Contents^

Table of Contents
date title user score
2024-05-27 12:08:05 Researchers create dispersion-assisted photodetector to decipher high-dim light westurner 9
2024-05-26 16:55:22 The t-test was invented at the Guinness brewery rmason 409
2024-05-23 19:53:48 Single atom defect in 2D material can hold quantum information at room temp westurner 103
2024-05-25 08:17:58 Memory Sealing "Mseal" System Call Merged for Linux 6.10 westurner 6
2024-05-22 18:19:10 Making my dumb A/C smart with Elixir and Nerves Cellane 63
2024-05-23 11:50:25 Show HN: We open sourced our entire text-to-SQL product aazo11 462
2024-05-25 04:46:35 Three New Supercomputers Reach Top of Green500 List westurner 5
2024-05-24 17:48:49 Toward electrochemical synthesis of cement–An electrolyzer-based process westurner 3
2024-05-24 11:41:22 Writing a Unix clone in about a month drewdevault 385
2024-05-24 19:45:09 First topological light-matter quantum simulator device at room temperatures westurner 3
2024-05-24 19:40:26
2024-05-23 13:21:27 Researchers use 'smart' rubber structures to carry out computational tasks westurner 4
2024-05-23 12:20:23 So good, it works on barbed wire (2001) voxadam 255
2024-05-23 06:31:58 Combined cement and steel recycling could cut CO2 emissions westurner 3
2024-05-23 10:55:38 Microsoft, Khan Academy Partner to Make Khanmigo Teaching Tool Free Dowwie 134
2024-05-23 10:41:39 Electric recycling of Portland cement at scale westurner 15
2024-05-22 21:37:39 Sustainable paper coating material could reduce microplastic pollution westurner 5
2024-05-20 19:23:15 Dual antibacterial properties of copper-coated nanotextured stainless steel westurner 106
2024-05-19 05:30:44 Show HN: Optigraph – optimum graph network generator LovetheFrogs 26
2024-05-17 23:55:39 A promising 3-terminal diode for wireless comm. and optically driven computing wglb 52
2024-05-20 17:51:46 Can Nvidia or AMD GPU's Be Used with Qualcomm's New ARM CPU's? wslh 18
2024-05-20 19:44:35 westurner 1
2024-05-20 15:07:51 Using Postgres for Everything rmason 155
2024-05-20 16:02:18 Using solar energy to generate heat at 1050°C high temperatures westurner 1
2024-05-20 12:31:44 Physicists create five-lane superhighway for electrons wglb 2
2024-05-19 13:51:41 Ask HN: Video streaming is expensive yet YouTube "seems" to do it for free. How? pinakinathc 421
2024-05-16 11:20:45 Egypt's pyramids may have been built on a long-lost branch of the Nile gumby 354
2024-05-19 19:16:38 Topological Phonons Discovered and Catalogued in Crystal Lattices westurner 4
2024-05-17 22:12:55 Scientists show that there is indeed an 'entropy' of quantum entanglement westurner 2
2024-05-17 22:51:37 Learning quantum Hamiltonians at any temperature in polynomial time westurner 1
2024-05-03 23:59:08 Scientists show how to treat burns with susty plant-based Vitamin C bandage westurner 3
2024-05-13 17:54:06 GPT-4o's Memory Breakthrough – Needle in a Needlestack parrt 478
2024-05-14 10:44:37 Show HN: Pico: An open-source Ngrok alternative built for production traffic andydunstall 244
2024-05-14 14:40:50 The new APT 3.0 solver todsacerdoti 193
2024-05-14 18:24:02 Vikings razed the forests. Can Iceland regrow them? fanf2 4
2024-05-12 09:01:42 America is in the midst of an extraordinary startup boom jnord 88
2024-05-14 18:05:40 Electron Vortices in Graphene Detected westurner 4
2024-05-14 17:57:26 Google is building Gemini Nano AI model into Chrome using WebGPU and WASM astlouis44 9
2024-05-14 13:29:19 Model Explorer: intuitive and hierarchical visualization of model graphs antognini 270
2024-05-12 05:19:35 16 years of CVE-2008-0166 – Debian OpenSSL Bug todsacerdoti 177
2024-05-12 01:17:56 Scientists have figured out way to make algae-based plastic that decomposes xbmcuser 44
2024-05-11 20:48:38 Ancient Egyptian Stone-Drilling (1983) smitty1e 133
2024-05-11 09:19:25 Supreme Court: There's No 'Time Limit' on Copyright Infringement Claims Rant423 54
2024-05-08 13:13:26 New mirror that can be flexibly shaped improves X-ray microscopes PaulHoule 45
2024-05-10 21:49:07 Femtosecond Lasers Solve Solar Panels' Recycling Issue westurner 22
2024-05-10 05:01:05 Is the largest root of a random real polynomial more likely real than complex? jjgreen 203
2024-05-10 21:41:22 New invention transforms any smartphone or TV into a holographic projector westurner 4
2024-05-10 17:20:08 Visual Studio Code for Education tech234a 30
2024-05-10 13:50:52 Coronal mass ejection impact imminent, two more earth-directed CMEs gnabgib 523
2024-05-08 06:42:02 Ointers: A library for representing pointers where bits have been stolen (2021) fanf2 124
2024-05-06 12:24:09 Quantum gravity gets a new test bookofjoe 64
2024-05-05 04:08:13 A 100x speedup with unsafe Python ingve 318
2024-05-05 14:45:04 Flying planes in Microsoft Flight Simulator with a JavaScript autopilot (2023) TheRealPomax 284
2024-05-06 10:07:28 Fedora Cleared to Build Python Package with "-O3" Optimizations iruoy 11
2024-05-06 02:36:53 A collection of compiler optimizations with brief descriptions and examples danny00 27
2024-05-06 09:59:42 PiFex: JTAG Hacking with a Raspberry Pi wrongbaud 218
2024-05-05 06:28:17 A company is building a giant compressed-air battery in the Australian outback uncertainrhymes 145
2024-05-03 03:28:32 Hubble Network makes Bluetooth connection with a satellite isaacfrond 4
2024-05-03 17:26:46 Show HN: I built a free in-browser Llama 3 chatbot powered by WebGPU abi 547
2024-04-21 09:48:45 Blessed Thistle Enhances Nerve Regeneration westurner 1
2024-05-03 17:55:45 Coverage Guided Fuzzing – Extending Instrumentation to Hunt Down Bugs Faster wslh 3
2024-05-02 07:25:16 Satellite images of plants' fluorescence can predict crop yields westurner 2
2024-05-01 22:06:30 Hawaiian scientist is working with distilleries to save native sugarcane PaulHoule 31
2024-05-01 10:40:42 Autonomous Quantum Error Correction of Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill States westurner 1
2024-04-29 18:34:11 UV Superradiance from Mega-Networks of Tryptophan in Biological Architectures westurner 1
2024-04-27 03:42:56 Artificial intelligence by mimicking natural intelligence kvee 4
2024-04-23 08:16:39 Show HN: Fun tool to turn your headshot into a MiniFigure kgmodi 4
2024-04-26 16:35:52 Unveiling a new quantum frontier: Frequency-domain entanglement westurner 2
2024-04-24 06:18:51 PyPy v7.3.16 lumpa 113
2024-04-25 10:50:13 Show HN: I built a self-hosted status page and monitoring tool for my projects goksan 103
2024-04-25 17:41:32 US came up with a plan to upgrade 100k miles of transmission lines in 5 years thelastgallon 2
2024-04-22 10:10:56 Py2wasm – A Python to WASM Compiler fock 192
2024-04-19 14:45:53 Show HN: A storybook designed to teach kids about how computers work yawl 132
2024-04-21 08:12:20 Environment shapes emotional cognitive abilities more than genes NalNezumi 98
2024-04-18 09:18:12 Mentally stimulating work plays key role in staving off dementia, study finds prmph 61
2024-04-19 13:15:29 Does light have an infinite lifetime? robertn702 125
2024-04-19 03:25:14 New Mexico: Psychologists to dress up as wizards when providing expert testimony beardyw 115
2024-04-15 17:39:03 Scientists solve long-standing mystery surrounding the moon's 'lopsided' geology wglb 63
2024-04-18 15:34:49 Goldene: New 2D form of gold makes graphene look boring westurner 2
2024-04-18 15:14:55 Proof-of-concept nanogenerator turns CO₂ into sustainable power westurner 5
2024-04-18 14:57:21 CO2 and Lignin-Based Sustainable Polymers with Closed-Loop Chemical Recycling westurner 1
2024-04-18 05:14:23 LLMs approach expert-level clinical knowledge and reasoning in ophthalmology marban 78
2024-04-18 07:32:18 Proposals for New US Power Plants Jump 90% on Surging Demand westurner 2
2024-04-13 23:49:06 Can You Grok It – Hacking together my own dev tunnel service 0xdade 95
2024-04-14 21:37:17 Computer-generated holography with ordinary display ta988 119
2024-04-11 02:42:18 Ask HN: Methods for removing parts per trillions of PFAS from water? westurner 3
2024-04-13 18:11:42 Jim Keller suggests Nvidia should have used Ethernet to link Blackwell GPUs westurner 25
2024-04-13 19:56:27 westurner 1
2024-04-13 02:14:58 Sat-based entanglement distribution and teleportation with continuous variables westurner 1
2024-04-13 01:06:44 Google's new technique gives LLMs infinite context marban 3
2024-04-11 00:32:15 Quantum Algorithms for Lattice Problems trotro 233
2024-04-13 00:04:55 Can Gemini 1.5 read all the Harry Potter books at once? petulla 57
2024-04-11 09:01:02 Leave No Context Behind: Efficient Infinite Context Transformers tosh 38
2024-04-10 20:27:36 Replacing Wires Could Double How Much Electricity the US Grid Can Handle thelastgallon 99
2024-04-10 16:00:21 Nimble: A new columnar file format by Meta [video] aduffy 120
2024-04-11 02:04:10 Feedback cooling of an insulating high-Q diamagnetically levitated plate westurner 1
2024-04-08 07:16:45 Transformer as a general purpose computer tosh 148
2024-04-09 10:23:26 Preview of Explore Logs, a new way to browse your logs without writing LogQL matryer 193
2024-04-02 06:45:19 Show HN: FizzBee – Formal methods in Python jayaprabhakar 119
2024-04-06 20:48:34 Kerr-enhanced optical spring for next-generation gravitational wave detectors westurner 3
2024-04-06 20:24:59 Can LLMs read the genome? This one decoded mRNA to make better vaccines westurner 4
2024-04-06 17:59:31 WinBtrfs – an open-source btrfs driver for Windows jiripospisil 311
2024-04-06 08:50:15 NASA spacecraft films crazy vortex while flying through sun's atmosphere bookofjoe 201
2024-04-06 18:41:36 Nonvolatile quantum memory: Discovery points path to flash-like qubit storage westurner 2
2024-04-06 10:52:08 Home insurers are dropping customers based on aerial images traviswingo 305
2024-04-06 17:23:22 What happens to the value of real estate when it can no longer be insured? paulpauper 3
2024-04-06 06:59:01 Loki: An open-source tool for fact verification Xudong 238
2024-04-06 04:12:12 Google's quantum computer suggests that wormholes are real (2022) wjb3 24
