU, DHS has funded [1] development of e.g W3C DID Decentralized Identifiers [2] and W3C Verifiable Credentials [3]:




Additional notes regarding credentials (certificates, badges, degrees, honorarial degrees, then-evaluated competencies) and capabilities models:


Value storage and transmission networks have developed standards and implementations for identity, authentication, and authorization. ILP (Interledger Protocol) RFC 15 specifies "ILP addresses" for [crypto] ledger account IDs:

From "Verifiable Credentials Use Cases" :

> A verifiable claim is a qualification, achievement, quality, or piece of information about an entity's background such as a name, government ID, payment provider, home address, or university degree. Such a claim describes a quality or qualities, property or properties of an entity which establish its existence and uniqueness. The use cases outlined here are provided in order to make progress toward possible future standardization and interoperability of both low- and high-stakes claims with the goals of storing, transmitting, and receiving digitally verifiable proof of attributes such as qualifications and achievements. The use cases in this document focus on concrete scenarios that the technology defined by the group should address.

FWIU, the US Department of Education is studying or already working with for educational credentials.

Here are the open sources of blockchain-certificates/cert-issuer and blockchain-certificates/cert-verifier-js:

Might a natural-born resident get a government ID card for passing a recycling and environmental sustainability quiz.


Systemd makes life miserable, again, this time by breaking DNS

So, I made the mistake of updating my laptop from Fedora 31 to Fedora 33 last night. Normally this is fairly painless, as my laptop is one of the last machines I perform distribution upgrades. Today while doing some pole survey work out in the field, I tethered my laptop to my phone as has been done hundreds of times before. To my surprise, DNS doesn't work anymore, but only in web browsers. Both Firefox and Chrome can't resolve names anymore. Command line tools like ping and host work normally. WTF?

Why are distributions continuing to allow systemd to extend its tentacles deeper and deeper into more parts of Linux userland with poorly tested subsystem replacements for parts of Linux that have been stable for decades? Does nobody else consider this repeating pattern of rewrite-replace-introduce-new-bugs a problem? Newer is not all that better if you break what is a pretty bog standard and common use-case.

As well, Firefox now defaults to DoH (DNS over HTTPS), which may be bypassing systemd-resolved by doing DNS resolution in the app instead of calling `gethostbyname()` (`man gethostbyname`) and/or `getaddrinfo()`.

`man systemd-resolved` describes why there is new DNS functionality: security; "caching and validating DNS/DNSSEC stub resolver, as well as an LLMR and MulticastDNS resolver and responder".

From `man systemd-resolved` :

> To improve compatibility, /etc/resolv.conf is read in order to discover configured system DNS servers, but only if it is not a symlink to /run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf, /usr/lib/systemd/resolv.conf or /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf

> [...] Note that the selected mode of operation for this file is detected fully automatically, depending on whether /etc/resolv.conf is a symlink to /run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf or lists as DNS server.

Is /etc/resolv.conf read on reload and or restart of the systemd-resolved service (`servicectl restart systemd-named`)?

Some examples of validating DNSSEC in `man delv` would be helpful.

NetworkManager (now with systemd-resolved) is one system for doing DNS configuration for zero or more transient interfaces:

  man nmcli

  nmcli connection help
  nmcli c help
  nmcli c h

  nmcli c show ssid_or_nm_profile | grep -i dns

  nmcli c modify help

  man systemd-resolved
  man delv
  man dnssec-trust-anchors.d


> manually syncing the clock via ntp usually gets my dns working again.

Why is this necessary?


Ask HN: How bad is proof-of-work blockchain energy consumption?

I'm not a blockchain/crypto expert by any means, but I've been hearing about how much energy the proof-of-work blockchains (Bitcoin, Ethereum, NFTs) consume. Unless I'm mistaken their whole design relies on cranking through more and more CPU cycles. Should we be more concerned about this? Are the concerns overblown? Are there ways to improve it without certain crypto currencies imploding?

A rational market would be choosing an asset that offers value storage and transmission (between points in spacetime) according to criteria: "security" (security theater, infosec, cryptologic competency assessment, software assurances), "future stability" (future switching costs), and "cost".

The externalities of energy production are what must be overcome if we are to be able to withstand wasteful overconsumption of electricity. Eventually, we could all have free clean energy and no lightsabers, right?

So, we do need to minimize wasteful overconsumption. Define wasteful in terms of USD/kWHr (irregardless of industry)? In terms of behavioral economics, why are they behaving that way when there are alternatives that cost <$0.01/tx and a fairly-aggregated comprehensive n kWhr of electricity?

TIL about these guys, who are deciding to somewhat-responsibly self-regulate in the interest of long-term environmental sustainability for all of the land: "Crypto Climate Accord".

"Crypto Climate Accord Launches to Decarbonize Cryptocurrency Industry Brings together the likes of CoinShares, ConsenSys, Ripple, and the UNFCCC Climate Champions to lead sustainability in blockchain and crypto" (2021)

> What are the objectives of the Crypto Climate Accord? The Accord’s overall objective is to decarbonize the global crypto industry. There are three provisional objectives to be finalized in partnership with Accord supporters:

> - Enable all of the world’s blockchains to be powered by 100% renewables by the 2025 UNFCCC COP Conference

> - Develop an open-source accounting standard for measuring emissions from the cryptocurrency industry

> - Achieve net-zero emissions for the entire crypto industry, including all business operations beyond blockchains and retroactive emissions, by 2040

Similar to the Paris Agreement (2015), stakeholders appear to be setting their own targets for sustainability in accordance with the Crypto Climate Accord (2021).

Someone who's not in renewables could launch e.g. a "Satoshi Nakamoto Clean Energy Fund: SNCEF" to receive donations from e.g. hash pools and connect nonprofits with sustainability managed renewables. How many SNCEFs did you give this year and why?



More transistors per unit area, but also more efficient please! There should be demand for more efficient chips (semiconductors,) that are fully-utilized while depreciating on your ma's electricity bill (which is not yet (?) really determined by a market-based economy with intraday speculation to smooth over differences in supply and demand in the US). Oversupply of the electrical grid results in damage costs; which is why the price sometimes falls so low where there are intraday prices and supply has been over-subsidized pending the additional load from developing economies and EVs: Electric Vehicles.

New grid renewables (#CleanEnergy) are now less expensive than existing baseload; which makes renewables long term environment-rational and short term price-rational.

"Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki" (2018)

> No, all space heaters are equally efficient. They all have perfect 100% efficiency, because they turn electrical power into heat. When your work product is heat and the waste product is also heat, then there really is no waste.

This heat must be distributed throughout the room somehow (i.e. a batteryless woodstove fan or a sterling engine that does work with the difference in entropy when there is a difference in entropy)

> Technically in the case of cryptocurrency mining, some of the electrical power is turned into information rather than heat. In principle this reduces the amount of heat that you get, but in practice this isn’t even measurable. Most of the information is erased (discarded as useless), which turns it back into heat.

See "Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki" re: a possible way to delete known observer-entangled bits while reducing heat/entropy (thus bypassing Landauer's limit for classical computation?)?

> Only a few hundred bits of information will be kept after successfully mining a block of transactions, and the amount of heat that costs you is fantastically small. Far smaller than you can measure.

Each n-symbol sequence in the hash function output does appear to have nearly equal frequency/probability of occurrence. Indeed, is Proof-of-Work worth the heat if you're not reusing the waste heat?


What does a PGP signature on a Git commit prove?


That nonce value could be ±\0 or 5,621,964,321e100; though for well-designed cryptographic hash functions it's far less likely that - at maximum difficulty - a low nonce value will result in a hash collision.


Searching for the value to prepend or append that causes a hash collision is exactly the same as finding a nonce value at maximum difficulty (not less than the difficulty value, exactly equal to the target hash).

Mutate and check.


Brute forcing to find `hash(data_1+nonce) == hash(data_0)` differs very little from ``hash(data_1+nonce) < difficulty_level`. Write each and compare the cost/fitness/survival functions.

If the hash function is reversible - as may be discovered through e.g. mutation and selection - that would help find hashes that are equal and maybe also less than.

Practically, there are "rainbow tables" for very many combinations of primes and stacked transforms: it's not necessary to search the whole space for simple collisions and may not be necessary for preimages; we don't know and it's just a matter of time. "Collision attack"

Crytographic nonce > hashing:


Practically, iff browsers still relied upon SHA-1 to fingerprint and pin and verify certificates instead of the actual chain, and there were no file size limits on x.509 certificates, some fields in a cert (e.g. CommonName and SAN) would be chosen and other fields would then potentially be nonce.

In context to finding a valid cert with a known good hash fingerprint, how many prime keypairs could there be to precompute and cache/memoize when brute forcing.

"SHA-1 > Cryptanalysis and validation " does list chosen prefix collision as one of many weaknesses now identified in SHA-1:

This from 2008 re: the 200 PS3s it took to generate a rogue CA cert with a considered-valid MD5 hash:

... Was just discussing e.g. frankencerts the other day:


Breakthrough for ‘massless’ energy storage


> You can't make a car by building the chassis out of smartphone batteries

They're called Structural batteries (or [micro]structural super/ultracapacitors)

"Carmakers want to ditch battery packs, use auto bodies for energy storage" (2020,)


The Ars article I linked has an overview and some history and specific industry applications; whereas OT is about a new approach discovered since the Ars article was written.


OpenSSL Security Advisory

[+] :

> Focusing on the HTTPS ecosystem, including components such as the TLS protocol and its underlying cryptographic algorithms, Project Everest began in 2016 aiming to build and deploy formally verified implementations of several of these components in the F* proof assistant.

> […] Code from HACL*, ValeCrypt and EverCrypt is deployed in several production systems, including Mozilla Firefox, Azure Confidential Consortium Framework, the Wireguard VPN, the upcoming Zinc crypto library for the Linux kernel, the MirageOS unikernel, the ElectionGuard electronic voting SDK, and in the Tezos and Concordium blockchains.

S2n is Amazon's formally verified TLS library.

IDK about a formally proven PKIX. lists a few things.

A formally verified stack for Certificate Transparency would be a good way to secure key distribution (and revocation); where we currently depend upon a TLS library (typically OpenSSL), GPG + HKP (HTTP Key Protocol).

Fuzzing on an actual hardware - with stochastic things that persist bits between points in spacetime - is a different thing.


Both a gap and an opportunity; someone like an agency or a FAANG with a budget for something like this might do well to - invest in the formal methods talent pipeline and - very technically interface with e.g. Everest about PKIX as a core component in need of formal methods.

"The SSL landscape: a thorough analysis of the X.509 PKI using active and passive measurements" (2011) ... "Analysis of the HTTPS certificate ecosystem" (2013)

TIL about "Frankencerts": Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations (2014) :

> Our first ingredient is "frankencerts," synthetic certificates that are randomly mutated from parts of real certificates and thus include unusual combinations of extensions and constraints. Our second ingredient is differential testing: if one SSL/TLS implementation accepts a certificate while another rejects the same certificate, we use the discrepancy as an oracle for finding flaws in individual implementations.

> Differential testing with frankencerts uncovered 208 discrepancies between popular SSL/TLS implementations such as OpenSSL, NSS, CyaSSL, GnuTLS, PolarSSL, MatrixSSL, etc.

W3C ld-signatures / Linked Data Proofs, and MerkleProof2017:

"Linked Data Cryptographic Suite Registry"


W3C DID: Decentralized Identifiers don't solve for all of PKIX (x.509)?

"W3C DID x.509"


How much total throughput can your wi-fi router really provide?


netperf and iperf are utilities for measuring network throughput:

It's possible to approximate the using the flent CLI or QT GUI (which calls e.g. fping and netperf) and isolate out ISP variance by running a netperf server on a decent router and/or a workstation with a sufficient NIC (at least 1Gbps).


From :

> RRUL: Create the standard graphic image used by the Bufferbloat project to show the down/upload speeds plus latency in three separate charts:

> `flent rrul -p all_scaled -l 60 -H address-of-netserver -t text-to-be-included-in-plot -o filename.png`

In 2021, most routers - even with OpenWRT and hardware-offloading - cannot actually push 1 Gigabit over wired Ethernet, though the port spec does say 1000 Mbps.


The Most Important Scarce Resource Is Legitimacy

ve55 | 2021-03-23 17:28:53 | 119 | # | ^

Public goods ... Welfare economics ... Social choice theory, Arrow's, Indifference curve:

People do collectibles; commemorative plates.


A few notes on message passing


> Luckily, global orders are rarely needed and are easy to impose yourself (outside distributed cases): just let all involved parties synchronize with a common process.

When there are multiple agents/actors in a distributed system, and the timestamp resolution is datetime64, and clock synchronization and network latency are variable, and non-centralized resilience is necessary to eliminate single points of failure, global ordering is impractical to impossible because there is no natural unique key with which to impose a [partial] preorder [1][2]: there are key collisions when you try and merge the streams.

Just don't cross the streams.



The C in CAP theorem is for Consistency [3][4]. Sequential consistency is elusive because something probably has to block/lock somewhere unless you've optimally distributed the components of the CFG control flow graph.



FWIU, TLA+ can help find such issues. [5]



The Lamport timestamp: :

> The Lamport timestamp algorithm is a simple logical clock algorithm used to determine the order of events in a distributed computer system. As different nodes or processes will typically not be perfectly synchronized, this algorithm is used to provide a partial ordering of events with minimal overhead, and conceptually provide a starting point for the more advanced vector clock method.


Duolingo's language notes all on one page

Succinct. What a useful reference.

An IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) reference would be helpful, too. After taking linguistics in college, I found these Sozo videos of US english IPA consonants and vowels that simultaneously show {the ipa symbol, example words, someone visually and auditorily producing the phoneme from 2 angles, and the spectrogram of the waveform} but a few or a configurable number of [spaced] repetitions would be helpful:

IDK how cartoonish or 3d of an "articulatory phonetic" model would reach the widest audience.

IPA chart:

IPA chart with audio:

All of the IPA consonant chart played as a video: "International Phonetic Alphabet Consonant sounds (Pulmonic)- From"

I'll have to find the link of the site where they playback youtube videos with multiple languages' subtitles highlighted side-by-side along with the video.

Found it:

It looks like there are a few browser extensions for displaying multiple subtitles as well; e.g. "YouTube Dual Subtitles", "Two Captions for YouTube and Netflix"


Ask HN: The easiest programming language for teaching programming to young kids?


I want to start a small community pilot project to help young kids, 8 and above, get interested in programming. We will use video games and robotics projects. We want to keep our tech stack as simple as possible. Here are some of the choices:

Godot + Aurdino: We can use C in Godot and Aurdino. Aurdino might be more interesting for kids as opposed neatly packaged Lego Kits.

Apple SpriteKit + Lego Mindstorm: We can use Swift with Legos. But cost will be higher.

Some of the projects we are thinking are:


1. Sound visualizer like how Winamp and old school visualization were. Use speakers. And various other ideas around these concepts.

2. AR project that shows the world around you in cartoonish style. Swap faces etc.

3. Of cousre, platform games.

Robotics projects:

I see a lot of tutorials for Arduino such as robots that follow sound or light, or stuff like lights display. We will use mostly those.

Some harder project ideas I have are for drones, boats, and other navigational vehicles. This is why I want to use Arduino. But is C going to be too hard for young kids to play with?

What do you recommend? If this works, I would like to expand it and start a company around it.

awesome-python-in-education > "Python suitability for education" lists a few justifications for Python:

There is a Scratch Jr for Android and iOS. You can view Scratch code as JS. JS does run in a browser, until it needs WASI.


FWIU, ROS (Robot Operating System) is now installable with Conda/Mamba. There's a jupyter-ros and a jupyterlab-ros extension:

I just found this:

> This documentation supports the CoderDojo Twin Cities’ Build worlds in Minecraft with Python code group. This group intends to teach you how to use Python, a general purpose programming language, to mod the popular game called Minecraft. It is targeted at students aged 10 to 17 who have some programming experience in another language. For example, in Scratch.

K12CS Framework has your high-level CS curriculum: [PDF]:

Educational technology > See also links to e.g. "Evidence-based education" and "Instructional theory"


Yw. Np. So I just searched for "site: kids python" and found a few new and old things:

SensorCraft (pyglet (Python + OpenGL)) from US AFRL Sensors Directorate has e.g. Gravity, Rocket Launch, and AI tutorials:

> Most people are familiar with Minecraft [...] for this project we are using a Minecraft type environment created in the Python programming language. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Sensors Directorate located in Dayton, Ohio created this guide to inspire kids of all ages to learn to program and at the same time get an idea of what it is like to be a Scientist or Engineer for the Air Force. We created this YouTube video about SensorCraft

`conda install -c conda-forge -y pyglet` should probably work. Miniforge on Win/Mac/Lin is an easy way to get Python installed on anything including ARM64 for a RPi or similar; `conda create -n scraft; conda install -c conda-forge -y python=3.8 jupyterlab jupytext jupyter-book pyglet` . If you're in a conda env, `pip install` should install things within that conda env. Here's the meta.yaml in the conda-forge pyglet-feedstock:

"BBC micro:bit MicroPython documentation"

$25 for a single board-computer with a battery pack and a case (and curricula) is very reasonable:

> The [micro:bit] is described as half the size of a credit card[10] and has an ARM Cortex-M0 processor, accelerometer and magnetometer sensors, Bluetooth and USB connectivity, a display consisting of 25 LEDs, two programmable buttons, and can be powered by either USB or an external battery pack.[2] The device inputs and outputs are through five ring connectors that form part of a larger 25-pin edge connector. (V2 adds a Mic and a Speaker)


Raspberry Pi for Kill Mosquitoes by Laser


Yeah, they already did sharks with lasers. IDK what the licensing terms are on that


Donate Unrestricted



Rather than diminishing the efforts of others, you could start helping by describing your own efforts to improve education (in order to qualify your ability to assess the mentioned and other efforts to improve education and learning)

In context to seed and series funding for a seat on a board of a for-profit venture, an NGO non-profit organization can choose whether to accept restricted donations and government organizations have elected public servant leaders who lead and find funding.

Works based on Faust:


Bitcoin Is Time


"Bitcoin scalability problem" could link to the Ethereum design docs:

The Ethereum design docs could link to direct-listed premined [stable] coins as a solution for Proof of Work and TPS reports:

(edit) re: n-layer solutions: The RFCs and something like Transaction Permission Layer (TPL) will probably be helpful for interchain compliance.

> Interledger is not tied to a single company, blockchain, or currency.

From :

> The challenge: Current blockchain-based protocols lack an effective governance mechanism that ensures token transfers comply with requirements set by the project that issued the token.

> Projects need to set requirements for a variety of reasons. For instance, remaining compliant with securities laws, limiting transfer to beta testers, or limiting transfer to a particular geo-spatial location. Whatever your reason, if a requirement can be verified by a third-party, TPL will be able to help.

In the US, S-Corps can't have international or more than n shareholders, for example; so if firms even wanted to issue securities on a first-layer network, they'd need an extra-chain compliance mechanism to ensure that their issuance is legal pursuant to local, sovereign, necessary policies. Re-issuing stock certificates is something that has to be done sometimes. When is it possible to cancel outstanding tokens?


Foundational Distributed Systems Papers

From "Ask HN: Learning about distributed systems?" :

> Papers-we-love > Distributed Systems:

> awesome-distributed-systems also has many links to theory:

And links to more lists of distributed systems papers under "Meta Lists":

In reviewing this awesome list, today I learned about this playlist: "MIT 6.824 Distributed Systems (Spring 2020)"

> awesome-bigdata lists a number of tools:


Low-Cost Multi-touch Whiteboard using the Wiimote (2007) [video]

"Interactive whiteboard" / "smart board"

Wii Remote > Features > Sensing:

.. > Third-Party Development describes a number of applications for IR/optical tracking with an array of nonstationary emitters:

Augmented Reality (AR) > Technology > Tracking:

... links to "VR positional tracking" which does have headings for "Optical" and "Sensor fusion":


How to Efficiently Choose the Right Database for Your Applications


> You can achieve exactly the same thing with PostgreSQL tables with two columns (key JSONB PRIMARY KEY, value JSONB), including indices on subfields. With way more other functionality and support options.

PostgreSQL docs > "JSON Functions and Operators"

MongoDB can do jsonSchema:

> Document Validator¶ You can use $jsonSchema in a document validator to enforce the specified schema on insert and update operations:

   db.createCollection( <collection>, { validator: { $jsonSchema: <schema> } } )
   db.runCommand( { collMod: <collection>, validator:{ $jsonSchema: <schema> } } )

Looks like there are at least 2 ways to handle JSONschema with Postgres: ; neither of which are written in e.g. Rust or Go.

Is there a good way to handle JSON-LD (JSON Linked Data) with Postgres yet?

There are probably 10 comparisons of triple stores with rule inference slash reasoning on data ingress and/or egress.


A Data Pipeline Is a Materialized View


Like a Linked Data thesaurus with typed, reified edges between nodes/concepts/class_instances?

Here's the WordNet RDF Linked Data for "jargon"; like the "Jargon File":

A Semantic MediaWiki Thesaurus? :

> Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) is an extension to MediaWiki that allows for annotating semantic data within wiki pages, thus turning a wiki that incorporates the extension into a semantic wiki. Data that has been encoded can be used in semantic searches, used for aggregation of pages, displayed in formats like maps, calendars and graphs, and exported to the outside world via formats like RDF and CSV.

Google Books NGram viewer has "word phrase" term occurrence data by year, from books:


There’s no such thing as “a startup within a big company”


Living and working elsewhere with the wages of the region reduces expenses and opportunities; but the wealth of educational resources online [1][2] does make it feasible to even bootstrap a company on the side. Do you need to borrow money to scale quickly enough to pay expenses with sufficient cash flow for the foreseeable future?

Income sources: Passive income, Content, Equity that's potentially worth nothing, a backtested diversified portfolio (Golden Butterfly or All Weather Portfolio and why?) of sustainable investments, Business models [3]; Software implementations of solutions to businesses, organizations, and/or consumers' opportunities

Single-payer / Universal Healthcare is a looming family expense for many entrepreneurs; many of whom do get into entrepreneurship later in life.

Small businesses make up a significant portion of GDP. Small businesses have to have to accept risk.

There's still opportunity in the world.

[1] Startup School > Curriculum


[3] "Business models based on the compiled list at [HN]"

From "Why companies lose their best innovators (2019)" :

> "Intrapreneurial." What does that even mean? The employee, within their specialized department, spends resources (time, money, equipment) on something that their superior managers have not allocated funding for because they want: (a) recognition; (b) job security; (c) to save resources such as time and money; (d) to work on something else instead of this wasteful process; (e) more money.


Ask HN: Keyrings: per-package/repo; commit, merge, and release keyrings?

Are there existing specs for specifying per-package release keyrings and per-repo commit and merge keyrings?

Keyring: a collection of keys imported into a datastore with review.

DevOpsSec; Software Supply Chain Security

Packages {X, Y, Z} in Indexes {A, B, C} are artifacts that are output from Builds (on workstations or servers with security policies) which build a build script (which is often deliberately not specified with a complete programming language in order to minimize build complexity; instead preferring YAML) which should be drawn from a stable commit hash in a Repository (which may be a copy of technically zero or more branches of a Repository hosted centrally next to Issues and Build logs and Build artifact Signing Keys).

Maxmimally, are there potentially more keyrings (or key authorization mappings between key and permission) than (1) commit; (2) merge; and (3) release?

Source Projects: Commit, Merge, [Run Build, Login to post-build env], Release (and Sign) package

Downstream Distros: Commit, Merge, [Run Build, Login to post-build env], Release (and Sign) package for the {testing, stable, security} (Signed) Index catalogs


Threat Actors Now Target Docker via Container Escape Features


Docker engine docs > "Protect the Docker daemon socket"

dev-sec/cis-docker-benchmark /controls:


django-ca is one way to manage a PKI including ACMEv2, OCSP, and a CRL (Certificate Revocation) list:

"How can I verify client certificates against a CRL in Golang?" mentions a bit about crypto/tls and one position on CRLs:

CT (Certificate Transparency) is another approach to validating certs wherein x.509 cert logs are written to a consistent, available blockchain (or in e.g. google/trillian, a centralized db where one party has root and backup responsibilities also with Merkle hashes for verifying data integrity).

Does docker ever make the docker socket available over the network, over an un-firewalled port by default? Docker Swarm is one config where the docker socket is configured to be available over TLS.

Docker Swarm docs > "Manage swarm security with public key infrastructure (PKI)" :

> Run `docker swarm ca --rotate` to generate a new CA certificate and key. If you prefer, you can pass the --ca-cert and --external-ca flags to specify the root certificate and to use a root CA external to the swarm. Alternately, you can pass the --ca-cert and --ca-key flags to specify the exact certificate and key you would like the swarm to use.

Docker ("moby") and podman v3 socket security could be improved:

> From "ENH,SEC: Create additional sockets with limited permissions" ::

> > An example use case: securing the Traefik docker driver:

> > - "Docker integration: Exposing Docker socket to Traefik container is a serious security risk"

> > > It seems it only require (read) operations : ServerVersion, ContainerList, ContainerInspect, ServiceList, NetworkList, TaskList & Events.

> > -

> > > This role does exactly that: it launches two containers, a traefik one and another to securely provide limited access to the docker socket. It also provides the necessary configuration.

> > - ["What could docker do to make it easier to do this correctly?"]

> > - [docker-socket-proxy] Creates a HAproxy container that proxies limited access to the [docker] socket


podman v3 has a docker-compose compatible socket. From :

> "Using Podman and Docker Compose"


Ask HN: What security is in place for bank-to-bank EFT?

When I set up an ETF on a bank's website, all I need to enter is the other bank's routing number and account number, which can be readily found on a paper check. Then you can transfer money from one bank to another... What security and authentication is in place to prevent fraud? In case of fraud, is the victim guaranteed to get the money back?

AFAIU, no existing banking transaction systems require the receiver to confirm in order to receive a funds transfer.

You can create a "multisig" DLT smart contract that requires multiple parties' signatures before the [optionally escrowed] funds are actually transferred.

EFT: Electronic Funds Transfer:

As far as permissions to write to the account ledger: Check signatures are scanned. Cryptoasset keys are very long, high-entropy "passwords". US debit cards are chip+pin; it's not enough to just copy down the card number (and CVV code).

Though credit cards typically are covered by fraud protection, debit card transactions typically aren't: hopefully something will be recovered, but AFAIU debit txs might as well be as unreversible as cryptoasset transactions.

TPL: Transaction Permission Layer is one proposed system for permissions in blockchain; so that e.g. {proof of residence, receiver confirmation, accredited investor status, etc.} can be necessary for a transaction to go through.

ILP: Interledger Protocol > RFC 32 > "Peering, Clearing and Settling" describes how ~EFT with Interledger works:


Podman: A Daemonless Container Engine

Is the title of this page out of date?

AFAIU, Podman v3 has a docker-compose compatible socket and there's a daemon; so "Daemonless Container Engine" is no longer accurate.

"Using Podman and Docker Compose"


Podman v3 is compatible with docker-compose (but not yet swarm mode, FWIU), has a socket and a daemon that services it.