2024-04-04 12:17:08 PCIe 7.0 Draft 0.5 Spec: 512 GB/s over PCIe x16 On Track For 2025 ksec 141
2024-04-04 23:55:06 New RISC-V microprocessor can run CPU, GPU, and NPU workloads simultaneously westurner 30
2024-04-04 12:29:28 Anyone has any opinions about eye-tracking market? S3nz0r 1
2024-04-04 10:57:49 How does your programming language handle "minus zero" (-0.0)? ibobev 1
2024-04-04 02:45:58 Engineers develop 90-95% efficient electricity storage with piles of gravel westurner 3
2024-03-29 15:26:54 Applied Category Theory in the Wolfram Language Using Categorica I hackandthink 4
2024-03-29 15:18:38 Quantum interference enhances the performance of single-molecule transistors westurner 2
2024-03-26 16:18:58 Qubits for Quantum Computing Might Just Be Atoms rbanffy 2
2024-03-28 08:27:31 EpiPen For Heart Attacks? Idorsia Launches Phase III Study Of Selatogrel (2021) bookofjoe 102
2024-03-26 12:24:30 Hacking the genome of fungi for smart foods of the future laurex 140
2024-03-26 06:55:49 Show HN: WhatTheDuck – open-source, in-browser SQL on CSV files slake 119
2024-03-19 23:15:43 Two-faced solar panels can generate more power at up to 70% less cost thelastgallon 5
2024-03-20 00:13:41 Noise Fuels Quantum Leap, Boosting Qubit Performance by 700% westurner 2
2024-03-19 21:43:16 Researchers demonstrate breakthrough recyclability of carbon nanotube sheets westurner 3
2024-03-17 11:42:02 Seeding steel frames brings destroyed coral reefs back to life westurner 72
2024-03-12 16:25:02 Insecurity and Python Pickles jwilk 5
2024-03-16 20:38:51 How a Solar Revolution in Farming Is Depleting Groundwater rustoo 124
2024-03-17 12:04:52 Boinc lets you help cutting-edge science research using your computer doener 118
2024-03-16 10:40:55 Ultra-efficient toroidal propeller gets contra-rotating double upgrade Brajeshwar 23
2024-03-13 23:54:58 BlenderBIM – add-on for beautiful, detailed, and data-rich OpenBIM with Blender Teever 234
2024-03-11 16:49:35 Webb and Hubble confirm Universe's expansion rate thunderbong 668
2024-03-15 05:24:50 Quiet-STaR: Language Models Can Teach Themselves to Think Before Speaking hackerlight 275
2024-03-10 17:33:46 Monte-Carlo graph search from first principles bumbledraven 397
2024-03-07 08:28:15 Meta Loves Python belter 34
2024-03-07 08:18:29 Fedora Workstation 41 to No Longer Install Gnome X.org Session by Default mikece 54
2024-03-07 02:01:37 Fractional scales, fonts and hinting vyskocilm 216
2024-03-07 21:38:39 New hydrogen producing method is simpler and safer westurner 2
2024-02-29 07:18:20 Serving my blog posts as Linux manual pages zerojames 344
2024-03-06 15:36:12 Google Will Pay You $5M to Figure Out What the Hell Quantum Computers Do sonabinu 17
2024-02-29 21:03:33 Washers and dryers are about to get a whole lot more efficient westurner 18
2024-02-29 19:27:50 Black–Scholes Model stefankuehnel 3
2024-02-29 16:52:13 Functional ownership through fractional uniqueness matt_d 121
2024-02-29 11:24:52 Neurosurgeon pioneers Alzheimer's, addiction treatments using ultrasound [video] gardenfelder 216
2024-02-29 18:16:28 OGC GeoSPARQL v1.1: A Geographic Query Language for RDF Data westurner 2
2024-02-29 09:11:59 You've just inherited a legacy C++ codebase, now what? broken_broken_ 378
2024-02-29 16:38:45 Free, Open-Source Alternative to LabVIEW and TestStand latentdream 3
2024-02-28 08:17:28 SymPy: Symbolic Mathematics in Python tosh 263
2024-02-28 07:54:38 Photon Detectors Rewrite the Rules of Quantum Computing westurner 3
2024-02-28 07:51:30 Neutron capture reaction cross-section of 79Se through inverse kinematics westurner 1
2024-02-27 14:16:50 P5.js: Online Canvas Programming vram22 11
2024-02-26 03:57:45 Insecure Features in PDFs (2021) todsacerdoti 89
2024-02-26 08:10:13 Show HN: R2R – Open-source framework for production-grade RAG ocolegro 167
2024-02-23 14:35:47 Meta seeks ASIC designers for ML accelerators and datacenter SoCs LinuxBender 2
2024-02-26 14:46:11 PVM Virtualization Framework Proposed for Linux – Built Atop the KVM Hypervisor LinuxBender 5
2024-02-26 12:22:21 Show HN: Sqlbind a Python library to compose raw SQL bvrmn 69
2024-02-22 16:38:33 Method identified to double computer processing speeds _justinfunk 11
2024-02-25 21:06:41 A History of the TTY LorenDB 192
2024-02-25 23:30:18 Extreme salt-resisting multistage solar distilation with thermohaline convection westurner 1
2024-02-24 20:25:02 Every model learned by gradient descent is approximately a kernel machine (2020) Anon84 176
2024-02-24 09:53:08 Institutions try to preserve the problem to which they are the solution walterbell 1614
2024-02-24 18:27:19 GenAI and erroneous medical references hhs 180
2024-02-24 16:58:24 Physicists Have Figured Out a Way to Measure Gravity on a Quantum Scale westurner 6
2024-02-24 09:57:14 Ask HN: Anyone use a code to mindmap/flowchart tool? Exorust 102
2024-02-24 12:33:22 Shattering the 'copper or optics' paradigm: humble plastic waveguides outperform westurner 5
2024-02-23 21:17:42 Show HN: Consol3 – A 3D engine for the terminal that executes on the CPU victormeriqui 170
2024-02-18 12:05:50 The War over Burying Nuclear Waste in America's Busiest Oil Field bookofjoe 2
2024-02-14 14:26:18 Inside the proton, the ‘most complicated thing you could possibly imagine’ MetallicCloud 612
2024-02-20 08:43:14 Bad property debt exceeds reserves at largest US banks globalise83 173
2024-02-16 22:14:00 Automated Unit Test Improvement Using Large Language Models at Meta mfiguiere 301
2024-02-18 11:39:57 RoR Debugbar puuush 298
2024-02-17 23:17:20 Reasons to heat your home using infrared fabric radiant heat westurner 1
2024-02-15 20:02:36 Magika: AI powered fast and efficient file type identification alphabetting 695
2024-02-16 12:58:35 Ledger: Stripe's system for tracking and validating money movement louis-paul 135
2024-02-17 01:59:36 Chemical cocktail could restore sight by regenerating optic nerves westurner 7
2024-02-13 04:15:23 F-Zero courses from a dead Nintendo satellite service restored using VHS and AI ramn7 381
2024-02-15 10:38:50 Monocrystalline gold brings electronic devices near the efficiency limit westurner 1
2024-02-14 20:49:09 Bacteria Found 1,250 Meters Under Earth Can Turn Carbon Dioxide into Calcite westurner 23
2024-02-12 09:00:35 AMD funded a drop-in CUDA implementation built on ROCm: It's now open-source mfiguiere 1045
2024-02-13 21:03:30 GAN semiconductor defects could boost quantum technology westurner 1
2024-02-13 21:19:01 Coherent Interaction of a Few-Electron Quantum Dot with a THz Optical Resonator westurner 2
2024-02-13 20:14:34 Bioluminescent petunias now available for U.S. market geox 279
2024-02-13 13:21:00 How to center a div in CSS joshwcomeau 445
2024-02-13 09:27:58 Nvidia's Chat with RTX is an AI chatbot that runs locally on your PC nickthegreek 264
2024-02-12 14:16:42 vDPA: Support for block devices in Linux and QEMU ingve 126
2024-02-12 04:20:16 Visualization of a dense grid search over neural network hyperparameters jchook 3
2024-02-12 05:18:20 New AI tool discovers realistic metamaterials with unusual properties lucasluitjes 3
2024-02-10 05:39:56 Unscrambling the hidden secrets of superpermutations RafelMri 40
2024-02-10 18:40:31 EIA to initiate data collection regarding electricity use by U.S. crypto miners geox 3
2024-02-11 02:02:33 First open-source global energy system model protontypes 3
2024-02-08 13:16:05 Sudo for Windows zadjii 587
2024-02-08 21:55:05 What Algorithms Can Transformers Learn? A Study in Length Generalization sebg 2
2024-02-08 22:23:52 CUDA Quantum ankithm 12
2024-02-08 05:20:25 VirtualBox KVM Public Release CyberusTech 520
2024-02-08 00:36:54 Simple Precision Time Protocol at Meta atg_abhishek 217
2024-02-08 09:47:50 Kerbal Space Program 2 is not playable on Linux with Proton westurner 3
2024-02-07 16:54:45 Disney to take $1.5B stake in Epic Games sp3n 492
2024-02-07 13:49:07 Secretive Ford 'Skunkworks' Team Developing Cheap EV to Beat Tesla and China ourmandave 5
2024-02-06 14:20:32 Demystifying GPU compute architectures rbanffy 210
2024-02-07 11:04:32 Robust continuous time crystal in an electron–nuclear spin system ISL 2
2024-02-07 11:51:36 Sugar cane waste converted into concrete-beating Sugarcrete westurner 2
2024-02-07 04:11:36 Final Decision on Chromebook Case in Denmark kawsper 201
2024-02-07 06:31:31 Generating stable qubits at room temperature rbanffy 5
2024-02-03 07:35:26 MIT and IBM Find Clever AI Ways Around Brute-Force Math Brajeshwar 78
2024-02-05 05:00:19 How I'm able to take notes in mathematics lectures using LaTeX and Vim (2019) jamesblonde 248
2024-02-04 12:51:58 ProofWiki: Online compendium of mathematical proofs Tomte 154
2024-02-04 10:32:21 Leaky Vessels flaws allow hackers to escape Docker, runc containers el_duderino 63
2024-02-04 14:46:40 Compiling Rust is testing ingve 62
2024-02-04 09:53:26 Gentoo x86-64-v3 binary packages available laserstrahl 76
2024-02-03 12:50:37 Low-Power Wi-Fi Extends Signals Up to 3 Kilometers pseudolus 166
2024-02-04 15:10:54 Physics-enhanced deep surrogates for partial differential equations westurner 3
2024-02-04 14:58:43 A National Initiative to Cut Academics westurner 2
2024-02-03 19:05:04 Can population increase change Earth's gravitational pull? 747-8F 2
2024-02-03 19:06:46 Ask HN: What do you dislike about using Image Gen AI or AI assisted tools? yajur 1
2024-02-03 14:35:55 A physical qubit with built-in error correction westurner 3
2024-02-03 19:00:47 First fault-tolerant quantum computer launching this year belter 2
2024-02-01 02:34:57 Aerugo – RTOS for aerospace uses written in Rust todsacerdoti 150
2024-02-03 14:22:47 Global cancer cases will jump 77% by 2050, WHO report estimates rntn 56
2024-02-03 15:01:15 Progress on chip-based spontaneous four-wave mixing quantum light sources westurner 1
2024-01-31 12:16:04 Measuring Reynolds similitude in superfluids could help prove quantum viscosity westurner 1
2024-02-01 06:05:51 Nano-scale inks could lighten airliners by hundreds of kilograms bookofjoe 43