Buildah (`podman buildx`, `buildah bud --arch arm64`) just gained multiarch build support; so also building arm64 containers from the same Dockerfile is easy now.

IDK what BuildKit features should be added to Buildah, too?


Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index


Cryptoasset mining creates demand for custom chip fab (how different are mining rigs from SSL/TLS accelerator expansion cards), which is definitely not zero sum: more revenue = more opportunities.

With insufficient demand, a market does not develop into a sustainable market. "Rule of three (economics)" says that markets are stable with 3 major competitors and many smaller competitors; nonlinearity and game theory.

We've always had custom chip fab, but the prices used to be much higher. Proof of Work (and Proof of Research) incentivize microchip and software energy efficiency; whereas we had observed and been most concerned with doublings in transistor density.

FWIU, it's now more sustainable and profitable to mine rare earth elements from recycled electronics than actually digging real value out of the earth?

Compared to creating real value by digging for gold, how do we value financial services?


Bitcoin's fundamental value is negative given its environmental impact


> If the price of energy is calculated with corresponding carbon tax included, shouldn't Bitcoin be neutral?

Yes, but there are vastly more energy efficient substitute DLTs with near-zero switching costs. Litecoin and scrypt (instead of AES256), for example.

Apply a USD/kWhr threshold across all industries.

Is this change (and focus on the external costs of energy production) more the result of penalties or incentives?

Pre-mined coins are vastly more energy efficient (with tx costs <1¢ and similarly minimal kWhr/tx costs), but the market doesn't trust undefined escrow terms that are fair game in commodities and retail markets.

We have trouble otherwise storing energy from noon to commute and dinner time; whereas a commodity like grain may keep for quite awhile.

Bitcoin serves as a demand subsidy when heavily-subsidized energy prices crash due to oversupply (that we should recognize as temporary because we are moving to electric vehicles and we need to reach production volumes so that, in comparison to alternatives, renewables are now more cost effective)

In the US, we have neither carbon taxes nor intraday prices. The EU has carbon taxes and electrical energy markets.


Ask HN: What are some books where the reader learns by building projects?

2021 Edition. This is a continuation of the previous two threads which can be found here:

Other resources:

"Agile Web Development with Rails [6]" (2020) teaches TDD and agile in conjunction with a DRY, CoC, RAD web application framework:


Is it wrong to demand features in open-source projects?

Yes, it's wrong to demand something for nothing: that's entitlement, not business (which involves some sort of equitable exchange of goods and/or services).

Better questions: How do I file a BUG report issue, create a feature ENHancement request issue, send a pull request with a typo fix, write DOCs and send a PR, write test cases for a bug report?

How can I sponsor development of a feature?

A project may define a `.github/FUNDING.yml`, which GitHub will display on the 'Sponsor' tab of the GitHub project. A project may also or instead include funding information in their /

How do I ask IRC or a mailing list or issues how much and how long it would cost to develop a feature, if somebody had some international stablecoin and a limited term agreement?

The answer may be something like, "thanks for the detailed use case or user story, that's on our roadmap, there are major issues blocking similar features and that's where the expense would be."


Turning desalination waste into a useful resource


Is it possible to capture the natural gas leaking from oil wells like we already capture flue gas? Would that be economical?


Evcxr: A Rust REPL and Jupyter Kernel


Here's the xeus-cling (Jupyter C++ Kernel) source:

Do any of the other non-Python Jupyter kernels have examples of working fancy UI components?

Jupyter kernels implement the Jupyter kernel message spec. Introspection, Completion:

Debugging (w/ DAP: Debug Adapter Protocol)

A `display_data` Jupyter kernel message includes a `data` key with a dict value: "The data dict contains key/value pairs, where the keys are MIME types and the values are the raw data of the representation in that format."

This looks like it does something with MIME bundles:




You can also run Jupyter kernels in a shell with jupyter/jupyter_console:

    pip install jupyter-console jupyter-client
    jupyter kernelspec list
    jupyter console --kernel python3


Ask HN: What is the cost to launch a SaaS business MVP

I interviewed several entrepreneurs, I noticed several spent so much money on developing their product before launch. What is your experience?

When you're not yet paying yourself, your costs are your living costs and opportunity costs (in addition to the given fixed and variable dev and prod deployment cloud costs).

Early feedback from actual customers on an MVP can save lots of development time. GitLab Service Desk is one way to handle emails as issues from users who don't have GitLab accounts.

A beta invite program / mailing list signup page costs very little to set up; you can start building your funnel while you're developing the product.


Cryptocurreny crime is way ahead of regulators and law enforcement


Bitcoin was created in context to "Transparency and Accountability": a campaign motto not coincidentally found in the title of the "Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006".

> The Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 (S. 2590)[2] is an Act of Congress that requires the full disclosure to the public of all entities or organizations receiving federal funds beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2007. The website opened in December 2007 as a result of the act

Sen. Obama's office is the origin of this bill; which was fronted by Sens Coburn and McCain, who had the clout. creates a mandatory database with budgetary line item metadata. Where money actually goes is something that is far more transparent and accountable with bitcoin and other public ledgers than any existing ledger covered by bank secrecy laws.

For context, in 2008-09, global financial systems were failing as a result of the American economy: housing bubble burst, HFT "flash crash" that we didn't have CAT or big data tools to determine the cause of, DDOS attacks and cyber security losses increasing YoY, credit default swaps had been rated as AAA securities (they sold bundled bad debt like it was worth something, and then wrote down losses), Enron energy speculation amidst rolling blackouts that were leaving hospitals in the dark, on gas generators, government investments in renewables had been paltry since the Carter administration had put solar panels on the roof of the White House before the whole oil price shock, and oil commodity speculation had driven the price of oil to like 2-4x the 2000 price (with resultant price effects on most CPI inflation/PPP basket goods); but electricity consumption was down in 2008 and renewables hadn't reached production volumes necessary to reach the competitive price point that renewables now present: cheaper than nonrenewables.

Who would have thought that the speculative price would continue to exceed the production cost. incentives or penalties?

Externalities per dollar returned per kWh is one way to assess the total costs of electricity production methods.

"Buy Gold" was the refrain of the day: TV commercials, signs out in front of piano stores (a somewhat-arbitrary commodity, sales of which are observed to be a leading indicator of economic health), signs on the road. And the message was "take your money out the market and put it in gold" which drives up the prices for chips and boards and medical equipment that rely upon that commodity as a material input. Gold is necessary for tropical spec components in high-humidity environments: gold hinges are prized, for example.

But, "look, there's water flowing from the chocolate fountain; so you can go ahead and go" and "you know you want to put it back in there, in that market" we're the appropriate messages given our revenue at the time.

For further technology scene context in 2007-2009,

"Grid computing" links to a number of distributed computing projects:

IIRC, there was a production metric-priced grid system developed around Seattle/Vancouver called "Gold" (?) that was built on Xen and is likely a precursor to metric-priced Cloud services like EC2 and S3 (which now simplify calculations for how much a 51% attack against a Proof of Work txpool with adaptive tx fees costs with n good participants in the game) which incentivize efficiency by penalizing expensive operations.

Code bloat was already a thing: how is everything getting slower when Moore's Law predicts the growth rate in transistor density? Are there sufficient incentives for code efficiency when there seem to be surplus compute resources just idly depreciating.

MySQL primary/secondary replication was considered a viable distributed database system, but securing replication depends upon cert exchange and (optionally), PKI, DNS, and IP tunnels of some sort. And then who has root, write to the journal and tables and indexes on the filesystem, UPDATE, and DELETE access in an inter-organizational distributed systems architecture with XML, Web Services, our very own ESB to scale separately from the database replication and off-site backups that nobody ever checks against the online data, and fragmented and varyingly-implemented industry standards that hopefully specify at least a sufficient key for the record that's unique across ledgers/systems/databases.

BitTorrent DHT magnet: links were extant.

Linden Dollars in Linden Lab's Second Life (there's a price floor on land, which is necessary to sell digital assets/goods/products/services) and accumulated avatar value in e.g. EverQuest and WarCraft (for which there were secondhand markets).

ACH was ACH: GPG-signed files over SFTP on the honor of the audited bank to not allow transfers that deposit money that doesn't exist.

There was no common struct for banking APIs (as apparently only e.g. Plaid, Quicken, and Mint solve for): ledger transactions have a fixed width text field that may contain multiple fields concatenated into one string, and there's no "payee URI" column in the QIF or CSV dumps of an account ledger.

To request more than e.g. the past 90 days of one's own checking account ledger, one was expected to parse tables out of per-month PDFs with e.g. PDFminer at $20 apiece, and then think up ones own natural key in order to merge and lookup records because (2008-01-01,3.99) and (2008-01-01,3.99,storename) are indistinct as a natural key (and when hashed). If you loan a your bank money (for them to now freely invest in the other side, since GLBA in 1999), wouldn't you think that the least they can do is give you `SELECT * WHERE account_id=?` as a free CSV without any datetime limitation in regards to what's offline and what's online.

"Audit the Fed", "Audit DoD" were being chanted by economically-aware citizens amidst severe correction and what was then the most severe recession since the Great Depression: the "Great Recession" it was called, and payouts to essential cronies (who hadn't saved wheat for the famine) were essential.

Overdraft was an error charged to the customer, who didn't build an inconsistent system (CAP theorem) that allows spending money that doesn't exist (at interest charged to the consumer/taxpayer).

"Catch Me If You Can" (2002) described the controls for bank fraud at the time. Why are fees so high?

"Office Space" (1999) described penny-shabing / salami-slicing attack: "fractions of a penny".

"Beverly Hills Ninja" (1997) detailed the story of the Great White Ninja and Tanley! (fistpalm)

"Swordfish" (1999) described a domestic disaster and bank transfers confirmable in seconds.


Ask HN: Why aren't micropayments a thing?

Amazon aws and related services can charge you a rate per email, or per unit time of computation, so why can't news sites just charge you $0.01 to read an article, or even half that?

[+] lists Coil (flat $5/mo) as the first Web Monetization provider:

Web Monetization builds upon ILP (Interledger Protocol), which is designed to work with any type of ledger; though it's probably not possible for any traditional ledger to beat the <1¢ transaction fee that only pre-mined coins have been able to achieve.


Elon Musk announces $100M carbon capture prize :

> The $20M NRG COSIA Carbon XPRIZE develops breakthrough technologies to convert CO₂ emissions into usable products.




Hemp!? Is hemp the best answer? Thousands of products and Oxygen can be made from Carbon diOxide, Hemp, water, UV radiation, and soul.


Tim Berners-Lee wants to put people in control of their personal data


While I recognize the value of W3C LDP and SOLID, I also fail to see anything in SOLID that prevents B from sharing A's now pod-siloed information.

Does it prevent screenshots and OCR?

So it's in standard record structs and that makes it harder for the bad guys?

Who moderates mean memes with my face on them?

It is my hope that future Linked Data spec tutorials model something benign like shapes or cells instead of people: so that we can still see the value.


No, there are few to no actual privacy improvements over centralized systems.

Perhaps even functional regression: what, are you going to run a hash blocklist across all nodes? Like spamhaus? Is there logging or user accounting? Is anything chain of custody admissable, or are we actually talking about privacy and liberty here?

Is everything just marked, "not for unlimited distribution"? And we dwpend upon there not being bad actors?

Real costs are very different with just friendly early adopters.

Cryptographically signing posts (with LD-Signatures) may help with integrity, but that can be done with centralized systems and does nothing to help with confidentiality.

What about availability? Is it a trivially-DOS'able system?


Governments spurred the rise of solar power


Should we prefer penalties or incentives in order to use predictable markets for the change we need?


I want to minimize the external environmental costs of electricity production and distribution.

Given that the market has selected the least energy-efficient cryptoasset, we should not expect markets to just change given the existing incentives.

> I'd love to see a study where researchers take things that are seen as good/important/essential to modern life and measure the amount of public/government sponsorship that helped bring it about.

Essential technology investment of US tax dollars?

NASA spinoff technologies:

NSF, DARPA, IARPA, In-Q-Tel, ARPA-e (2009)

List of emerging technologies:


Termux no longer updated on Google Play


Note that there are 297 hidden items in that issue so you have to click "Load more..." ceil(297/60) times to read all of the comments about how APK packaging is soon necessary for latest Android devices so the termux package manager can't just dump executable binaries wherever.


- Android Q+ disallows exec() on anything in $HOME, which is where termux installed binaries that may have been writeable by the executing user.

- Binaries installed from APKs can be exec()'d, so termux must keep APK repacks rebuilt and uploaded to a play store.

- Termux shouldn't be installed from Google Play anymore: you should install termux from the F-Droid APK package repos, and it will install APKs instead of what it was doing.

- Compiling to WASM with e.g. emscripten or WASI was one considered alternative. "Emscripten & WASI & POSIX"


> > offer users the option of generating an apk wrapping their native code in a usable way.

> This seems a promising solution: compile from source, create an apk, install - your custom distribution! For popular collections of packages, a pre-built apk.

FPM could probably generate APKs in addition to the source archive and package types that it already supports.

The conda-forge package CI flow is excellent. There's a bot that sends a Pull Request to update the version number in the conda package feedstock meta.yml when it detects that e.g. there's a new version of the source package on e.g. PyPI. When a PR is merged, conda-forge builds on Win/Mac/Lin and publishes the package to the conda-forge package channel (`conda install -y -c conda-forge jupyterlab pandas`)

The Fedora GitOps package workflow is great too, but bugzilla isn't Markdown by default.

Keeping those APKs updated and rebuilt is work.


Ask HN: What should go in an Excel-to-Python equivalent of a couch-to-5k?

Yesterday, my co-founder published a blog about her experiences Ditching Excel for Python in her job as a Reinsurance Analyst [0].