2024-02-01 18:44:52 Khronos Releases AV1 Decode in Vulkan Video with SDK Support for H.264/H.265 doener 164
2024-01-25 20:13:21 I don't always use LaTeX, but when I do, I compile to HTML (2013) pyjamafish 204
2024-01-31 23:13:48 House restores immediate R&D deduction in new tax bill karmajunkie 42
2024-01-31 11:33:50 Differ: Tool for testing and validating transformed programs ingve 120
2024-01-31 03:37:05 Gitlab's ActivityPub architecture blueprint p4bl0 232
2024-01-30 17:26:49 Scientists create virucidal silicon surface without any chemicals westurner 2
2024-01-27 22:35:43 Incandescent Temporal Metamaterials westurner 2
2024-01-27 22:02:09 Temporal chirp, temporal lensing and temporal routing via space-time interfaces westurner 1
2024-01-26 04:07:34 New Room Temp Superconductor Throws Hat in the Ring – This Time, It's Graphite danboarder 4
2024-01-27 07:49:37 Sxmo: Linux tiling window manager for phones okasaki 364
2024-01-26 08:07:18 China Added More Solar Panels in 2023 Than US Did in Its Entire History impish9208 63
2024-01-24 11:28:01 Lightweight woven helical antenna could replace field-deployed dishes westurner 128
2024-01-25 12:50:09 Spreadsheet errors can have disastrous consequences – yet we keep making them jethronethro 3
2024-01-23 16:27:32 Show HN: Codemodder – A new codemod library for Java and Python nahsra 37
2024-01-24 12:19:58 Lies, Damn Lies and Analog Inputs (Comparing ADCs on ESP32, Pico and Arduino) zdw 51
2024-01-24 22:42:35 Carbon footprint of homegrown food five times greater than conventional fwungy 32
2024-01-12 17:45:23 revng translates (i386, x86-64, MIPS, ARM, AArch64, s390x) binaries to LLVM IR davikr 124
2024-01-22 15:57:27 Winlator: Android app that lets you to run Windows apps with Wine davikr 363
2024-01-23 19:05:57 Generate Knowledge with Semantic Graphs and RAG dmezzetti 5
2024-01-23 16:04:59 Oxxcu, converting CO₂ into fuels, chemicals and plastics PaulHoule 68
2024-01-21 05:09:07 Ask HN: How do I learn to build a wood-frame house? rmbyrro 4
2024-01-19 20:27:17 We saw a Pi running underwater at CES in Las Vegas Brajeshwar 53
2024-01-19 21:09:36 Starlite 9woc 99
2024-01-19 10:46:11 Half of recent US inflation due to high corporate profits, report finds toomuchtodo 76
2024-01-19 20:46:25 Astrophysicist proposes a new theory of gravity without a conservation law westurner 4
2024-01-19 11:42:06 Calculus on Computational Graphs: Backpropagation (2015) throwup238 170
2024-01-18 17:40:35 Physicists Design a Way to Detect Quantum Behavior in Large Objects, Like Us westurner 4
2024-01-18 13:29:57 WebGPU is now available on Android astlouis44 240
2024-01-16 07:47:30 Speedbump – a TCP proxy to simulate variable network latency sph 316
2024-01-18 08:18:37 Memory Loss from TBI Reversed tbirvrsed 8
2024-01-17 21:29:58 WhisperSpeech – An open source text-to-speech system built by inverting Whisper nickmcc 464
2024-01-15 14:24:44 SQLite 3.45 released with JSONB support genericlemon24 321
2024-01-15 10:07:33 Review: Mitigation measures to reduce tire and road wear particles doener 2
2024-01-14 21:52:56 Raspberry Pi is manufacturing 70K Raspberry Pi 5s per week kaycebasques 131
2024-01-12 03:45:35 Penrose – Create diagrams by typing notation in plain text kiyanwang 459
2024-01-15 02:06:51 Git Branches as a Social Construct ingve 69
2024-01-14 01:51:04 US tech innovation dreams soured by changed R&D tax laws pg_1234 9
2024-01-09 16:48:05 Wikihouse: Open-Source Houses jlevers 493
2024-01-12 21:53:09 Rkyv: A zero-copy deserialization framework for rust goranmoomin 100
2024-01-12 02:02:38 Programming Language for Ternary Computing danny00 50
2024-01-06 19:58:51 The Tensor Network gone35 96
2024-01-08 00:43:58 Can AI replace a co-founder? deepakravindran 4
2024-01-05 04:11:05 DIY Book Scanner KolmogorovComp 173
2024-01-07 19:07:56 Buffett once bet $1M that he could beat a group of hedge funds over 10 years hhs 128
2024-01-07 22:33:12 Bit-for-bit reproducible builds with Dockerfile lox 4
2024-01-07 21:24:54 MotorOS: a Rust-first operating system for x64 VMs sbt567 327
2024-01-05 17:23:38 Scientists Destroy Illusion That Coin Toss Flips Are 50–50 sanketsaurav 10
2024-01-04 14:10:39 SPH: Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics westurner 1
2024-01-04 11:45:03 Researchers create first functional graphene semiconductor adrian_mrd 3
2024-01-04 12:07:04 Ghidriff: Ghidra Binary Diffing Engine onlinereadme 3
2024-01-03 20:42:17 SpaceX Illegally Fired Workers Critical of Musk, Federal Agency Says perihelions 300
2024-01-03 19:37:44 A x-platform package mgmt (apt/pacman/flatpak/etc.) wrapper with super powers hkdb 3
2024-01-03 12:10:38 Container2wasm: Convert Containers to WASM Blobs api 251
2024-01-03 04:59:33 Maestro: A Linux-compatible kernel in Rust Uriopass 742
2024-01-03 08:19:36 Possible Meissner effect near room temperature: copper-substituted lead apatite zaikunzhang 729
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2023-09-02 13:08:46 Recursively summarizing enables long-term dialogue memory in LLMs PaulHoule 273
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2023-06-23 12:06:21 EU Advocate General: Technical Standards must be freely available [pdf] layer8 432
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2023-06-21 16:38:22 Notice of Intent to Amend the Prescription Drug List: Vitamin D (2020) walterbell 66
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2023-05-10 06:42:11 Researchers craft a fully edible battery GlumWoodpecker 60
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2023-05-09 10:17:03 Health advisory on social media use in adolescence pseudolus 230
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2023-04-19 21:59:48 Only one pair of distinct positive integers satisfy the equation m^n = n^m keithmcnulty 526
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2023-04-20 15:49:14 When you buy a book, you can loan it to anyone – a judge says libraries can’t leotravis10 99
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2023-04-08 13:50:43 PEP 684 was accepted – Per-interpreter GIL in Python 3.12 bratao 75
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2023-02-28 03:37:13 First Law of Thermodynamics Breakthrough Upends Equilibrium Theory in Physics isaacfrond 6
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2019-12-21 07:55:04 Free and Open-Source Mathematics Textbooks vo2maxer 321
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2019-10-16 00:42:33 CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility westurner 2
2019-10-19 08:28:01 GTD Tickler file – a proposal for text file format vivekv 3
2019-10-20 02:07:48 Ask HN: Any suggestion on how to test CLI applications? pdappollonio 3
2019-10-16 00:34:32 The Golden Butterfly and the All Weather Portfolio westurner 1
2019-10-12 07:19:23 Canada's Decision To Make Public More Clinical Trial Data Puts Pressure On FDA pseudolus 192
2019-10-10 23:35:35 Python Alternative to Docker gilad 3
2019-10-09 00:17:45 $6B United Nations Agency Launches Bitcoin, Ethereum Crypto Fund zed88 8
2019-10-08 16:03:02 Timsort, the Python sorting algorithm alexchamberlain 407
2019-10-07 22:29:21 Supreme Court allows blind people to sue retailers if websites aren't accessible justadudeama 743
2019-10-04 11:15:12 Streamlit: Turn a Python script into an interactive data analysis tool danicgross 467
2019-09-23 16:43:51 Scott’s Supreme Quantum Supremacy FAQ xmmrm 600
2019-09-23 18:31:40 Ask HN: How do you handle/maintain local Python environments? PascLeRasc 103
2019-09-23 12:35:51 Is the era of the $100 graphing calculator coming to an end? prostoalex 361
2019-09-23 03:17:17 Reinventing Home Directories Schiphol 118
2019-09-23 03:00:38 Serverless: slower and more expensive kiyanwang 1787
2019-09-22 17:32:04 Entropy can be used to understand systems acgan 3
2019-09-18 07:24:36 New Query Language for Graph Databases to Become International Standard Anon84 290
2019-09-21 13:21:03 A Python Interpreter Written in Python nnnmnten 2
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2019-09-19 20:00:14 Craftsmanship–The Alternative to the 4 Hour Work Week oglowo3 4
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2019-09-18 06:52:46 Show HN: Python Tests That Write Themselves timothycrosley 131
2019-09-09 10:52:49 Most Americans see catastrophic weather events worsening elorant 102
2019-09-17 12:00:54 Emergent Tool Use from Multi-Agent Interaction gdb 332
2019-09-17 22:32:25 Inkscape 1.0 Beta 1 nkoren 603
2019-09-08 13:45:57 Where Dollar Bills Come From danso 69
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2019-08-30 15:42:12 Non-root containers, Kubernetes CVE-2019-11245 and why you should care zelivans 8
2019-08-25 23:49:46 How do black holes destroy information and why is that a problem? sohkamyung 195
2019-08-25 09:48:11 Banned C standard library functions in Git source code susam 502
2019-08-25 10:01:30 Ask HN: What's the hardest thing to secure in a web-app? juansgaitan 7
2019-08-22 01:29:43 Crystal growers who sparked a revolution in graphene electronics sohkamyung 85
2019-08-22 16:27:43 Things to Know About GNU Readline matt_d 204
2019-08-22 16:16:41 Show HN: Termpage – Build a webpage that behaves like a terminal brisky 5
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2019-08-22 16:06:27 Electric Dump Truck Produces More Energy Than It Uses mreome 3
2019-08-21 17:34:53 Ask HN: Let's make an open source/free SaaS platform to tackle school forms busymichael 12
2019-08-21 14:18:17 Ask HN: Is there a CRUD front end for databases (especially SQLite)? Tomte 2
2019-08-20 06:43:31 California approves solar-powered EV charging network and electric school buses elorant 15
2019-08-17 10:58:03 You May Be Better Off Picking Stocks at Random, Study Finds Vaslo 146
2019-08-12 08:15:23 Root: CERN's scientific data analysis framework for C++ z3phyr 137
2019-08-13 02:09:30 MesaPy: A Memory-Safe Python Implementation based on PyPy (2018) ospider 119
2019-08-11 16:22:30 Ask HN: Configuration Management for Personal Computer? jacquesm 197