One of the responses on reddit [1] asked what they should do, "Step 1 day 1," if having read Amy's post they were convinced to try and begin the long journey from tangled Excel/Access spaghetti.

My (flippant) reaction to a friend that brought the comment to my attention was unhelpful; "Step 1 day 1, quit." So he has challenged me to write eight helpful blog posts during the remainder of my Garden Leave.

What should go in them?



How to write functions in JS / VB script and call them from a cell expression.

How to name variables something other than AB3.

How to use physical units and datatypes. (How to specify XSD datatype URIs that map to native primitives in an additional frozen header row. e.g. py-moneyed and Pint & NumPy ufuncs)

How transitive sort works (is there a tsort to determine what to calculate first (and whether there are cycles) on every modification event?)

Which Jupyter platforms do and don't support interactive charts with e.g. ipywidgets?

pandas.df.plot(kind=) (matplotlib), seaborne (what are the calculated parameters of this chart?), holoviews, plotly, altair

Reproducibility w/ repo2docker / BinderHub:

   pip freeze > constraints.txt
   cp constraints.txt requirements.txt
   conda env export --from-history


When is it better to have code in a notebook instead of in a module?

How to export notebook cells to a module with nbdev

How to write tests to assert the quality of the code and the model: @pytest.mark.parametrize, pytest-notebook, jupyter-pytest-2, pytest-jupyter

When is it appropriate to parametrized a notebook with e.g. papermill?

How to handle concurrency: dask.distributed + dask-labextension, ipyparallel


Yeah if you port it to functions and verify that you haven't broken anything, you could then easily port to Python functions that you could call from Excel with an add-on that everyone that opens the sheet needs to have installed; but everyone that opens a sheet that calls Python must have that same extension (and all python package dependencies) installed, too


> I suspect many companies use excel workbooks as "forms" with lots of data at the same cell in multiple workbooks.

Downstream data quality costs can be minimized with data normalized schema and data collection process controls like forms-based data validation.

There are established UI/UX design patterns for data validation of user-supplied data: accessible [web] forms with tab-ordered input fields and specific per-input feedback with accessible HTML5 and ARIA. IIUC, Firefox now supports PDF forms, too?

Why would we move from a spreadsheet to an actual database?

Data integrity:

Referential integrity (making sure that record keys actually point to something when creating, updating, or deleting),

Columnar datatypes (float, decimal, USD, complex fraction),

Access controls (auth(z): authentication and authorization),

Auditing (what was the value before and after that) and Disaster Recovery,

Organizationally-unified schema development and corresponding validation.

Repeatability / Reproducibility: can you replay the steps needed to build the whole sheet? What parameters were entered and how to we script that par so that we can easily assess the relations between the terms of the argument presented?


Scientists turn CO2 into jet fuel


Yao, B., Xiao, T., Makgae, O.A. et al. "Transforming carbon dioxide into jet fuel using an organic combustion-synthesized Fe-Mn-K catalyst." Nat Commun 11, 6395 (2020).


You can run aircraft on electricity.

Locomotives run on electrical energy produced by diesel generators (because electric motors are more energy efficient), for example.

The limits are the cost and weight of the batteries and the charge time.


From :

> [For] large passenger aircraft, an improvement of the energy density by a factor 20 compared to li-ion batteries would be required

The time it takes to surpass this energy density threshold is affected by battery tech investments; which had been comparatively paltry in terms of defense spending. Trillions on batteries would've been a much better investment; with ROI.

Sadly, some folks in defense still can't understand why non-oil investments in battery tech are best for all.

There are multiple electric trainer aircraft with flight times over an hour and quite a few more in development.

Jet engines are terribly inefficient (30-50% efficient) compared to electric motors.


Show HN: Stork: A customizable, WASM-powered full-text search plugin for the web

jil | 2020-12-27 14:16:01 | 137 | # | ^

> Merkle Search Trees: Efficient State-Based CRDTs in Open Networks ... "Merkle Hash Grids Instead of Merkle Trees" (2020)

Browser-side "Blockchain Certificate Transparency" applications need to support at least exact key lookup by domain/SAN and then also by cert fingerprint value; but the whole CT chain with every cert issue and revocation event is impractically large in terms of disk space. may also be practically useful.


Upptime – GitHub-powered open-source uptime monitor and status page

[+] mentions "~3000 minutes per month". GitLab's new pricing structure: [(runner_minutes, usd_per_month), (400, $0), (2_000, $4), (10_000, $19), (50_000, $99)]

You can run a self-hosted GitHub or GitLab Runner with your own resources:

GitLab [Runner] also runs tasks on cron schedules.

The process invocation overhead for CI is greater than for a typical metrics collection process like a nagios check or a memory-resident daemon like collectd with the curl plugin and the "Write HTTP" plugin (if you're not into using a space and time efficient timeseries database for metrics storage)

An open source project with a $5/mo VPS could run collectd in a container with a config file far far more energy efficiently than this approach.

Collectd curl statistics:

Collect list of plugins:

Is there a good way to do {DNS, curl HTTP, curl JSON} stats with Prometheus (instead of e.g. collectd as a minimal approach)?


Show HN: Simple-graph – a graph database in SQLite


rdflib-sqlalchemy is a SQLAlchemy rdflib graph store backend:

It also persists namespace mappings so that e.g. schema:Thing expands to

The table schema and indices are defined in rdflib_sqlalchemy/

You can execute SPARQL queries against SQL, but most native triplestores will have a better query plan and/or better performance.

Apache Rya, for example:

> indexes SPO, POS, and OSP.


In CPython, types implemented in C are part of the type tree

The docs should have coverage on this:

Python/C API Reference Manual:

Python/C API Reference Manual » Object Implementation Support > Type Objects:

CPython Devguide > Exploring Python Internals > Additional References:


Experiments on a $50 DIY air purifier that takes 30s to assemble

From "Better Box Fan Air Purifier" :

> Air purifiers can be expensive and you've probably seen articles recommending to just put a 20" x 20" x 1" furnace filter on a cheap 20" box fan and POOF! instant cleaner air for not a lot of money. It really does clean the air pretty cheap.

> There's a problem with this though. These fans weren't designed to be run with a filter. The filter will restrict air flow which will put a higher strain on the motor causing it to use more electricity and in worse cases could be a fire hazard. The higher the MERV rating (cleaning efficiency) of the filter the more stress it will put on the fan.

> Don't worry! You can still have your cheap air purifier as long as the filter area is increased to decrease the effect of air resistance. Instead of using one 20x20x1 filter we'll use two 20x25x1 filters which increases the filter surface area over 250%. It's a little more expensive because you're using two filters instead of one but the increased filter surface area also helps the filter last longer before it gets clogged up and we're saving on energy use compared to a single filter.


A. Putting two [larger] filters in a 'V' with cardboard to fill the top and bottom pulls the same amount of air through a larger area of filters

B. pulling the same volume of air through greater surface area results in greater pressure between the filter and fan than one filter directly affixed to the fan

C. The lower air pressure / "suction" due to an obstructed intake causes an electric fan motor to fail more quickly.

D. Increasing the air pressure that the motor is in reduces the failure rate?


Goodreads plans to retire API access, disables existing API keys


The end of an era. Sad to see. First IMDB and now GoodReads. So much for open data. Thanks for the bait and switch. Good thing we trusted them with our data.

Welp, time to start a better book catalog site with threaded discussions that eBook page turns can be synced with.


Python Pip 20.3 Released with new resolver


Pip supports constraints files. :

> Constraints files are requirements files that only control which version of a requirement is installed, not whether it is installed or not. Their syntax and contents is nearly identical to Requirements Files. There is one key difference: Including a package in a constraints file does not trigger installation of the package.

> Use a constraints file like so:

  python -m pip install -c constraints.txt


"Experience has shown"?

Did you go create a test case? Or at least link to a specific issue?


How to better ventilate your home


"Fan control with a Nest thermostat"

Looks like there could be: (1) an every hour for n minutes schedule; (2) an option to run the fan with the thermostat off; (3) an option to shut off the fan when everyone is gone


Quantum-computing pioneer Peter Shor warns of complacency over Internet security

If an organization has a 5 year refresh cycle (~time to implement a new IT system), and there exists a quantum computer with a sufficient number of error-corrected qubits by 2027 [1], an organization/industry has 5 years from 2022 to go quantum-resistant: replace their existing solution with quantum-resistant algos (and, in some cases, a DLT with a coherent pan-industry API) and/or double their RSA and ECDSA key sizes.

[1] "Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them (ECDSA, SHA256)"

Which DLT/blockchains without PKI (or DNS) will implement the algorithms selected from the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) round 3 candidate algorithms?


CERN Online introductory lectures on quantum computing from 6 November

[+] lists algorithms, speedups, and descriptions.


The "linear systems" and "machine learning" algorithm paragraphs under "Optimization, Numerics, & Machine Learning" reference a number of resources in regards to currently understood limits of and applications for quantum computers and linear optimization.


A Manim Code Template

The demo video looks cool. It's maybe not obvious that there's a link to the code-video-generator (which is built on manim by 3blue1brown) demo video in the README:



Startup Financial Modeling: What is a Financial Model? (2016) has free business model templates: SaaS (Foresight), eCommerce (, Startup Runway, Buy/Rent, Ads Calculator


We'd do better to find a list of business modeling books and tools.

And then take a look at integrating actual data sources; hopefully some quantitative with APIs.

Uncertainties supports mean±"error" w/ "error propagation":

Sliders etc can be done in Jupyter notebooks with e.g. ipywidgets:


At what grade level do presidential candidates debate?

Intelligence does not imply superior moral, ethical, or rational judgement.

Incomplexity of speech does not imply lack of intelligence.

Here's the section on Simple English in Simple English Wikipedia:

Imagine being reprimanded for use of complex words and statistical terms in an evidence-based policy discussion in a boardroom. Imagine someone applying to be CEO, President, or Chairman of the Board and showing up without a laptop, any charts, or any data.


Perhaps there is a better game for assessing competency to practice evidence-based policy.

This commenter effectively refutes the claim that Fleisch-Kincaid is a useful metric for assessing the grade-level of interpretively-punctuated spoken language:

Like I said, from "Ask HN: Recommendations for online essay grading systems?" :

> Who else remembers using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level metric in Word to evaluate school essays?

> Imagine my surprise when I learned that this metric is not one that was created for authors to maximize: reading ease for the widest audience is not an objective in some deparments, but a requirement.

> What metrics do and should online essay grading systems present? As continuous feedback to authors, or as final judgement?

That being said, disrespectful little b will not be tolerated or venerated by the other half of the curve.


ElectricityMap – Live CO₂ emissions of electricity production and consumption

jka | 2020-10-11 14:30:27 | 221 | # | ^

How would behind the meter electricity consumption change the reported amount of CO2 emitted by other electricity production sources?


Man that was a dumb question. Thanks for clarifying.

So we'd need electric utility companies to share the live data of how many kwh of solar and wind people are selling back to the grid in order to get an accurate regional comparison of real-time carbon intensity?

FWIU, they're already parsing the EIA data; but it's significantly more delayed than the max 2 hour delay specified by ElectricityMap.

Here's the parser for the current data from EIA:

Should the EIA (1) source, aggregate, cache, and make more real-time data available; and (2) create a new data item for behind the meter kwh from e.g. residential wind and solar?

(Edit) "Does EIA publish data on peak or hourly electricity generation, demand, and prices?"

> Hourly Electric Grid Monitor is a redesigned and enhanced version of the U.S. Electric System Operating Data tool. It incorporates two new data elements: hourly electricity generation by types of energy/fuel source and hourly sub-regional demand for certain balancing authorities in the Lower 48 states.

> [...]

> EIA does not publish hourly electricity price data, but it does publish wholesale electricity market information including daily volumes, high and low prices, and weighted-average prices on a biweekly basis.

AFAIU, retail intraday rates aren't yet really a thing in the US; but some countries in Europe do have intraday rates (which create incentives for the grid scale energy storage necessary for wide-scale rollout of renewables).

(Edit) "Introduction to the World of Electricity Trading" :

> Energy prices are influenced by a variety of factors that affect the supply and demand equilibrium. On the demand side, commonly referred to as a load, the main factors are economic activity, weather, and general efficiency of consumption. On the supply side, commonly referred to as generation, fuel prices and availability, construction costs and the fixed costs are the main drivers of the price of energy. There's a number of physical factors between supply and demand that affect the actual clearing price of electricity. Most of these factors are related to the transmission grid, the network of high voltage power lines and substations that ensure the safe and reliable transport of electricity from its generation to its consumption.

Which customers (e.g. data centers, mining firms) would take advantage of retail intraday rates?

How does cost and availability of storage affect the equilibrium price of electricity?


From :

> Here are some of the ways you can contribute:

> Building a new parser, Fixing a broken parser, Changes to the frontend, Find data sources, Verify data sources, Translating, Updating region capacities

I sent a few tweets and emails about the data in this region but nothing happened here either


Bash Error Handling

From :

> TIL that you can use the "DEBUG" trap to step through a bash script line by line

  trap '(read -p "[$BASH_SOURCE:$LINENO] $BASH_COMMAND?")' DEBUG
> [...] it does something very different than sh -x — sh -x will just print out lines, this stops before* every single line and lets you confirm that you want to run that line*

>> you can also customize the prompt with set -x

  export PS4='+(${BASH_SOURCE}:${LINENO}) '
  set -x
With a markdown_escape function, could this make for something like a notebook with ```bash fenced code blocks with syntax highlighting?