2019-08-08 13:11:06 GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories dstaheli 680
2019-08-05 17:19:30 The Fed is getting into the Real-Time payments business apo 96
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2019-07-08 10:52:06 Abusing the PHP Query String Parser to Bypass IDS, IPS, and WAF lelf 92
2019-06-28 14:23:33 Ask HN: Scripts/commands for extracting URL article text? (links -dump but) WCityMike 1
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2019-06-13 19:39:58 NOAA upgrades the U.S. global weather forecast model mehrdadn 214
2019-06-12 08:16:17 A plan to change how Harvard teaches economics carlosgg 116
2019-06-12 17:41:58 The New York Times course to teach its reporters data skills is now open-source espeed 423
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2019-06-01 23:13:28 4 Years of College, $0 in Debt: How Some Countries Make Education Affordable pseudolus 2
2019-05-26 10:16:10 Ask HN: What jobs can a software engineer take to tackle climate change? envfriendly 67
2019-05-23 12:59:05 YC's request for startups: Government 2.0 simonebrunozzi 194
2019-05-23 13:52:23 Almost 40% of Americans Would Struggle to Cover a $400 Emergency Geeek 112
2019-05-19 16:01:51 Congress should grow the Digital Services budget, it more than pays for itself rmason 68
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2019-05-15 07:09:29 Oak, a Free and Open Certificate Transparency Log dankohn1 143
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2019-05-11 22:37:32 Use links not keys to represent relationships in APIs sarego 342
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2019-05-02 16:11:54 Blockchain's present opportunity: data interchange standardization ivoras 2
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2019-04-28 14:50:29 Show HN: Debugging-Friendly Tracebacks for Python cknd 121
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2019-03-22 17:18:44 Maybe You Don't Need Kubernetes ra7 500
2019-03-21 08:04:34 Quantum Machine Appears to Defy Universe’s Push for Disorder biofox 78
2019-03-21 12:45:42 Pytype checks and infers types for your Python code mkesper 4
2019-03-20 21:56:26 How I'm able to take notes in mathematics lectures using LaTeX and Vim tambourine_man 674
2019-03-21 05:18:51 LHCb discovers matter-antimatter asymmetry in charm quarks rbanffy 269
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2019-03-15 18:23:21 Experimental rejection of observer-independence in the quantum world lisper 186
2019-03-15 08:14:22 Show HN: A simple Prolog Interpreter written in a few lines of Python 3 photon_lines 148
2019-03-07 17:57:28 How to earn your macroeconomics and finance white belt as a software developer andrenth 307
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2019-02-26 11:24:41 The most popular docker images each contain at least 30 vulnerabilities vinnyglennon 562
2019-02-24 22:39:39 Tinycoin: A small, horrible cryptocurrency in Python for educational purposes MrXOR 4
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2019-02-16 14:49:30 Why CISA Issued Our First Emergency Directive ca98am79 211
2019-02-14 23:22:11 Chrome will Soon Let You Share Links to a Specific Word or Sentence on a Page kumaranvpl 359
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2019-02-05 01:56:30 Lectures in Quantitative Economics as Python and Julia Notebooks westurner 355
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2019-02-04 20:03:28 U.S. Federal District Court Declared Bitcoin as Legal Money obilgic 12
2019-01-30 12:42:06 Post Quantum Crypto Standardization Process – Second Round Candidates Announced dlgeek 2
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2019-01-20 20:29:25 Steps to a clean dataset with Pandas NicoJuicy 4
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2019-01-12 19:56:20 Ask HN: How can you save money while living on poverty level? ccdev 8
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2019-01-09 23:09:59 Show HN: Generate dank mnemonic seed phrases in the terminal mofle 3
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2019-01-09 18:04:41 Lattice Attacks Against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies [pdf] soohyung 11
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2018-11-24 15:33:08 Time to break academic publishing's stranglehold on research joeyespo 692
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2018-10-14 15:30:29 Jeff Hawkins Is Finally Ready to Explain His Brain Research tysone 489
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2018-10-12 02:15:03 Publishing more data behind our reporting gballan 146
2018-10-10 22:23:44 CSV 1.1 – CSV Evolved (for Humans) polm23 84
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2018-09-30 22:11:07 Justice Department Sues to Stop California Net Neutrality Law jonburs 201
2018-09-22 10:52:45 White House Drafts Order to Probe Google, Facebook Practices Jerry2 105
2018-09-19 20:37:52 Ask HN: Books about applying the open source model to society kennu 1
2018-09-12 16:02:35 Today, Europe Lost The Internet. Now, We Fight Back DiabloD3 433
2018-09-01 14:13:52 Consumer science (a.k.a. home economics) as a college major guard0g 4
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2018-08-30 12:51:10 California Moves to Require 100% Clean Electricity by 2045 dsr12 407
2018-08-29 11:15:59 Miami Will Be Underwater Soon. Its Drinking Water Could Go First hourislate 264
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2018-08-29 02:27:58 Scientists Warn the UN of Capitalism's Imminent Demise westurner 1
2018-08-28 14:41:52 Firefox Nightly Secure DNS Experimental Results Vinnl 40
2018-08-28 08:31:48 Long-sought decay of Higgs boson observed at CERN chmaynard 243
2018-08-28 09:00:54 Sen. Wyden Confirms Cell-Site Simulators Disrupt Emergency Calls DiabloD3 518
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2018-08-20 10:55:17 New “Turning Tables” Technique Bypasses All Windows Kernel Mitigations yaseen-rob 2
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2018-08-15 03:46:23 SQLite Release 3.25.0 adds support for window functions MarkusWinand 333
2018-08-15 19:53:03 Update on the Distrust of Symantec TLS Certificates dumpsterkid 3
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2018-07-10 23:53:58 Causal Inference Book luu 104
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2018-06-25 16:57:46 FDA approves first marijuana-derived drug and it may spark DEA rescheduling mikece 150
2018-06-21 10:22:43 States Can Require Internet Tax Collection, Supreme Court Rules uptown 541
2018-06-18 08:26:23 William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech zjacobi 71
2018-06-17 18:13:13 Ask HN: Do you consider yourself to be a good programmer? type0 27
2018-06-17 11:00:59 Handles are the better pointers ingve 194
2018-06-14 14:13:13 Neural scene representation and rendering johnmoberg 540
2018-06-17 20:19:20 New US Solar Record – 2.155 Cents per KWh prostoalex 4
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2018-05-22 23:15:18 Banks Adopt Military-Style Tactics to Fight Cybercrime petethomas 3
2018-04-12 13:13:10 No, Section 230 Does Not Require Platforms to Be “Neutral” panarky 6
2018-04-11 14:28:06 Ask HN: Do battery costs justify “buy all sell all” over “net metering”? westurner 1
2018-04-09 21:17:43 Portugal electricity generation temporarily reaches 100% renewable mgdo 234
2018-04-06 19:16:25 GPU Prices Drop ~25% in March as Supply Normalizes merqurio 2
2018-04-09 23:51:08 Apple says it’s now powered by renewable energy worldwide iamspoilt 272
2018-03-18 13:13:15 Hackers Are So Fed Up with Twitter Bots They’re Hunting Them Down Themselves CrankyBear 271
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2018-02-27 09:47:40 After rising for 100 years, electricity demand is flat aaronbrethorst 629
2018-02-27 10:37:54 A framework for evaluating data scientist competency schaunwheeler 3
2018-02-27 18:28:01 Levi Strauss to use lasers instead of people to finish jeans e2e4 3
2018-02-27 18:24:45 Chaos Engineering: the history, principles, and practice austingunter 2
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2018-02-22 15:35:51 Ask HN: Thoughts on a website-embeddable, credential validating service? estroz 28
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2018-02-20 15:14:40 Using Go as a scripting language in Linux neoasterisk 8
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2018-02-16 00:16:09 The Benjamin Franklin method for learning more from programming books nancyhua 566
2018-02-10 20:41:21 Avoiding blackouts with 100% renewable energy ramonvillasante 2
2018-02-10 11:25:54 Ask HN: What are some common abbreviations you use as a developer? yagamidev 3
2018-02-09 19:42:21 There Might Be No Way to Live Comfortably Without Also Ruining the Planet SirLJ 43
2018-02-08 22:52:44 Multiple GWAS finds 187 intelligence genes and role for neurogenesis/myelination gwern 2
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2018-02-03 13:56:30 What is the best way to learn to code from absolute scratch? eliotpeper 8
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2018-01-25 17:38:38 Five myths about Bitcoin’s energy use nvk 10
2018-01-23 18:41:16 Ask HN: Which programming language has the best documentation? siquick 3
2018-01-18 06:36:07 Ask HN: Recommended course/website/book to learn data structure and algorithms strikeX 3
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2018-01-18 16:16:16 ORDO: a modern alternative to X.509 juancampa 1
2018-01-18 11:47:03 Wine 3.0 Released etiam 724
2018-01-18 19:51:30 Kimbal Musk is leading a $25M mission to fix food in US schools rmason 2
2018-01-13 21:42:47 Spinzero – A Minimal Jupyter Notebook Theme neilpanchal 5
2018-01-11 13:27:17 What does the publishing industry bring to the Web? mpweiher 2
2018-01-10 14:02:09 Git is a blockchain Swizec 13
2018-01-07 12:06:03 Show HN: Convert Matlab/NumPy matrices to LaTeX tables tpaschalis 4
2018-01-02 10:48:10 A Year of Spaced Repetition Software in the Classroom misiti3780 4