A Customer Acquisition Playbook for Consumer Startups

> For consumer companies, there are only three growth “lanes” that comprise the majority of new customer acquisition:

> 1. Performance marketing (e.g. Facebook and Google ads)

> 2. Virality (e.g. word-of-mouth, referrals, invites)

> 3. Content (e.g. SEO, YouTube)

> There are two additional lanes (sales and partnerships) which we won't cover in this post because they are rarely effective in consumer businesses. And there are other tactics to boost customer acquisition (e.g PR, brand marketing), but the lanes outlined above are the only reliable paths for long-term and sustainable business growth.

Marketing calls those "channels". I don't think they're exclusive categories: a startup's YouTube videos could be supporting a viral marketing campaign, for example; ads aren't the only strategy for (targeted) social media marketing; if the "ask" / desired behavior upon receiving the message is to share the brand, is that "viral"?

What about Super Bowel commercials?

Traditional marketing: press releases, (linked-citation-free) news wires, quasi-paid interviews, "news program" appearances, product placement.

"Growth hacking":


Jupyter Notebooks Gallery


Jupyter/Jupyter > Wiki > "A gallery of interesting Jupyter Notebooks" lists hundreds of notebooks:

The Grafana dashboard lists the most popular notebook repos in the last hour:

Jupyter/Nbviewer > FAQ > "How do you choose the notebooks featured on the homepage?" :

> We originally selected notebooks that we found and liked. We are currently soliciting links to refresh the home page using a Google Form. You may also open an issue with your suggestion.

Google Form:

Here's the Nbviewer source code. AMP (And / Book / CreativeWork metadata) could be useful.



> Jupyter Notebooks as Markdown Documents [MyST Markdown, R Markdown], Julia, Python or R scripts


NestedText, a nice alternative to JSON, YAML, TOML


JSON5 also supports comments and multiline strings with `\`-escaped newlines:

Triple-quoted multiline strings like HJSON would be great, too.

From "The description of YAML in the README is inaccurate" :

> I will mention something else. The section about the "Norway problem" is not quite accurate. Some YAML loaders do in fact load no as false. These are usually YAML 1.1 loaders. YAML 1.2's default schema is the same as JSON's (only true, false, 'null and numbers are non-strings).

> Any YAML loader is free to use any schema it wants. That is, no loader is required to to load no as false. Good loaders should support multiple schemas and custom schemas. The Norway problem isn't technically a YAML problem but a schema problem.

> imho, YAML's biggest failing to date is not making things like this clear enough to the community.

> Note: PyYAML has a BaseLoader schema that loads all scalar values as strings.


Algorithm discovers how six molecules could evolve into life’s building blocks


Folding@home :

> Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project aimed to help scientists develop new therapeutics to a variety of diseases by the means of simulating protein dynamics. This includes the process of protein folding and the movements of proteins, and is reliant on the simulations run on the volunteers' personal computers.

"AlphaFold: Using AI for scientific discovery" (2020) :

> At last year’s Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction competition (CASP13), researchers from DeepMind made headlines by taking the top position in the free modeling category by a considerable margin, essentially doubling the rate of progress in CASP predictions of recent competitions. This is impressive, and a surprising result in the same vein as if a molecular biology lab with no previous involvement in deep learning were to solidly trounce experienced practitioners at modern machine learning benchmarks.

Citations of "Resource-efficient quantum algorithm for protein folding" (2019)

Protein folding:


"Applied CS"

Computational science:

Computational biology:

Computational thinking: :

> The characteristics that define computational thinking are decomposition, pattern recognition / data representation, generalization/abstraction, and algorithms.

Additional skills useful for STEM fields: system administration / DevOps / DevSecOps, HPC: High Performance Computing (distributed systems, distributed algorithms, performance optimization; rewriting code that is designed to test unknown things with tests and for performance), research a graph of linked resources and reproducibly publish in LaTeX and/or computational notebooks such as Jupyter notebooks, dask-labextension, open source tool development (& sustainable funding) that lasts beyond one grant

Physicists build circuit that generates clean, limitless power from graphene

> In the 1950s, physicist Léon Brillouin published a landmark paper refuting the idea that adding a single diode, a one-way electrical gate, to a circuit is the solution to harvesting energy from Brownian motion. Knowing this, Thibado's group built their circuit with two diodes for converting AC into a direct current (DC). With the diodes in opposition allowing the current to flow both ways, they provide separate paths through the circuit, producing a pulsing DC current that performs work on a load resistor.

> Additionally, they discovered that their design increased the amount of power delivered. "We also found that the on-off, switch-like behavior of the diodes actually amplifies the power delivered, rather than reducing it, as previously thought," said Thibado. "The rate of change in resistance provided by the diodes adds an extra factor to the power."

> The team used a relatively new field of physics to prove the diodes increased the circuit's power. "In proving this power enhancement, we drew from the emergent field of stochastic thermodynamics and extended the nearly century-old, celebrated theory of Nyquist," said coauthor Pradeep Kumar, associate professor of physics and coauthor.

> According to Kumar, the graphene and circuit share a symbiotic relationship. Though the thermal environment is performing work on the load resistor, the graphene and circuit are at the same temperature and heat does not flow between the two.

> That's an important distinction, said Thibado, because a temperature difference between the graphene and circuit, in a circuit producing power, would contradict the second law of thermodynamics. "This means that the second law of thermodynamics is not violated, nor is there any need to argue that 'Maxwell's Demon' is separating hot and cold electrons," Thibado said.


I'm not sure that I understand either. From the abstract (which failed to link to):

> The system reaches thermal equilibrium and the rates of heat, work, and entropy production tend quickly to zero. However, there is power generated by graphene which is equal to the power dissipated by the load resistor.

Looks like the article is also on ArXiV:

Is it really a closed system at equilibrium?

Hopefully these can be sandwiched below solar panels to harvest thermal energy from the gradient.


Mozilla shuts project Iodide: Datascience documents in browsers

I did this! I killed it and I didn't mean to.

Ten (10) days ago, I filed an issue in the iodide project: "Compatibility with 'percent' notebook format"

And then six (6) days ago, I added this comment to that issue:

And now it's almost dead, and I didn't mean to kill it.

But I also suggested that it would be great if conda-forge had a WASM build target:

- "Consider moving CPython patches upstream"

For students, being able to go to a URL and have a notebook interface with the SciPy stack preinstalled without needing to have an organization manage shell accounts and/or e.g. JupyterHub for every student should be worth the necessary budget allocation. Their local machines have plenty of CPU, storage, and memory for all but big data workloads.

Iodide is/was really cool. Pyiodide (much of the SciPy stack compiled to WASM) is also a great idea.

Jyve with latest JupyterLab, nbgrader, and configurable cloud storage could also solve.


There are many ways to share reproducible Jupyter notebooks.

Google Colab now supports ipywidgets (js) in notebooks. While you can install additional packages in Colab, additional packages must be installed by each user (e.g. with `! pip install sympy` in an initial input cell) for each new kernel.

repo2docker builds a docker image from software dependency versions specified in e.g. requirements.txt, environment.yml, and/or a postInstall script and then installs a current version of JupyterLab in the container. Zero-to-BinderHub describes how to get BinderHub (which builds and launches containers) running on a hosting provider w/ k8s. awesome-python-in-education/blob/master/

Google AI Platform Notebooks is hosted JupyterLab.

awesome-jupyter > Hosted Notebook Solutions lists a number of services:

awesome-python-in-education > Jupyter links to many Jupyter resources like nbgrader and BinderHub but not yet Jyve:


Ask HN: What are good life skills for people to learn?

My initial thoughts; learn to drive, first aid, a sport, play an instrument, a language, how to manage finances, to speak in front of people.

- "Consumer science (a.k.a. home economics) as a college major"

In no particular order:

- Food science; Nutrition

- Family planning:

- Personal finance (see the link above for resources)

- How to learn

- How to teach [reading and writing, STEM, respect, compassion]

- Compassion for others' suffering

- How to considerately escape from unhealthy situations

- Coping strategies:

- Defense mechanisms:

- Prioritization; productivity

- Goal setting; n-year planning; strategic alignment

Life skills:

Khan Academy > Life Skills:

Four Keys Project metrics for DevOps team performance

> […] four key metrics that indicate the performance of a software development team:

> Deployment Frequency - How often an organization successfully releases to production

> Lead Time for Changes - The amount of time it takes a commit to get into production

> Change Failure Rate - The percentage of deployments causing a failure in production

> Time to Restore Service - How long it takes an organization to recover from a failure in production


Ask HN: Resources to encourage teen on becoming computer engineer?

Howdy HN

A teenager I am close with would like to become a computer engineer. Whet resources, books, podcasts, camps, or experiences do you recommend to support this teen's endeavor?

"Ask HN: Something like Khan Academy but full curriculum for grade schoolers?" [through undergrads]

"Ask HN: How to introduce someone to programming concepts during 12-hour drive?"

"Ask HN: Any detailed explanation of computer science" : topologically-sorted? Information Theory and Constructor Theory are probably at the top:

> A bottom-up (topologically sorted) computer science curriculum (a depth-first traversal of a Thing graph) ontology would be a great teaching resource.

> One could start with e.g. "Outline of Computer Science", add concept dependency edges, and then topologically (and alphabetically or chronologically) sort.


> There are many potential starting points and traversals toward specialization for such a curriculum graph of schema:Things/skos:Concepts with URIs.

> How to handle classical computation as a "collapsed" subset of quantum computation? Maybe Constructor Theory?

> ... Ctrl-F "interview", "curriculum"


CadQuery: A Python parametric CAD scripting framework based on OCCT


The jupyter-cadquery extension renders models with three.js via pythreejs in a sidebar with jupyterlab-sidecar:


Array Programming with NumPy

Looks like there's a new citation for NumPy in town.

"Citing packages in the SciPy ecosystem" lists the existing citations for SciPy, NumPy, scikits, and other -Py things: ( source: )

A better way to cite requisite software might involve referencing a record in JSON-LD, RDFa, or Microdata; for example:

But there's as of yet no way to publish JSON-LD, RDFa, or Microdata Linked Data from LaTeX with Computer Modern.


You can get a free DOI for and archive a tag of a Git repo with FigShare or Zenodo.

If you have repo2docker REES dependency scripts (requirements.txt, environment.yml, postInstall,) in your repo, a BinderHub like can build and cache a container image and launch a (free) instance in a k8s cloud.

Journals haven't yet integrated with BinderHub.

Putting the suggested citation and DOI URI/URL in your README and cataloging citations in an e.g. wiki page may increase the crucial frequency of citation.

A Linked Data format for presenting well-formed arguments with #StructuredPremises would help to realize the potential of the web as a graph of resources which may satisfy formal inclusion criteria for #LinkedMetaAnalyses.


We could reason about sites that index according to our own and others' observations. Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, and Meta all index Scholarly Articles: they copy the bibliographic metadata and the abstract for archival and schoarly purposes.

AFAIU, e.g. Zotero and Mendeley do not crawl and index articles or attempt to parse bibliographic citations from the astounding plethora of citation styles [citationstyles, citationstyles_stylerepo] into a citation graph suitable for representative metrics [zenodo_newmetrics]. does not have a DOI, does not have an ORCID [orcid], and is not published in any journal but is indexed by e.g. Google Scholar; though there are apparently multiple records referring to a ScholarlyArticle with the same name and author. Something like "Hell's Angels" (1930)? No DOI, no ORCID, no parseable PDF structure: not indexed.

AFAIU, Google Scholar does not yet index ScholarlyArticle (or SoftwareApplication < CreativeWork) bibliographic metadata. GScholar indexes an older set of bibliographic metadata from HTML <meta> tags and also attempts to parse PDFs. [gscholar_inclusion]

Google Scholar is also not (yet?) integrated with Google Dataset Search (which indexes metadata).

FigShare DOIs and Zenodo DOIs are DataCite DOIs [figshare_howtocite, zenodo_principles]; which apparently aren't (yet?) all indexed by Google Scholar [rescience_gscholar].

IIUC, all papers uploaded to are indexed by Google Scholar. In order for [arxiv_vanity] to render a mobile-ready, font-resizeable HTML5 version of a paper uploaded to ArXiV, the PostScript source must be uploaded. Arxiv hosts certain categories of ScholarlyArticles.

JOSS (Journal of Open Source Software) has managed to get articles indexed by Google Scholar [rescience_gscholar]. They publish their costs [joss_costs]: $275 Crossref membership, DOIs: $1/paper:

> Assuming a publication rate of 200 papers per year this works out at ~$4.75 per paper












Do you like the browser bookmark manager?

How do you think it compares to services like,, or Have they advanced the field to the point that it's worth switching?

Things I'd add to browser bookmark managers someday:

- Support for (persisting) bookmarks tags. From the post re: the re-launch of

> "Allow reading and writing bookmark tags"

> Notes re: how this could be standardized with JSON-LD:

> The existing Web Experiment for persisting bookmark tags:

- Standard search features like operators: ((term) AND (term2)) OR term3

- Regex search

- (Chrome) show the createdDate and allow (non-destructive) sort by date

- Native sync API for syncing to zero or more bookmarks / personal data storage providers

- Support for integration with extensions that support actual resource metadata like Zotero

- Linked Data support: extract and store bibliographic metadata like Zotero and OpenLink Structured Data Sniffer

What are the current limitations of the WebExtensions Bookmarks API (now supported by Firefox, Chrome, Edge, and hopefully eventually Safari)?:


NIST Samate – Source Code Security Analyzers

Additional lists of static analysis, dynamic analysis, SAST, DAST, and other source code analysis tools:

OWAP > Source Code Analysis Tools: (supports upvotes and downvotes)



devsecops/awesome-devsecops: ,

kai5263499/awesome-container-security:,_Shifting_Sec... :

> DevSecOps is an augmentation of DevOps to allow for security practices to be integrated into the DevOps approach. The traditional centralised security team model must adopt a federated model allowing each delivery team the ability to factor in the correct security controls into their DevOps practices.