2017-12-27 08:32:39 NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 1 Submissions sohkamyung 130
2018-01-01 21:38:58 What are some good resources to learn about Quantum Computing? nmehta21 3
2017-12-29 15:53:06 Gridcoin: Rewarding Scientific Distributed Computing trueduke 134
2017-12-26 12:37:07 Power Prices Go Negative in Germany kwindla 485
2017-12-21 14:30:35 Mathematicians Find Wrinkle in Famed Fluid Equations digital55 240
2017-12-20 10:43:31 Bitcoin is an energy arbitrage js4 51
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2017-12-17 22:16:06 What ORMs have taught me: just learn SQL (2014) ausjke 540
2017-12-17 07:32:06 Show HN: An educational blockchain implementation in Python jre 412
2017-12-16 08:12:44 MSU Scholars Find $21T in Unauthorized Government Spending sillypuddy 137
2017-12-13 04:59:42 Universities spend millions on accessing results of publicly funded research versteegen 624
2017-12-11 19:49:44 An Interactive Introduction to Quantum Computing kevlened 254
2017-12-12 12:34:46 Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them (ECDSA, SHA256) westurner 2
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2017-12-12 10:17:39 Who’s Afraid of Bitcoin? The Futures Traders Going Short thisisit 54
2017-12-11 19:21:38 Statement on Cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings corbinpage 811
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2017-12-08 10:53:49 A Hacker Writes a Children's Book arthurjj 171
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2017-12-11 11:58:38 Tech luminaries call net neutrality vote an 'imminent threat' kjhughes 279
2017-12-06 18:55:25 Ask HN: Can hashes be replaced with optimization problems in blockchain? pacavaca 3
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2017-12-01 13:15:47 FCC's Pai, addressing net neutrality rules, calls Twitter biased joeyespo 13
2017-12-01 05:49:25 A curated list of Chaos Engineering resources dastergon 51
2017-12-01 11:24:06 Technology behind Bitcoin could aid science, report says digital55 13
2017-11-30 15:07:26 Git hash function transition plan vszakats 215
2017-11-30 22:04:20 Vintage Cray Supercomputer Rolls Up to Auction ohjeez 3
2017-11-30 21:21:09 Google is officially 100% sun and wind powered – 3.0 gigawatts worth rippsu 163
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2017-11-28 16:01:32 Vanguard Founder Jack Bogle Says ‘Avoid Bitcoin Like the Plague’ dionmanu 105
2017-11-29 11:22:54 Nasdaq Plans to Introduce Bitcoin Futures knwang 416
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2017-11-28 18:03:11 Ask HN: Why would anyone share trading algorithms and compare by performance? westurner 1
2017-11-25 06:28:39 Ask HN: CS papers for software architecture and design? avrmav 513
2017-11-15 10:24:27 Keeping a Lab Notebook [pdf] Tomte 327
2017-10-28 08:12:53 How to teach technical concepts with cartoons Tomte 170
2017-10-22 16:43:03 Fact Checks fanf2 126
2017-10-19 05:51:13 DHS orders agencies to adopt DMARC email security puppetmaster30 2
2017-10-18 21:20:00 The electricity for 1BTC trade could power a house for a month niyikiza 25
2017-10-19 05:20:26 PAC Fundraising with Ethereum Contracts? westurner 1
2017-10-19 05:16:25 SolarWindow Completes Financing ($2.5m) westurner 2
2017-10-16 12:48:08 Here’s what you can do to protect yourself from the KRACK WiFi vulnerability tdrnd 2
2017-10-14 12:41:29 The Solar Garage Door – A Possible Alternative to the Emergency Generator curtis 2
2017-10-14 07:34:07 Using the Web Audio API to Make a Modem maaaats 307
2017-10-11 18:25:17 Ask HN: How to introduce someone to programming concepts during 12-hour drive? nkkollaw 9
2017-09-27 01:24:13 American Red Cross Asks for Ham Radio Operators for Puerto Rico Relief Effort kw71 346
2017-09-26 14:58:38 Technical and non-technical tips for rocking your coding interview duck 259
2017-09-23 12:12:36 Django 2.0 alpha orf 156
2017-09-24 00:15:28 Ask HN: What is the best way to spend my time as a 17-year-old who can code? jmeyer2k 161
2017-09-21 14:18:33 Democrats fight FCC's plans to redefine “broadband” from 25+ to 10+ Mbps gnicholas 18
2017-09-17 12:49:37 Ask HN: Any detailed explanation of computer science smithmayowa 2
2017-09-16 18:40:33 Ask HN: What algorithms should I research to code a conference scheduling app viertaxa 55
2017-09-15 05:51:45 What have been the greatest intellectual achievements? Gormisdomai 42
2017-09-15 23:22:02 Ask HN: What can't you do in Excel? (2017) danso 37
2017-09-08 20:04:36 Open Source Ruling Confirms Enforceability of Dual-Licensing and Breach of GPL t3f 116
2017-09-01 11:27:30 Elon Musk Describes What Great Communication Looks Like endswapper 90
2017-09-01 04:05:12 Great Ideas in Theoretical Computer Science tu7001 290
2017-08-28 16:06:24 Ask HN: How do you, as a developer, set measurable and actionable goals? humaninstrument 24
2017-08-26 16:06:24 Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index schwabacher 256
2017-08-26 09:59:19 Dancing can reverse the signs of aging in the brain brahmwg 71
2017-08-26 09:03:19 Rumours swell over new kind of gravitational-wave sighting indescions_2017 258
2017-08-20 12:56:37 New Discovery Simplifies Quantum Physics wolfgke 2
2017-08-23 03:22:00 OpenAI has developed new baseline tool for improving deep reinforcement learning grey_shirts 3
2017-08-24 23:19:03 The prior can generally only be understood in the context of the likelihood selimthegrim 94
2017-08-22 04:13:00 Ask HN: How to find/compare trading algorithms with Quantopian? westurner 3
2017-08-22 04:09:17 Ask HN: How do IPOs and ICOs help a business raise capital? westurner 2
2017-08-22 04:02:04 Solar Window coatings “outperform rooftop solar by 50-fold” westurner 4
2017-08-21 23:30:16 MS: Bitcoin mining uses as much electricity as 1M US homes pulisse 79
2017-08-15 15:45:47 Ask HN: What are your favorite entrepreneurship resources brianbreslin 13
2017-05-09 12:59:38 CPU Utilization is Wrong dmit 624
2017-05-06 17:13:03 Ask HN: Can I use convolutional neural networks to clasify videos on a CPU Faizann20 1
2017-05-01 10:17:36 Esoteric programming paradigms SlyShy 397
2017-04-27 04:41:09 gRPC-Web: Moving past REST+JSON towards type-safe Web APIs bestan 329
2017-04-16 03:59:55 Reasons blog posts can be of higher scientific quality than journal articles vixen99 233
2017-04-07 12:50:38 Fact Check now available in Google Search and News fouadmatin 302
2017-04-07 20:07:05 Ask HN: Is anyone working on CRISPR for happiness? arikr 4
2017-03-26 14:58:59 Roadmap to becoming a web developer in 2017 miguelarauj1o 4
2017-03-20 19:14:10 Beautiful Online SICP Dangeranger 762
2017-03-19 11:52:48 Ask HN: How do you keep track/save your learnings?(so that you can revisit them) mezod 4
2017-03-11 13:26:30 Ask HN: Criticisms of Bayesian statistics? muraiki 1
2017-01-16 18:53:09 80,000 Hours career plan worksheet BreakoutList 230
2017-01-07 18:27:31 World's first smartphone with a molecular sensor is coming in 2017 walterbell 19
2016-12-31 12:11:14 Ask HN: How would one build a business that only develops free software? anondon 12
2016-12-29 00:40:11 Ask HN: If your job involves continually importing CSVs, what industry is it? iamwil 12
2016-12-09 17:21:13 Ask HN: Maybe I kind of suck as a programmer – how do I supercharge my work? tastyface 328
2016-11-20 06:33:34 Ask HN: Anything Like Carl Sagan's Cosmos for Computer Science? leksak 32
2016-11-20 10:32:00 Learn X in Y minutes anonu 161
2016-11-03 05:46:50 Org mode 9.0 released Philipp__ 285
2016-11-13 00:23:33 Ask HN: Best Git workflow for small teams tmaly 166
2016-11-10 15:46:57 TDD Doesn't Work narfz 153
2016-11-07 14:13:48 C for Python programmers (2011) bogomipz 314
2016-10-26 02:19:06 Ask HN: How do you organise/integrate all the information in your life? tonteldoos 323
2016-10-23 14:06:00 Ask HN: What are the best web tools to build basic web apps as of October 2016? arikr 114
2016-10-16 10:55:18 Harvard and M.I.T. Are Sued Over Lack of Closed Captions lsh123 45
2016-10-06 11:15:16 Jack Dorsey Is Losing Control of Twitter miraj 283
2016-09-18 09:09:04 Schema.org: Mission, Project, Goal, Objective, Task westurner 49
2016-09-18 08:59:41 This week is #GlobalGoals week (and week of The World's Largest Lesson) westurner 1
2016-08-19 08:12:25 The Open Source Data Science Masters nns 95
2016-07-29 06:08:29 We Should Not Accept Scientific Results That Have Not Been Repeated dnetesn 910
2016-05-30 07:39:05 The SQL filter clause: selective aggregates MarkusWinand 138
2016-05-29 23:36:23 Ask HN: What do you think about the current education system? alejandrohacks 36
2016-05-10 08:55:01 A Reboot of the Legendary Physics Site ArXiv Could Shape Open Science tonybeltramelli 174
2014-03-23 14:27:04 Principles of good data analysis gjreda 108
2014-03-11 08:16:38 Why Puppet, Chef, Ansible aren't good enough iElectric2 362
2014-03-11 20:12:16 Python vs Julia – an example from machine learning ajtulloch 170
2014-02-17 10:23:21 Free static page hosting on Google App Engine in minutes fizerkhan 95
2014-02-03 09:15:30 “Don’t Reinvent the Wheel, Use a Framework” They All Say mogosselin 79
2013-09-09 10:20:50 IPython in Excel vj44 73
2013-08-11 01:56:12 PEP 450: Adding A Statistics Module To The Standard Library petsos 185
2013-08-02 21:03:51 Functional Programming with Python llambda 107
2013-08-01 10:59:55 PEP 8 Modernisation tristaneuan 213
2013-07-15 12:40:04 Useful Unix commands for data science gjreda 221
2013-07-13 11:35:40 The data visualization community needs its own Hacker News ejfox 11
2013-07-06 08:59:22 Ask HN: Intermediate Python learning resources? jesusx 113
2013-07-03 08:00:50 Ansible Simply Kicks Ass hunvreus 185
2013-06-29 05:44:08 Python-Based Tools for the Space Science Community neokya 76
2013-05-04 21:21:29 Debian 7.0 "Wheezy" released sciurus 428
2013-05-04 10:40:20 Big-O Algorithm Complexity Cheat Sheet ashleyblackmore 520
2013-05-03 22:32:14 JSON API steveklabnik 227
2013-05-04 14:04:39 Norton Ghost discontinued ruchirablog 42

Items^

Researchers create dispersion-assisted photodetector to decipher high-dim light

From "Physicists use [Huygens' mechanical oscillation] 350-year-old theorem to reveal new properties of light waves" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37226160 regarding "Bridging coherence optics and classical mechanics: A generic light polarization-entanglement complementary relation" (2023) https://journals.aps.org/prresearch/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev... :

>> This means that hard-to-measure optical properties such as amplitudes, phases and correlations—perhaps even these of quantum wave systems—can be deduced from something a lot easier to measure: light intensity.

Which contradicts the article; though, high-fidelity polarization measurement should then also be useful.

In an optical (photonic) system, polarization is the phase of photon particles and it is expressed as an angular quantity in radians or degrees.

Angular quantities "wrap around" such that `divmod(angle_theta, 2*pi) == n_rotations, angular displacement from zero`; and IIRC all phase spaces must too?

Optical phase space: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_phase_space

If it is possible to estimate photonic phase given intensity, how much more useful is a phase sensor than the existing intensity sensors?

From "Bridging coherence optics and classical mechanics: A generic light polarization-entanglement complementary relation":

> A generic complementary identity relation is obtained for arbitrary light fields. More surprisingly, through the barycentric coordinate system, optical polarization, entanglement, and their identity relation are shown to be quantitatively associated with the mechanical concepts of center of mass and moment of inertia via the Huygens-Steiner theorem for rigid body rotation. The obtained result bridges coherence wave optics and classical mechanics through the two theories of Huygens.

There are various patterns of polarization, relative to a signal origin IIUC:

Polarization (waves) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_(waves)

Types of polarization: Linear, Elliptical, and Circular; and also Radial and Azimuthal polarization

Radial polarization: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radial_polarization :

> Beams with radial and azimuthal polarization are included in the class of cylindrical vector beams. [7]

> A radially polarized beam can be used to produce a smaller focused spot than a more conventional linearly or circularly polarized beam, [8] and has uses in optical trapping. [9]

> It has been shown that a radially polarized beam can be used to increase the information capacity of free space optical communication via mode division multiplexing, [10] and radial polarization can "self-heal" when obstructed. [11]

Vector fields in cylindrical and spherical coordinates: Todo

Laser beam profiler: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laser_beam_profiler

Gaussian beam ... Quasioptics || Geometrical optics with rays and arcs: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaussian_beam :

> Fundamentally, the Gaussian is a solution of the axial Helmholtz equation, the wave equation for an electromagnetic field. Although there exist other solutions, the Gaussian families of solutions are useful for problems involving compact beams.

Photonic integrated circuit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photonic_integrated_circuit :

> A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a microchip containing two or more photonic components that form a functioning circuit. This technology detects, generates, transports, and processes light. Photonic integrated circuits utilize photons (or particles of light) as opposed to electrons that are utilized by electronic integrated circuits.

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The t-test was invented at the Guinness brewery

The students' t distribution has a symmetric PDF (with no skew), and thus you assume that the sample and/or population also have such a PDF (Probability Distribution Function).

t statistic > History: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-statistic#History

Students' t distribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student%27s_t-distribution

"What are some alternatives to sample mean and t-test when comparing highly skewed distributions" https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-alternatives-to-sample-m... :

>> the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test, which essentially compares the empirical distribution functions of the two samples without implicitly assuming normality. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kolmogorov–Smirnov_test

> You may also be interested in the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wald–Wolfowitz_runs_test ) and the Mann-Whitney test (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mann–Whitney_U ).

Statistical Significance > Limitations, Challenges: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_significance#Limit...

Statistical hypothesis test > Criticism, Alternatives: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_hypothesis_test#Cr...

There are Multivariate Students' t distributions: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multivariate_t-distribution

Matrix t distribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_t-distribution :

> The generalized matrix t-distribution is the compound distribution that results from an infinite mixture of a matrix normal distribution with an inverse multivariate gamma distribution placed over either of its covariance matrices.

But does a matrix t-distribution describe nonlinear variance in complex wave functions?

Quantum statistical mechanics: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_statistical_mechanics :

> In quantum mechanics a statistical ensemble (probability distribution over possible quantum states) is described by a density operator S, which is a non-negative, self-adjoint, trace-class operator of trace 1 on the Hilbert space H describing the quantum system.

A Q12 question: How frequently are quantum density operators described by a parametric t distribution?

Single atom defect in 2D material can hold quantum information at room temp

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From "Computer-generated holography with ordinary display" (2024) https://opg.optica.org/viewmedia.cfm?r=1&rwjcode=ol&uri=ol-4... :

> The hologram cascade is synthesized by solving an inverse problem with respect to the propagation of incoherent light.

From "Learning quantum Hamiltonians at any temperature in polynomial time" (2024) https://arxiv.org/abs/2310.02243 .. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40396171 :

>> The relaxation technique is well known in the field of approximation algorithms, but it had never been tried in quantum learning.

Relaxation (iterative method) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relaxation_(iterative_method)

Pertubation theory > History > Beginnings in the study of planetary motion ... QFT > History: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perturbation_theory#Beginnings...

QFT > History: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_field_theory#History :

> Quantum field theory emerged from the work of generations of theoretical physicists spanning much of the 20th century. Its development began in the 1920s with the description of interactions between light and electrons, culminating in the first quantum field theory—quantum electrodynamics. A major theoretical obstacle soon followed with the appearance and persistence of various infinities in perturbative calculations, a problem only resolved in the 1950s with the invention of the renormalization procedure. A second major barrier came with QFT's apparent inability to describe the weak and strong interactions, to the point where some theorists called for the abandonment of the field theoretic approach. The development of gauge theory and the completion of the Standard Model in the 1970s led to a renaissance of quantum field theory.

But the Standard Model Lagrangian doesn't describe n-body gravity, n-body quantum gravity, photons in Bose-Einstein Condensates; liquid light in superfluids and superconductors, black hole thermodynamics and external or internal topology, unreversibility or not, or even fluids with vortices or curl that certainly affect particles interacting in multiple fields.

TIL again about Relaxation theory for solving quantum Hamiltonians.

OTOH other things on this topic

- "Coherent interaction of a-few-electron quantum dot with a terahertz optical resonator" (2023) https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.10522 :

> By illuminating the system with THz radiation [a wave function (Hamiltonian) is coherently transmitted over a small chip-scale distance]

- "Room Temperature Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance of Single Spins in GaN" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-024-01803-5 ... "GAN semiconductor defects could boost quantum technology" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39365467

- "Reversible non-volatile electronic switching in a near-room-temperature van der Waals ferromagnet" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-024-46862-z ... "Nonvolatile quantum memory: Discovery points path to flash-like qubit storage" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39956368 :

>> "That's the key finding," she said of the material's switchable vacancy order. "The idea of using vacancy order to control topology is the important thing. That just hasn't really been explored. People have generally only been looking at materials from a fully stoichiometric perspective, meaning everything's occupied with a fixed set of symmetries that lead to one kind of electronic topology. Changes in vacancy order change the lattice symmetry. This work shows how that can change the electronic topology. And it seems likely that vacancy order could be used to induce topological changes in other materials as well."

- "Catalog of topological phonon materials" (2024) https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adf8458 ... "Topological Phonons Discovered and Catalogued in Crystal Lattices" (2024-05) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40410475

- "Observation of current whirlpools in graphene at room temperature" (2024) https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj2167 .. "Electron Vortices in Graphene Detected" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40360691 :

> re: the fractional quantum hall effect, and decoherence: How are spin currents and vorticity in electron vortices related?

(These are solutions to decoherence and quantum wave transmission through spacetime!)

Memory Sealing "Mseal" System Call Merged for Linux 6.10

The mseal patch: https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/lin...

Userspace API > System Calls: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/next/userspace-api/index.htm...

kernel.org/doc/html/next/userspace-api/mseal.html: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/next/userspace-api/mseal.htm... :

> Modern CPUs support memory permissions such as RW and NX bits. The memory permission feature improves security stance on memory corruption bugs, i.e. the attacker can’t just write to arbitrary memory and point the code to it, the memory has to be marked with X bit, or else an exception will happen.