A Handwritten Math Parser in 100 lines of Python


Reverse Polish notation (RPN) > Converting from infix notation > Shunting-yard algorithm

Infix notation supports parentheses.

Infix notation: 3 + 4 × (2 − 1)

RPN: 3 4 2 1 − × +


PEP – An open source PDF editor for Mac


> RFC 4122 defines a Uniform Resource Name (URN) namespace for UUIDs. A UUID presented as a URN appears as follows:[1]

> > urn:uuid:123e4567-e89b-12d3-a456-426655440000

Version 4 UUIDs have 122 random bits (out of 128 bits total).

In Python:

  >>> import uuid
  >>> _id = uuid.uuid4()
  >>> _id.urn
Whether search engines will consider a URL or a URN or a random str without dashes to be one searchable-for token is pretty ironic in terms of extracting relations between resources in a Linked Data hypergraph.

  >>> _id.hex
The relation between a resource and a Thing with a URI/URN/URL can be expressed with . In JSON-LD ("JSONLD"):

  {"@context": "",
   "@type": "WebPage",
   "about": {
     "@type": "SoftwareApplication",
     "identifier": "urn:uuid:4c466878-a81b-4f22-a112-c704655fa4ee",
     "url": ["", ""],
     "name": [
       "a < CreativeWork < Thing",
       {"@value": "a rose by any other name",
        "@language": "en"}]}}
Or with RDFa:

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    <div property="about" typeof="SoftwareApplication">
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      <span property="name">a < CreativeWork < Thing</span>
      <span property="name" lang="en">a rose by any other name</span>
Or with Microdata:

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    <div itemprop="about" itemtype="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" itemscope>
      <meta itemprop="identifier" content="urn:uuid:4c466878-a81b-4f22-a112-c704655fa4ee" />
      <meta itemprop="name" content="a <a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="<a href="" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank">" rel="nofollow noopener" target="_blank"> < CreativeWork < Thing"/>
      <meta itemprop="name" content="a rose by any other name" lang="en"/>


The Unix timestamp will begin with 16 this Sunday

It's gonna be so fun. In UTC:

  >>> import datetime
  >>> datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(16e8)
  datetime.datetime(2020, 9, 13, 8, 26, 40)


Redox: Unix-Like Operating System in Rust


Are there tools to support static analysis and formal methods in Rust yet?

From re: awesome-safety-critical :

> > Does Rust have a chance in mission-critical software? (currently Ada and proven C niches)

FWIU, Sealed Rust is in progress.

And there's also RustPython for the userspace.


Ask HN: How are online communities established?

HN, Reddit, Stack Overflow, etc. are all established communities with users. How do you start a community when you don't have any users?


Seconded. "People Powered: How Communities Can Supercharge Your Business, Brand, and Teams" (2019)

"The Art of Community: Building the New Age of Participation" (2012)

"Tribes: We need you to lead us" (2011)

The 1% 'rule' :

> In Internet culture, the 1% rule is a rule of thumb pertaining to participation in an internet community, stating that only 1% of the users of a website add content, while the other 99% of the participants only lurk. Variants include the 1–9–90 rule (sometimes 90–9–1 principle or the 89:10:1 ratio),[1] which states that in a collaborative website such as a wiki, 90% of the participants of a community only consume content, 9% of the participants change or update content, and 1% of the participants add content.

... Relevant metrics:

- Marginal cost of service

- Customer acquisition cost:

- [Quantifiable and non-quantifiable] Customer Lifetime Value:

Last words of the almost-cliche community organizer surrounded by dormant accounts: "Network effects will result in sufficient (grant) funding"

Business model examples that may be useful for building and supporting sustainable communities with clear Missions, Objectives, and Criteria for Success:


Python Documentation Using Sphinx

I usually generate new Python projects with a cookiecutter; such as cookiecutter-pypackage. I like the way that cookiecutter-pypackage includes a Makefile which has a `docs` task so that I can call `make docs` to build the sphinx docs in the docs/ directory which include:

- a /docs/readme.rst that includes the /README.rst as the first document in the toctree

- a sensible set of default documents: readme (.. include:: /README.rst), installation, usage, modules (sphinx-autodoc output), contributing, authors, history (.. include:: /HISTORY.rst)

- a sphinx that sets the docs' version and release attributes to pkgname.__version__; so that the version number only needs to be changed in one place (as long as or setup.cfg also read the version string from pkgname.__version__)

- a default set of extensions: ['sphinx.ext.autodoc', 'sphinx.ext.viewcode'] that generates API docs and includes '[source]' hyperlinks from the generated API docs to the transcluded syntax-highlighted source code and links back to the API docs from the source code

There are a few styles of docstrings that Sphinx can parse and include in docs with e.g. sphinx-autodoc:

`:param, :type, :returns, :rtype` docstrings (which OP uses; and which pycontracts can read runtime parameter and return type contracts from (though Python 3 annotations are now the preferred style for compile or editing-time typechecks))

Numpydoc docstrings:

Googledoc docstrings:

You can use Markdown with Sphinx in at least three ways:

MyST Markdown supports Sphinx and Docutils roles and directives. Jupyter Book builds upon MyST Markdown. With Jupyter Book, you can include Jupyter notebooks (which can include MyST Markdown) in your Sphinx docs. Executable notebooks are a much easier way to include up-to-date code outputs in docs.

Sphinx (& ReadTheDocs) w/ recommonmark:

Nbsphinx predates Jupyter Book and doesn't yet support MyST Markdown, but does support Markdown cells in Jupyter notebooks. Nbsphinx includes a parser for including .ipynb Jupyter notebooks in Sphinx docs. nbsphinx supports raw RST (ReST) cells in Jupyter notebooks and has great docs:

Nbdev is another approach; though it's not Sphinx:

> nbdev is a library that allows you to fully develop a library in Jupyter Notebooks, putting all your code, tests and documentation in one place.

> [...] Add %nbdev_export flags to the cells that define the functions you want to include in your python modules

A few additional sources of docs for Sphinx and ReStructuredText:

Read The Docs docs > Getting Started with Sphinx > External Resources

CPython Devguide > "Documenting Python"

"How to write [Linux] kernel documentation"


... "Ask HN: Recommendations for Books on Writing [for engineers]?"


Traits of good remote leaders

sfg | 2020-09-10 07:18:54 | 356 | # | ^

Fortunately the references are free to view.

"Table 4 – Correlation of Development Phases, Coping Stages and Comfort Zone transitions and the Performance Model" in "From Comfort Zone to Performance Management" White (2008) tabularly correlates the Tuckman group development phases (Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning) with the Carnall coping cycle (Denial, Defense, Discarding, Adaptation, Internalization) and Comfort Zone Theory (First Performance Level, Transition Zone, Second Performance Level), and the White-Fairhurst TPR model (Transforming, Performing, Reforming). The ScholarlyArticle also suggests management styles for each stage (Commanding, Cooperative, Motivational, Directive, Collaborative); and suggests that team performance is described by chained power curves of re-progression through these stages.

IDK what's different about online teams in regards to performance management?


Show HN: Eiten – open-source tool for portfolio optimization

Is it possible to factor (e.g. GRI) sustainability criteria into the portfolio fitness function?

My concern is that - like any other portfolio optimization algorithm - blindly optimizing on fundamentals and short term returns will lead to investing in firms who just dump external costs onto people in the present and future; so, screening with sustainability criteria is important to me.

From :

> awesome-quant lists a bunch of other tools for algos and superalgos:


(Sustainable) Index ETFs in the stocks.txt universe would likely be less sensitive to single performers' effects in unbalanced portfolios.

> pyfolio.tears.create_interesting_times_tear_sheet measures algorithmic trading algorithm performance during "stress events"


Ask HN: Any well funded tech companies tackling big, meaningful problems?

Are there any well funded tech startups / companies tackling major societal problems? Any of these fair game:


I don't see or hear of any and want to know if this is just my bias or if there really is a shortage of resources in tech being allocated to solving the worlds most important problems. I'm sure I'm not the only engineer that's looking out for companies like this.

Ran into this previous Ask HN ( that asked a similar question. However, here I wanna focus on the better funded efforts (not side projects, philanthropy etc).

One example I've heard so far is Tesla. Any others?

You can make an impact by solving important local and global problems by investing your time, career, and savings; by listing and comparing solutions.

As a labor market participant, you can choose to work for places that have an organizational mission that strategically aligns with local, domestic, and international objectives. ... " Mission, Project, Goal, Objective, Task"

As an investor, you can choose to invest in organizations that are making the sort of impact you're looking for: you can impact invest.

You mentioned "List of global issues"; which didn't yet have a link to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (the #GlobalGoals). I just added this to the linked article:

> As part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the UN Millenium Development Goals (2000-2015) were superseded by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (2016-2030), which are also known as The Global Goals. There are associated Targets and Indicators for each Global Goal.

There are 17 Global Goals.

Sustainability reporting standards can align with the Sustainable Development Goals. For example, the GRI standards are now aligned with the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Investors, fund managers, and potential employees can identify companies which are making an impact by reviewing corporate sustainability and ESG reports.

From :

> SDG Target 12.6: "Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle"

From :

> > What are some of the corporate sustainability reporting standards?

> > From :

> >> Organizations can improve their sustainability performance by measuring (EthicalQuote (CEQ)), monitoring and reporting on it, helping them have a positive impact on society, the economy, and a sustainable future. The key drivers for the quality of sustainability reports are the guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI),[3] (ACCA) award schemes or rankings. The GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines enable all organizations worldwide to assess their sustainability performance and disclose the results in a similar way to financial reporting.[4] The largest database of corporate sustainability reports can be found on the website of the United Nations Global Compact initiative.

> >The GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) Standards are now aligned with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (#GlobalGoals).

> >> In 2017, 63 percent of the largest 100 companies (N100), and 75 percent of the Global Fortune 250 (G250) reported applying the GRI reporting framework.[3]

What are some good ways to search for companies who (1) do sustainability reports, (2) engage in strategic alignment in corporate planning sessions, (3) make sustainability a front-and-center issue in their company's internal and external communications?

What are some examples of companies who have a focus on sustainability and/or who have developed a nonprofit organization for philanthropic missions which are sometimes best accounted for as a distinct organization or a business unit (which can accept and offer receipts for donations as a non-profit)?

How can an employee drive change in a small or a large company? Identify opportunities to deliver value and goodwill. Read through the Global Goals, Targets, and Indicators; and get into the habit of writing down problems and solutions.

3 pillars of [Corporate] Sustainability: (Environment (Society (Economy))).

"Launch HN: Charityvest (YC S20) – Employee charitable funds and gift matching" :

> We created a modern, simple, and affordable way for companies to include charitable giving in their suite of employee benefits.

> We give employees their own tax-deductible charitable giving fund, like an “HSA for Charity.” They can make contributions into their fund and, from their fund, support any of the 1.4M charities in the US, all on one tax receipt.

> Using the funds, we enable companies to operate gift matching programs that run on autopilot. Each donation to a charity from an employee is matched automatically by the company in our system.

> A company can set up a matching gift program and launch giving funds to employees in about 10 minutes of work.

"Salesforce Sustainability Cloud Becomes Generally Available" :

> Are there similar services for Sustainability Reporting and accountability?


Column Names as Contracts


In terms of database normalization, delimiting multiple fields within a column name field violates the "atomic columns" requirement of the first though sixth normal forms (1NF - 6NF)

Are there standards for storing columnar metadata (that is, metadata about the columns; or column-level metadata)?

In terms of columns, SQL has (implicit ordinal, name, type) and then primary key, index, and [foreign key] constraints.

RDFS (RDF Schema) is an open W3C linked data standard. An rdf:Property may have a rdfs:domain and a rdfs:range; where the possible datatypes are listed as instances of rdfs:range. Primitive datatypes are often drawn from XSD (XML Schema Definition), or . An rdfs:Class instance may be within the rdfs:domain and/or the rdfs:range of an rdf:Property.

RDFS is generally not sufficient for data validation; there are a number of standards which build upon RDFS: W3C SHACL (Shapes and Constraint Language), W3C CSVW (CSV on the Web).

There is some existing work on merging JSON Schema and SHACL.

CSVW builds upon the W3C "Model for Tabular Data and Metadata on the Web"; which supports arbitrary "annotations" on columns. CSVW can be represented as any RDF representation: Turtle/Trig/M3, RDF/XML, JSON-LD. :

> an annotated tabular data model: a model for tables that are annotated with metadata. Annotations provide information about the cells, rows, columns, tables, and groups of tables […]


From :

> "7 metadata header rows (column label, property URI path, DataType, unit, accuracy, precision, significant figures)"


From :

> Relevant: topics: "Linked Data formats, tools, challenges, opportunities; CSVW, , "

> "A dataframe protocol for the PyData ecosystem"

> A .meta protocol should implement the W3C Tabular Data Model: [...]


The various methods of doing CSV2RDF and R2RML (SQL / RDB to RDF Mapping) each have a way to specify additional metadata annotations. None stuff data into a column name (which I'm also guilty of doing with e.g. "columnspecs" in a small line-parsing utility called pyline that can cast columns to Python types and output JSON lines).


Even JSON5 is insufficient when it comes to representing e.g. complex fractions: there must be a tbox (schema) in order to read the data out of the abox (assertions; e.g. JSON). JSON-LD is sufficient for representation; and there are also specs like RDFS, SHACL, and CSVW.



Graph Representations for Higher-Order Logic and Theorem Proving (2019)

ONNX (and maybe RIF) are worth mentioning.


> ONNX is an open format built to represent machine learning models. ONNX defines a common set of operators - the building blocks of machine learning and deep learning models - and a common file format to enable AI developers to use models with a variety of frameworks, tools, runtimes, and compilers


Datalog (not Turing-complete):

HOList Benchmark:

"HOList: An Environment for Machine Learning of Higher-Order Theorem Proving" (2019)

> Abstract: We present an environment, benchmark, and deep learning driven automated theorem prover for higher-order logic. Higher-order interactive theorem provers enable the formalization of arbitrary mathematical theories and thereby present an interesting, open-ended challenge for deep learning. We provide an open-source framework based on the HOL Light theorem prover that can be used as a reinforcement learning environment. HOL Light comes with a broad coverage of basic mathematical theorems on calculus and the formal proof of the Kepler conjecture, from which we derive a challenging benchmark for automated reasoning. We also present a deep reinforcement learning driven automated theorem prover, DeepHOL, with strong initial results on this benchmark.


How do transformers handle with truth tables, logical connectives, and propositional logic / rules of inference, and first-order logic?

Truth table:

Logical connective:

Propositional logic:

Rules of inference:

DL: Description logic: (... The OWL 2 profiles (EL, QR, RL; DL, Full) have established decideability and complexity: )

FOL: First-order logic:

HOL: Higher-order logic:

In terms of regurgitating without critical reasoning?

Critical reasoning:


Show HN: Linux sysadmin course, eight years on

Almost eight years ago I launched an online “Linux sysadmin course for newbies” here at HN.

It was a side-project that went well, but never generated enough money to allow me to fully commit to leaving the Day Job. After surviving the Big C, and getting made redundant I thought I might improve and relaunch it commercially – but my doctors are a pessimistic bunch, so it looked like I didn’t have the time.

Instead, I rejigged/relaunched it via a Reddit forum this February as free and open - and have now gathered a team of helpers to ensure that it keeps going each month even after I can’t be involved any longer.

It’s a month-long course which restarts each month, so “Day 1” of September is this coming Monday.

It would be great if you could pass the word on to anyone you know who may be the target market of those who: “...aspire to get Linux-related jobs in industry - junior Linux sysadmin, devops-related work and similar”.




There are a number of resources that may be useful for your curriculum for this project listed in "Is there a program like codeacademy but for learning sysadmin?" :

> [ , , , , (Incident Response training)]

To that I'd add that K3D (based on K3S, which is now a CNCF project) runs Kubernetes (k8s) in Docker containers.

For zero-downtime (HA: High availability) deployments, "Zero-Downtime Deployments To a Docker Swarm Cluster" describes Rolling Updates and Blue-Green Deployments; with illustrations:

For git-push style deployment with more of a least privileges approach (which also has more moving parts) you could take a look at:

And also reference ansible molecule and testinfra for writing sysadmin tests and the molecule vagrant driver for testing docker configurations. :

> With Testinfra you can write unit tests in Python to test actual state of your servers configured by management tools like Salt, Ansible, Puppet, Chef and so on.

> Testinfra aims to be a Serverspec equivalent in python and is written as a plugin to the powerful Pytest test engine.

I wasn't able to find a syllabus or a list of all of the daily posts? Are you focusing on DevOps and/or DevSecOps skills?

EDIT: The lessons are Markdown files in a Git repo:

Links to each lesson, the title and/or subjects of the lesson, and the associated reddit posts might be useful in a Table of Contents in the


Maybe most useful as resources for further study.

Looks like Day 20 covers shell scripting. A few things worth mentioning:

You can write tests for shell scripts and write TAP (Test Anything Protocol) -formatted output:

Quoting in shell scripts is something to be really careful about:

> This and this do different things:

  # prints a newline
  echo $(echo "-e a\nb")

  # prints "-e a\nb"
  echo "$(echo "-e a\nb")"
Shellcheck can identify some of those types of (security) bugs/errors/vulns in shell scripts:

LearnXinYminutes has a good bash reference:

And an okay Ansible reference, which (like Ops School) we should contribute to:

Why do so many pros avoid maintaining shell scripts and writing one-off commands that they'll never remember to run again later?


It may be helpful to format these as Jupyter notebooks with input and output cells.

- Ctrl-Shift-Minus splits a cell at the cursor

- M and Y toggle a cell between Markdown and code

If you don't want to prefix every code cell line with a '!' so that the ipykernel Jupyter python kernel (the default kernel) executes the line with $SHELL, you can instead install and select bash_kernel; though users attempting to run the notebooks interactively would then need to also have bash_kernel installed:

You can save a notebook .ipynb to any of a number of Markdown and non-Markdown formats ; unfortunately jupytext only auto-saves to md without output cell content for now:

You can make reveal.js slides (that do include outputs) from a notebook:

With nbconvert, you can manually save an .ipynb Jupyter notebook as Markdown which includes the cell outputs w/ File > "Download as / Export Notebook as" > "Export notebook to Markdown" or with the CLI:

    jupyter convert --to markdown
    jupyter convert --help
With Jupyter Book, you can build an [interactive] book as HTML and/or PDF from multiple Jupyter notebooks as e.g. Markdown documents :

    jupyter-book build mybook/

From :

    type bash
    bash --help
    help help
    help type
    apropos bash
    info bash
    man bash
    man man
    info info
From ; this is how dotfiles work:

    info bash -n "Bash Startup Files"


Re: dotfiles, losing commands that should've been logged to HISTFILE when running multiple bash sessions and why I wrote (Ctrl-F for: "dotfiles", "", "inputrc")


awesome-sysadmin > resources:


Software supply chain security

Estimates of prevalence do assume detection. How would we detect that a dependency that was installed a few deployments and reboots ago was compromised?

How does the classic infosec triad (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability) apply to software supply chain security?

Confidentiality: Presumably we're talking about open source projects; which aren't confidential. Projects may request responsible disclosure in an e.g. security.txt; and vuln reports may be confidential for at least a little while.

Integrity: Secure transport protocols, checksums, and cryptographic code signing are ways to mitigate data integrity risks. GitHub supports SSH, 2FA, and GPG keys. Can all keys in the package signature keyring be used to sign any package? Can we verify a public key over a different channel? When we specify exact versions of software dependencies, can we also record package hashes which the package installer(s) will verify?

Availability: What are the internal and external data, network, and service dependencies for the development and deployment DevSecOps workflows? Can we deploy from local package mirrors? Who is responsible for securing and updating local package mirrors? Are these service dependencies all HA? Does everything in this system also depend upon the load balancer? Does our container registry support e.g. Docker Notary (TUF)? How should we mirror TUF package repos?

See also: "Guidance for [[transparent] proxy cache] partial mirrors?"


Mind Emulation Foundation

gk1 | 2020-09-01 13:53:23 | 93 | # | ^

Was just talking about quantum cognition and memristors (in context to GIT) a few days ago:

Quantum cognition:


It may yet be possible to sufficiently functionally emulate the mind with (orders of magnitude more) transistors. Though, is it necessary to emulate e.g. autonomic functions? Do we consider the immune system to be part of the mind (and gut)?

Perhaps there's something like an amplituhedron - or some happenstance correspondence - that will enable more efficient simulation of quantum systems on classical silicon pending orders of magnitude increases in coherence and also error rate in whichever computation medium.

For abstract formalisms (which do incorporate transistors as a computation medium sufficient for certain tasks), is there a more comprehensive set than Constructor Theory?

Constructor theory:


What is the universe using our brains to compute? Is abstract reasoning even necessary for this job?

Something worth emulating: Critical reasoning.


How close are computers to automating mathematical reasoning?


Or is automated proof search impossible for humans as well?

Arguably, humans require more energy per operation. So, presumably such an argument hinges upon what types of operations are performed in conducting automated proof search?


The task (in terms of constructor theory) is: Find the functions that sufficiently approximate the observations and record their reproducible derivations.

Either the (unreferenced) study was actually arguing that "automated proof search" can't be done at all, or that human neural computation is categorically non-algorothmic.

Grid search of all combinations of bits that correspond to [symbolic] classical or quantum models.

Or better: evolutionary algorithms and/or neural nets.


That human cognition is quantum in nature - that e.g. entanglement is necessary - may be unfalsifiable.

Neuromorphic engineering has expanded since the 1980s.

Quantum computing is the best known method for simulating chemical reactions and thereby possibly also neurochemical reactions. But, Is quantum computing necessary to functionally emulate human cognition?

It may be that a different computation medium can accomplish the same tasks without emulating all of the complexity of the brain.

If the brain is only classical and some people are using their brains to perform quantum computations, there may be something there.

Quantum cognition:

Quantum memristors are still elusive.

From "Quantum Memristors in Frequency-Entangled Optical Fields" (2020) :

> Apart from the advantages of using these devices for computation [12] (such as energy efficiency [13], compared to transistor-based computers), memristors can be also used in machine learning schemes [14,15]. The relevance of the memristor lies in its ubiquitous presence in models which describe natural processes, especially those involving biological systems. For example, memristors inherently describe voltage-dependent ion-channel conductances in the axon membrane in neurons, present in the Hodgkin–Huxley model [16,17].

> Due to the inherent linearity of quantum mechanics, it is not straightforward to describe a dissipative non-linear memory element, such as the memristor, in the quantum realm, since nonlinearities usually lead to the violation of fundamental quantum principles, such as no-cloning theorem. Nonetheless, the challenge was already constructively addressed in Ref. [18]. This consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a dissipative environment, where the coupling is changed based on the results of a weak measurement scheme with classical feedback. As a result of the development of quantum platforms in recent years, and their improvement in controllability and scalability, different constructions of a quantum memristor in such platforms have been presented. There is a proposal for implementing it in superconducting circuits [7], exploiting memory effects that naturally arise in Josephson junctions. The second proposal is based on integrated photonics [19]: a Mach–Zehnder interferometer can behave as a beam splitter with a tunable reflectivity by introducing a phase in one of the beams, which can be manipulated to study the system as a quantum memristor subject to different quantum state inputs.

Quantum harmonic oscillators have also found application in modeling financial markets. Quantum harmonic oscillator:

New framework for natural capital approach to transform policy decisions

Natural capital:

> Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms. Some natural capital assets provide people with free goods and services, often called ecosystem services. Two of these (clean water and fertile soil) underpin our economy and society, and thus make human life possible.

Natural capital accounting:

> Natural capital accounting is the process of calculating the total stocks and flows of natural resources and services in a given ecosystem or region.[1] Accounting for such goods may occur in physical or monetary terms. This process can subsequently inform government, corporate and consumer decision making as each relates to the use or consumption of natural resources and land, and sustainable behaviour.

Opportunity cost:

> When an option is chosen from alternatives, the opportunity cost is the "cost" incurred by not enjoying the benefit associated with the best alternative choice.[1] The New Oxford American Dictionary defines it as "the loss of potential gain from other alternatives when one alternative is chosen."[2] In simple terms, opportunity cost is the benefit not received as a result of not selecting the next best option. Opportunity cost is a key concept in economics, and has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice". [3] The notion of opportunity cost plays a crucial part in attempts to ensure that scarce resources are used efficiently.[4] Opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs: the real cost of output forgone, lost time, pleasure or any other benefit that provides utility should also be considered an opportunity cost. The opportunity cost of a product or service is the revenue that could be earned by its alternative use.

How do we value essential dependencies in terms of future opportunity costs?

In terms of just mental health?

"National parks a boost to mental health worth trillions: study"

> Visits to national parks around the world may result in improved mental health valued at about $US6 trillion (5.4 trillion euros), according to a team of ecologists, psychologists and economists

> Professor Bateman's decision-making framework focuses on the links between the environment and economy and has three components: efficiency, assessing which option generates the greatest benefit; sustainability, the effects of each option on natural capital stocks; and equity, regarding who receives the benefits of a decision and when.

Ian J. Bateman et al. "The natural capital framework for sustainably efficient and equitable decision making", Nature Sustainability (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41893-020-0552-3


Challenge to scientists: does your ten-year-old code still run?

"Ten Simple Rules for Reproducible Computational Research" :

> Rule 1: For Every Result, Keep Track of How It Was Produced

> Rule 2: Avoid Manual Data Manipulation Steps

> Rule 3: Archive the Exact Versions of All External Programs Used

> Rule 4: Version Control All Custom Scripts

> Rule 5: Record All Intermediate Results, When Possible in Standardized Formats

> Rule 6: For Analyses That Include Randomness, Note Underlying Random Seeds

> Rule 7: Always Store Raw Data behind Plots

> Rule 8: Generate Hierarchical Analysis Output, Allowing Layers of Increasing Detail to Be Inspected

> Rule 9: Connect Textual Statements to Underlying Results

> Rule 10: Provide Public Access to Scripts, Runs, and Results

... You can get a free DOI for and archive a tag of a Git repo with FigShare or Zenodo.

... re: [Conda and] Docker container images :

> - repo2docker (and thus BinderHub) can build an up-to-date container from requirements.txt, environment.yml, install.R, postBuild and any of the other dependency specification formats supported by REES: Reproducible Execution Environment Standard; which may be helpful as Docker Hub images will soon be deleted if they're not retrieved at least once every 6 months (possibly with a GitHub Actions cron task)

BinderHub builds a container with the specified versions of software and installs a current version of Jupyter Notebook with repo2docker, and then launches an instance of that container in a cloud.

“Ten Simple Rules for Creating a Good Data Management Plan” :

> Rule 6: Present a Sound Data Storage and Preservation Strategy

> Rule 8: Describe How the Data Will Be Disseminated

... DVC:

> Data Version Control or DVC is an open-source tool for data science and machine learning projects. Key features:

> - Simple command line Git-like experience. Does not require installing and maintaining any databases. Does not depend on any proprietary online services. Management and versioning of datasets and machine learning models. Data is saved in S3, Google cloud, Azure, Alibaba cloud, SSH server, HDFS, or even local HDD RAID.