> Memory sealing additionally protects the mapping itself against modifications. This is useful to mitigate memory corruption issues where a corrupted pointer is passed to a memory management system. For example, such an attacker primitive can break control-flow integrity guarantees since read-only memory that is supposed to be trusted can become writable or .text pages can get remapped. Memory sealing can automatically be applied by the runtime loader to seal .text and .rodata pages and applications can additionally seal security critical data at runtime.

> A similar feature already exists in the XNU kernel with the VM_FLAGS_PERMANENT flag [1] and on OpenBSD with the mimmutable syscall [2].

NX bit, Memory tagging, Modified Harvard architecture: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=36726077#36740262

TEE, SGX, .data, .code: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=33584502

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Why is the sealed mapping unmapped on exec*()? What about spawn and fork?

Are there libraries for handling this yet?

> IIRC, with CPython the NX bit doesn't work when any imported C extension has nested functions / trampolines

How should CPython support the mseal() syscall?

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Making my dumb A/C smart with Elixir and Nerves

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Other things with temperature stats probably worth monitoring and/or orchestrating with e.g. HA: attic fans, crawlspace fans, vents, motorized blinds, bath fans, inline duct fans,

There are recycled mining rig space heaters (that may or may not need Internet access to keep heating), pool heating immersion mining rigs, and probably also water heaters with temperature stats that might be useful in a smart home interface instead of something like Grafana.

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Show HN: We open sourced our entire text-to-SQL product

Long story short: We (Dataherald) just open-sourced our entire codebase, including the core engine, the clients that interact with it and the backend application layer for authentication and RBAC. You can now use the full solution to build text-to-SQL into your product.

The Problem: modern LLMs write syntactically correct SQL, but they struggle with real-world relational data. This is because real world data and schema is messy, natural language can often be ambiguous and LLMs are not trained on your specific dataset.

Solution: The core NL-to-SQL engine in Dataherald is an LLM based agent which uses Chain of Thought (CoT) reasoning and a number of different tools to generate high accuracy SQL from a given user prompt. The engine achieves this by:

- Collecting context at configuration from the database and sources such as data dictionaries and unstructured documents which are stored in a data store or a vector DB and injected if relevant

- Allowing users to upload sample NL <> SQL pairs (golden SQL) which can be used in few shot prompting or to fine-tune an NL-to-SQL LLM for that specific dataset

- Executing the SQL against the DB to get a few sample rows and recover from errors

- Using an evaluator to assign a confidence score to the generated SQL

The repo includes four services https://github.com/Dataherald/dataherald/tree/main/services:

1- Engine: The core service which includes the LLM agent, vector stores and DB connectors.

2- Admin Console: a NextJS front-end for configuring the engine and observability.

3- Enterprise Backend: Wraps the core engine, adding authentication, caching, and APIs for the frontend.

4- Slackbot: Integrate Dataherald directly into your Slack workflow for on-the-fly data exploration.

Would love to hear from the community on building natural language interfaces to relational data. Anyone live in production without a human in the loop? Thoughts on how to improve performance without spending weeks on model training?

/? awesome "sql" llm site:github.com https://www.google.com/search?q=awesome+%22sql%22+llm+site%3... :

- awesome-Text2SQL: https://github.com/eosphoros-ai/Awesome-Text2SQL :

> Curated tutorials and resources for Large Language Models, Text2SQL, Text2DSL、Text2API、Text2Vis and more.

- Awesome-code-llm > Benchmarks > Text to SQL: https://github.com/codefuse-ai/Awesome-Code-LLM#text-to-sql

- underlines/awesome-ml//llm-tools.md > RAG > OpenAI > dataherald,: https://github.com/underlines/awesome-ml/blob/master/llm-too...

- underlines/awesome-ml//llm-tools.md > Benchmarking > Benchmark Suites, Leaderboards: https://github.com/underlines/awesome-ml/blob/master/llm-too... :

- sql-eval: https://github.com/defog-ai/sql-eval :

> This repository contains the code that Defog uses for the evaluation of generated SQL. It's based off the schema from the Spider, but with a new set of hand-selected questions and queries grouped by query category. For an in-depth look into our process of creating this evaluation approach, see this.

> Our testing procedure comprises the following steps. For each question/query pair: 1. We generate a SQL query (possibly from an LLM). 2. We run both the "gold" query and the generated query on their respective database to obtain 2 dataframes with the results. 3. We compare the 2 dataframes using an "exact" and a "subset" match. TODO add link to blogpost. 4. We log these alongside other metrics of interest (e.g. tokens used, latency) and aggregate the results for reporting

- dataherald/services/engine/dataherald/tests/sql_generator/test_generator.py: https://github.com/Dataherald/dataherald/blob/main/services/...

Three New Supercomputers Reach Top of Green500 List

Top500 > Green500 > 2024/06: https://www.top500.org/lists/green500/2024/06/ :

> Energy Efficiency (GFlops/watts)

What about TOps (Tensor Operations per second) and NPUs; is there a new energy efficiency stat like TOps/watts?

Copilot+ specs specify an NPU that does 40 TOPS; 40 (int8 integer) TOPS, but not watts?

Moore's Law describes growth in transistor density per area with cost but not energy efficiency; operations per watts.

Costed opcodes incentivize energy efficiency.

eWASM has costed opcodes, for example.

/?hnlog "costed opcodes"

Toward electrochemical synthesis of cement–An electrolyzer-based process

... Learned of this via "Electrochemistry Might Help Solve Cement’s Carbon Problem" which describes Portland cement production methods in general and also Sublime Systems' electrochemical synthesis efficiency and sustainability advantages: https://cleantechnica.com/2024/05/23/electrochemistry-might-...

> In fact, all of the heat can be electrified too, and has been both historically and in demonstration units today. Electric heat for the limestone kiln is a relatively trivial thing to build into new kilns, although more challenging to retrofit to existing ones.

And from the paper,

"Toward electrochemical synthesis of cement—An electrolyzer-based process for decarbonating CaCO3 while producing useful gas streams" (2019) https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1821673116 :

> Electrochemical calcination produces concentrated gas streams from which CO2 may be readily separated and sequestered, H2 and/or O2 may be used to generate electric power via fuel cells or combustors, O2 may be used as a component of oxyfuel in the cement kiln to improve efficiency and lower CO2 emissions, or the output gases may be used for other value-added processes such as liquid fuel production. Analysis shows that if the hydrogen produced by the reactor were combusted to heat the high-temperature kiln, the electrochemical cement process could be powered solely by renewable electricity.

Could probably get it started with sunlight:

> "Solar thermal trapping at 1,000°C and above" (2024) https://www.cell.com/device/fulltext/S2666-9986(24)00235-7 https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40419777

... Concrete can be more sustainable and efficient. Concrete may or may not be a better thermal battery than gravel.

Other things concrete fwiw:

- Roman Concrete was made with volcanic ash

- Uncoated steel rebar rusts in less than 100 years FWIU?

- Concrete block is easier to repair than large, interlocking slabs

- Plant-based blocks can be cut with a handsaw

- (Catalan) brick vault roofs do not require forms or support; and round structures handle wind and storms best

- Hempcrete is made with Lime, too

- Sugarcrete is made with Sugarcane and sand

- Bio-based block breathes with relative humidity

- Higher R-Value, higher strength construction materials reduce HVAC and post-disaster reconstruction costs

- (sinusoidal) wavy walls need only be one brick wide

- Dry stone walls of e.g. Peru, which may be made with geopolymers; have irregularly-shaped blocks, that are locked together, and settle down into V's for earthquake resilience.

- There are new like infinitely repeating tile shapes that may or may not be as easy to form as bricks

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endothermic and/or exothermic; in an open system with or without constant volume

When prompted re: ancient methods including low voltage and concrete, gemini suggested that low voltage heat in a drying geopolymer / concrete would dry it and prevent cracking.

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Researchers use 'smart' rubber structures to carry out computational tasks

"Controlled pathways and sequential information processing in serially coupled mechanical hysterons" (2024) https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.2308414121 :

> Abstract: The complex sequential response of frustrated materials results from the interactions between material bits called hysterons. Hence, a central challenge is to understand and control these interactions, so that materials with targeted pathways and functionalities can be realized. Here, we show that hysterons in serial configurations experience geometrically controllable antiferromagnetic-like interactions. We create hysteron-based metamaterials that leverage these interactions to realize targeted pathways, including those that break the return point memory property, characteristic of independent or weakly interacting hysterons. We uncover that the complex response to sequential driving of such strongly interacting hysteron-based materials can be described by finite state machines. We realize information processing operations such as string parsing in materia, and outline a general framework to uncover and characterize the FSMs for a given physical system. Our work provides a general strategy to understand and control hysteron interactions, and opens a broad avenue toward material-based information processing.

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So good, it works on barbed wire (2001)

> In summary, the barbed wire had zero impact on signal quality. The signals went through perfectly undistorted. The only thing the barbed wire did was impress the heck out of Broadcom's customers.

Next time you look at a transmission line, I hope you'll focus on the big four properties: characteristic impedance, high-frequency loss, delay, and crosstalk. These properties determine how well a transmission structure functions, regardless of the physical appearance or configuration of its conductors.

FWIU from "The Information" by Gleick, Shannon entropy Shannon started out with digital two-state modulations on wire fences

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Dual antibacterial properties of copper-coated nanotextured stainless steel

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Do the useful properties of copper change with oxidation?

Silver is also antimicrobial, and also expensive.

FWIU nanospikes in silicon achieved virucidal outcomes in small trials as well.

Is copper virucidal without nanospikes?

(On this topic, Hemp textiles are antimicrobial / bactericidal: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39196781#39197019 )

"Scientists create virucidal silicon surface without any chemicals" https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.3c07099 https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39196822

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Is the claim then that copper nanospikes on stainless steel are of no greater value than copper for healthcare applications?

Is that claim supported by evidence?

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How much longer do brake pads on trucks with regenerative braking last?

Though, wouldn't a differently shaped initial acceleration torque curve save synthetic tire microplastics from the ocean, while we figure out how to make dandelion rubber tires?