> - Makes projects reproducible and shareable; helping to answer questions about how a model was built.

There are a number of great solutions for storing and sharing datasets.

... "#LinkedReproducibility"


The likelihood of there being a [security] bug discovered in a given software project over any significant period of time is near 100%.

It's definitely a good idea to archive source and binaries and later confirm that the output hasn't changed with and without upgrading the kernel, build userspace, execution userspace, and PUT/SUT Package/Software Under Test.

- Specify which versions of which constituent software libraries are utilized. (And hope that a package repository continues to serve those versions of those packages indefinitely). Examples: Software dependency specification formats like requirements.txt, environment.yml, install.R

- Mirror and archive all dependencies and sign the collection. Examples: {z3c.pypimirror, eggbasket, bandersnatch, devpi as a transparent proxy cache}, apt-cacher-ng, pulp, squid as a transparent proxy cache

- Produce a signed archive which includes all requisite software. (And host that download on a server such that data integrity can be verified with cryptographic checksums and/or signatures.) Examples: Docker image, statically-linked binaries, GPG-signed tarball of a virtualenv (which can be made into a proper package with e.g. fpm), ZIP + GPG signature of a directory which includes all dependencies

- Archive (1) the data, (2) the source code of all libraries, and (3) the compiled binary packages, and (4) the compiler and build userspace, and (5) the execution userspace, and (6) the kernel. Examples: Docker can solve for 1-5, but not 6. A VM (virtual machine) can solve for 1-5. OVF (Open Virtualization Format) is an open spec for virtual machine images, which can be built with a tool like Vagrant or Packer (optionally in conjunction with a configuration management tool like Puppet, Salt, Ansible).

When the application requires (7) a multi-node distributed system configuration, something like docker-compose/vagrant/terraform and/or a configuration management tool are pretty much necessary to ensure that it will be possible to reproducibly confirm the experiment output at a different point in spacetime.


A deep dive into the official Docker image for Python


> Why Tini?

> Using Tini has several benefits:

> - It protects you from software that accidentally creates zombie processes, which can (over time!) starve your entire system for PIDs (and make it unusable).

> - It ensures that the default signal handlers work for the software you run in your Docker image. For example, with Tini, SIGTERM properly terminates your process even if you didn't explicitly install a signal handler for it.

> - It does so completely transparently! Docker images that work without Tini will work with Tini without any changes.


> NOTE: If you are using Docker 1.13 or greater, Tini is included in Docker itself. This includes all versions of Docker CE. To enable Tini, just pass the `--init` flag to docker run.


There are Alpine [1] and Debian [2] miniconda images (within which you can `conda install python==3.8` and 2.7 and 3.4 in different conda envs)



If you build manylinux wheels with auditwheel [3], they should install without needing compilation for {CentOS, Debian, Ubuntu, and Alpine}; though standard Alpine images have MUSL instead of glibc by default, this [4] may work:

  echo "manylinux1_compatible = True" > $PYTHON_PATH/



The miniforge docker images aren't yet [5][6] multi-arch, which means it's not as easy to take advantage of all of the ARM64 / aarch64 packages that conda-forge builds now.



There are i686 and x86-64 docker containers for building manylinux wheels that work with many distros:

A multi-stage Dockerfile build can produce a wheel in the first stage and install that wheel (with `COPY --from=0`) in a later stage; leaving build dependencies out of the production environment for security and performance:


Use cases for conda or conda+pip:

- Already-compiled packages (where there may not be binary wheels) instead of requiring reinstallation and subsequent removal of e.g. build-essentials for every install

- Support for R, Julia, NodeJS, Qt, ROS, CUDA, MKL, etc.

- Here's what the Kaggle docker-python Dockerfile installs with conda and with pip:

- Build matrix in one container with conda envs

Disadvantages of the official python images as compared with conda+pip:

- Necessary to (re)install build dependencies and a compiler for every build (if there's not a bdist or a wheel for the given architecture) and then uninstall all unnecessary transitive dependencies. This is where a [multi-stage] build of a manylinux wheel may be the best approach.

- No LSM (AppArmor, SELinux, ) for one or more processes in the container (which may have read access to /etc or environment variables and/or --privileged)

- Necessary to build basically everything on non x86[-64] architectures for every container build

Disadvantages of conda / conda+pip:

- Different package repo infrastructure to mirror

- Users complaining that they don't need conda who then proceed to re-download and re-build wheels locally multiple times a day

Additional attributes for comparison:

- The new pip solver (which is slower than the traditional iterative non-solver), conda, and mamba

- repo2docker (and thus BinderHub) can build an up-to-date container from requirements.txt, environment.yml, install.R, postBuild and any of the other dependency specification formats supported by REES: Reproducible Environment Execution Standard; which may be helpful as Docker Hub images will soon be deleted if they're not retrieved at least once every 6 months (possibly with a GitHub Actions cron task)


Here's the meta.yml for the conda-forge/python-feedstock:

It includes patches just like distro packages often do.


The Consortium for Python Data API Standards


No, it's easy for library maintainers to offer a compat API in addition to however else they feel they need to differentiate and optimize the interfaces for array operations. People can contribute such APIs directly to libraries once instead of creating many conditionals in every library-utilizing project or requiring yet another dependency on an adapter / facade package that's not kept in sync with the libraries it abstracts.

If a library chooses to implement a spec compatability API, they do that once (optimally, as compared with somebody's hackish adapter facade which has very little comprehension of each library's internals) and everyone else's code doesn't need to have conditionals.

Each of L libraries implements a compat API: O(L)

Each of U library utilizers implements conditionals for every N places arrays are utilized: O(U x N_)

Each of U library utilizers uses the common denominator compat API: O(U)

L < U < (L + U) < (U x N_)


Tech giants let the Web's metadata schemas and infrastructure languish

It's "langushing" and they should do it for us? It's flourishing and they're doing it for us and they have lots of open issues and I want more for free without any work.

Wow! Nobody else does anything to collaboratively, inclusively develop schema and the problem is that search engines aren't just doing it for us?

1) Search engines do not owe us anything. They are not obligated to dominate us or the schema that we may voluntarily decide to include on our pages.

We've paid them nothing. They have no contract for service or agreement with us which compels them to please us or contribute greater resources to an open standard that hundreds of people are contributing to.

2) You people don't know anything about linked data and structured data.

Here's a list of schema: .

Here's the Linked Open Data Cloud:

Does your or this publisher's domain include any linked data?

Does this article include any linked data?

Do data quality issues pervade promising, comparatively-expensive, redundant approaches to natural-language comprehension, reasoning, and summarization?

Here, in contributing this example PR adding RDFa to the codeforantarctica web page, I probably made a mistake. . Can you spot the mistake?

There should have been review., W3C Verifiable Claims / Credentials, ld-signatures, and lds-merkleproof2017.

Which brings us to reification, truth values, property graphs, and the new RDF* and SPARQL* and JSON-LD* (which don't yet have repos with ongoing issues to tend to).

3) Get to work. This article does nothing to teach people how to contribute to slow, collaborative schema standards work.

Here's the link to the GitHub Issues so that you can contribute to


"Standards should be better and they should pay for it"

Who are the major contributors to the (W3C) open standard in question?

Is telling them to put up more money or step down going to result in getting what we want? Why or why not?

Who would merge PRs and close issues?

Have you misunderstood the scope of the project? What do the editors of the schema feel in regards to more specific domain vocabularies? Is it feasible or even advisable to attempt to out-schema domain experts who know how to develop and revise an ontology or even just a vocabulary with Protegé?

To give you a sense of how much work goes into creating a few classes and properties defined with RDFS in RDFa in HTML: here's the , , and issue:

Can you find the link to the Use Cases wiki (which was the real work)? What strategy did you use to find it?


"Well, Google just does what's good for Google."

Are you arguing that should make charitable contributions to this project? Is that an advisable or effective way to influence a W3C open standard (where conflicts of interest by people just donating time are disclosed)?

Anyone can use something like extruct or OSDS to extract RDFa, Microdata, and/or JSON-LD from a page.

Everyone can include structured data and linked data in their pages.

There are surveys quantifying how many people have included which types in their pages. Some of that data is included on types pages.


Some written interview questions:

> Which issues have you contributed to? Which issues have you seen all the way to closed? Have you contributed a pull request to the project? Have you published linked data? What is the URL to the docs which explain how to contribute resources? How would you improve them?


After all that's happened here, I think Dan (who built FOAF, which all profitable companies could use instead of ) deserves a week off to add more linked data to the internet now please.


schemaorg/schemaorg/ explains how you and your organization can contribute resources to the W3C project.

If you or your organization can justify contributing one or more people at full or part time due to ROI or goodwill, by all means start sending Pull Requests and/or commenting on Issues.

"Give us more for free or step down". Wow. What PRs have you contributed to justify such demands? links to the releases.


Time-reversal of an unknown quantum state

T-symmetry > See also links to "reversible computing" but not the "time reversal" disambiguation page?


Could there be multiple "collapsed" paths which consistently converge at the current or future measured state?


Electric cooker an easy, efficient way to sanitize N95 masks, study finds


Unfortunately the referenced NewsArticle does not link to the ScholarlyArticle :

"N95 Mask Decontamination using Standard Hospital Sterilization Technologies" (2020-04) :

> We sought to test the ability of 4 different decontamination methods including autoclave treatment, ethylene oxide gassing, ionized hydrogen peroxide fogging and vaporized hydrogen peroxide exposure to decontaminate 4 different N95 masks of experimental contamination with SARS-CoV-2 or vesicular stomatitis virus as a surrogate. In addition, we sought to determine whether masks would tolerate repeated cycles of decontamination while maintaining structural and functional integrity. We found that one cycle of treatment with all modalities was effective in decontamination and was associated with no structural or functional deterioration. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide treatment was tolerated to at least 5 cycles by masks. Most notably, standard autoclave treatment was associated with no loss of structural or functional integrity to a minimum of 10 cycles for the 3 pleated mask models. The molded N95 mask however tolerated only 1 cycle. This last finding may be of particular use to institutions globally due to the virtually universal accessibility of autoclaves in health care settings.

The ScholarlyArticle referenced by and linked to by the OP NewsArticle is "Dry Heat as a Decontamination Method for N95 Respirator Reuse" (2020-07) . Said article does not reference "N95 Mask Decontamination using Standard Hospital Sterilization Technologies" DOI: 10.1101/2020.04.05.20049346v2 . We would do well to record that (article A, seemsToConfirm, Article B) as third-party linked data (only if both articles do specifically test the efficacy of the given sterilization method with the COVID-19 coronavirus)


"Interim Recommendations for U.S. Households with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" :

> On the other hand, transmission of novel coronavirus to persons from surfaces contaminated with the virus has not been documented. Recent studies indicate that people who are infected but do not have symptoms likely also play a role in the spread of COVID-19. Transmission of coronavirus occurs much more commonly through respiratory droplets than through objects and surfaces, like doorknobs, countertops, keyboards, toys, etc. Current evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may remain viable for hours to days on surfaces made from a variety of materials. Cleaning of visibly dirty surfaces followed by disinfection is a best practice measure for prevention of COVID-19 and other viral respiratory illnesses in households and community settings


Fed announces details of new interbank service to support instant payments


Interledger Protocol (ILP, ILPv4).

Interledger Architecture: :

> For purposes of Interledger, we call all settlement systems ledgers. These can include banks, blockchains, peer-to-peer payment schemes, automated clearing house (ACH), mobile money institutions, central-bank operated real-time gross settlement (RTGS) systems, and even more.


> Interledger provides for secure payments across multiple assets on different ledgers. The architecture consists of a conceptual model for interledger payments, a mechanism for securing payments, and a suite of protocols that implement this design.

> The Interledger Protocol (ILP) is the core of the Interledger protocol suite. Colloquially, the whole Interledger stack is sometimes referred to as "ILP". Technically, however, the Interledger Protocol is only one layer in the stack.

> Interledger is not a blockchain, a token, nor a central service. Interledger is a standard way of bridging financial systems. The Interledger architecture is heavily inspired by the Internet architecture described in RFC 1122, RFC 1123 and RFC 1009.


> You can envision the Interledger as a graph where the points are individual nodes and the edges are accounts between two parties. Parties with only one account can send or receive through the party on the other side of that account. Parties with two or more accounts are connectors, who can facilitate payments to or from anyone they're connected to.

> Connectors [AKA routers] provide a service of forwarding packets and relaying money, and they take on some risk when they do so. In exchange, connectors can charge fees and derive a profit from these services. In the open network of the Interledger, connectors are expected to compete among one another to offer the best balance of speed, reliability, coverage, and cost.

ILP > Peering, Clearing and Settling:

ILP > Simple Payment Setup Protocol (SPSP):

> This document describes the Simple Payment Setup Protocol (SPSP), a basic protocol for exchanging payment information between payee and payer to facilitate payment over Interledger. SPSP uses the STREAM transport protocol for condition generation and data encoding.

> (Introduction > Motivation) STREAM does not specify how payment details, such as the ILP address or shared secret, should be exchanged between the counterparties. SPSP is a minimal protocol that uses HTTPS for communicating these details.


  GET /.well-known/pay HTTP/1.1
  Accept: application/spsp4+json,  application/spsp+json


Shrinking deep learning’s carbon footprint

"Unlearning" is one algorithmic approach that may yield substantial energy consumption gains.

With many deep learning models, it's not possible to determine when or from what source something was learned: it's not possible to "back out" a change to the network and so the whole model has to be re-trained from scratch; which is O(n) instead of O(1.x).