Copper toxicity > Signs and symptoms: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_toxicity#Signs_and_symp... :

> The US EPA lists copper as a micronutrient and a toxin. [11] Toxicity in mammals includes a wide range of animals and effects such as liver cirrhosis, necrosis in kidneys and the brain, gastrointestinal distress, lesions, low blood pressure, and fetal mortality. [12][13][14] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a limit of 0.1 mg/m3 for copper fumes (vapor generated from heating copper) and 1 mg/m3 for copper dusts (fine metallic copper particles) and mists (aerosol of soluble copper) in workroom air during an eight-hour work shift, 40-hour work week. [15] Toxicity to other species of plants and animals is noted to varying levels. [11]

A reasonable production process would need to contain and could probably reuse copper emissions

"Dual Antibacterial Properties of Copper-Coated Nanotextured Stainless Steel" (2024) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smll.202311546 :

> Abstract: Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel, an alloy commonly used in shared settings, numerous medical devices, and food and beverage sectors, can give rise to serious infections, ultimately leading to morbidity, mortality, and significant healthcare expenses. In this study, Cu-coated nanotextured stainless steel (nSS) fabrication have been demonstrated using electrochemical technique and its potential as an antibiotic-free biocidal surface against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. As nanotexture and Cu combine for dual methods of killing, this material should not contribute to drug-resistant bacteria as antibiotic use does. This approach involves applying a Cu coating on nanotextured stainless steel, resulting in an antibacterial activity within 30 min. Comprehensive characterization of the surface revealing that the Cu coating consists of metallic Cu and oxidized states (Cu2+ and Cu+), has been performed by this study. Cu-coated nSS induces a remarkable reduction of 97% in Gram-negative Escherichia coli and 99% Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. This material has potential to be used to create effective, scalable, and sustainable solutions to prevent bacterial infections caused by surface contamination without contributing to antibiotic resistance.

- "This modified stainless steel could kill bacteria without antibiotics or chemicals" (2024) https://phys.org/news/2024-05-stainless-steel-bacteria-antib...

"Scientists create virucidal silicon surface without any chemicals" (2023) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39196781#39196822 :

"Piercing of the Human Parainfluenza Virus by Nanostructured Surfaces" (2024) https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.3c07099 :

> We used reactive ion etching to fabricate silicon (Si) surfaces featuring an array of sharp nanospikes with an approximate tip diameter of 2 nm and a height of 290 nm. The nanospike surfaces exhibited a 1.5 log reduction in infectivity of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) after 6 h, a substantially enhanced efficiency, compared to that of smooth Si.

[-]

Show HN: Optigraph – optimum graph network generator

I've created a tool that helps plan graph networks for the best possible connections between nodes. The idea is for it to be used as a kind of underground system planner. I am still working on improving the algorithms it uses, but please consider checking it out for new ideas/bug catching.

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=36942305#36946741 :

> Is re-planning routes for regenerative braking solvable with the Modified Snow Plow Problem (variation on TSP Traveling Salesman Problem), on a QC Quantum Computer; with Quantum Algorithmic advantage due to the complexity of the problem?

FWIU the Modified Snow Plow Problem is a variant of TSP the Traveling Salesman Problem which takes topological grade into account; only plow downhill.

Regenerative braking charges on downhills.

TSP can be implemented with quantum algorithms for a quantum computer.

There could be a call for and/or an ml competition for QC algos for TSP and similar:

> - QISkit tutorials > Max-Cut and Traveling Salesman Problem: docs/tutorials/06_examples_max_cut_and_tsp.ipynb: https://qiskit.org/ecosystem/optimization/tutorials/06_examp...

Quantum Algorithm Zoo probably lists existing quantum algorithms that might be useful for this application

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A promising 3-terminal diode for wireless comm. and optically driven computing

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=36310594#36356444 :

> What is the maximum presumed distance over which photon emissions from blue [sapphire,] LEDs can be entangled? What about with [time-synchronized] applied magnetic fields? Could newer waveguide approaches - for example, dual beams - improve the distance and efficiency of transceivers operating with such a quantum communication channel?

> [...]

>> Physicists at the University of Konstanz have generated one of the shortest signals ever produced by humans: Using paired laser pulses, they succeeded in compressing a series of electron pulses to a numerically analyzed duration of only 0.000000000000000005 seconds [...]

>> For Peter Baum, physics professor and head of the Light and Matter Group at the University of Konstanz, these results are still clearly basic research, but he emphasizes the great potential for future research: "If a material is hit by two of our short pulses at a variable time interval, the first pulse can trigger a change and the second pulse can be used for observation—similar to the flash of a camera"

- "Fiber-optic data transfer speeds hit a rapid 301 Tbps" (2024-03) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39864107

[-]

Can Nvidia or AMD GPU's Be Used with Qualcomm's New ARM CPU's?

[+]

- "Meta seeks ASIC designers for ML accelerators and datacenter SoCs" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39485115#39518293 :

> With some newer architectures, the GPU(s) are directly connected to [HBM] RAM; which somewhat eliminates the CPU and Bus performance bottlenecks that ASICs and FPGAs are used to accelerate beyond.

- "Jim Keller suggests Nvidia should have used Ethernet to link Blackwell GPUs" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40027933 :

> The HBM3E Wikipedia article says 1.2TB/s.

> Fiber optics: 301 Tbps

- "New RISC-V microprocessor can run CPU, GPU, and NPU workloads simultaneously" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39938538

- eGPU enclosure with USB A and USB C ports, too

- iGPU + dGPU

Using solar energy to generate heat at 1050°C high temperatures

"Solar thermal trapping at 1,000°C and above" (2024) https://www.cell.com/device/fulltext/S2666-9986(24)00235-7 :

> Summary: Common semi-transparent materials like quartz and water feature spectral optical properties characterized by low attenuation of visible radiation and strong absorption of infrared (IR) radiation emitted by hot surfaces. This leads to the thermal trap effect, exploitable in solar-concentrating applications to attain higher absorber temperatures and thermal efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate this effect at high temperatures with a quartz rod attached to an opaque absorber plate reaching 1,050°C when exposed to 135 suns of concentration, while the quartz front face remains at 450°C. A 3D heat transfer model, validated against the experimental data, is applied to determine the performance map of solar receivers exploiting thermal trapping. These are shown to achieve the target temperature with higher efficiency and/or needing a lower concentration than the reference unshielded absorber. Solar process heat at above 1,000°C can decarbonize key industrial applications such as cement manufacturing and metallurgical extraction.

> It consists of a quartz rod coupled to a ceramic absorber which, thanks to its optical properties, can efficiently absorb sunlight and convert it into heat.

Flash-heating waste plastic at 2827 C yields Hydrogen, CO2, and Graphene;

"Synthesis of Clean Hydrogen Gas from Waste Plastic at Zero Net Cost" (2023) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.202306763 PDF: https://chemrxiv.org/engage/api-gateway/chemrxiv/assets/orp/...

"Making hydrogen [and graphene] from waste plastic could pay for itself" (2023) https://news.rice.edu/news/2023/making-hydrogen-waste-plasti...

> 3100 Kelvin [ = 2827 C ]

gscholar citations for: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1338501696868292077...

What are the fundamental frequencies of plastic?

Is it possible yield Hydrogen and Graphene from plastic at lower than 3100K / 2827C?

Is it possible to generate 3100K / 2827C with this solar thermal trap design?

(edit) Other solar concentrator specs:

NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) https://www.nrel.gov/csp/facility-hfsf.html L

> The solar furnace can quickly concentrate solar radiation to 10 kilowatts over a 10-cm diameter (2,500 "suns"), achieving temperatures of 1,800°C—and up to peak solar fluxes of 20,000 suns with specialized secondary optics to produce temperatures of up to 3,000°C. Secondary concentrators can modify the focal point and tailor flux levels and distributions to suit the needs of each research activity.

When the sun shines brightly, a concentrator with specialized secondary optics should thus be enough to flash heat plastic to yield hydrogen and graphene.

OT is quartz with 135 suns of concentration.

Quartz (SiO2) melting points, according to wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quartz :

> 1670 °C (β tridymite); 1713 °C (β cristobalite)

Granite melting points too due to a recent geopolymer research interest: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granite :

> 1215–1260 °C [at ambient pressure]

> Composition: SiO2 72.04% (silica), Al2O3 14.42% (alumina), K2O ~4%

Granite and Quartz and Silicic magmas.

Silicic: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicic

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Physicists create five-lane superhighway for electrons

"Interlayer electron-phonon coupling in Moire superlattices" (2021) https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2021APS..MARR42010H/abstra... https://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_citation&h... :

> Electron-phonon coupling is lying at the heart of many condensed matter phenomena. The van der Waals stacking of two-dimensional materials and the twisting-angle-controlled Moire superlattice offer new opportunities for studying and engineering interlayer electron-phonon coupling. I will present our infrared spectroscopy study of several graphene-based Moire superlattices, showing strong features of interlayer electron-phonon coupling. This coupling can be further tuned through controlling the Moire wavelength and gate electric fields.

Is this potentially relevant to solving for ancient Geopolymer methods with electricity and possibly acoustic notes and/or chords?

Anyways, the original exercise:

"A scattering-type scanning nearfield optical microscope probes materials at the nanoscale" (2021) https://phys.org/news/2021-07-scattering-type-scanning-nearf... :

> The new tool is based on atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which an extremely sharp metallic tip with a radius of only 20 nanometers, or billionths of a meter, is scanned across the surface of a material. AFM creates a map of the physical features, or topography, of a surface, of such high resolution that it can identify "mountains" or "valleys" less than a nanometer in height or depth.

> Ju is adding light to the equation. Focusing an infrared laser on the AFM tip turns that tip into an antenna "just like the antenna on a television that's used to receive signals," he says. And that, in turn, greatly enhances interactions between the light and the material beneath the tip. The back-scattered light collected from those interactions can be analyzed to reveal much more about the surface than would be possible with a conventional AFM.

"Correlated insulator and Chern insulators in pentalayer rhombohedral-stacked graphene" (2023) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-023-01520-1 :

> [...] Our results establish rhombohedral multilayer graphene as a suitable system for exploring intertwined electron correlation and topology phenomena in natural graphitic materials without the need for moiré superlattice engineering.

"Fractional quantum anomalous hall effect in a graphene moire superlattice" (2023)

"Fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect in multilayer graphene" (2024)

"Electron correlation and topology in rhombohedral multilayer graphene" (2024)

"Large quantum anomalous Hall effect in spin-orbit proximitized rhombohedral graphene" (2024) https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adk9749

[-]

Ask HN: Video streaming is expensive yet YouTube "seems" to do it for free. How?

Can anyone help me understand the economics of video streaming platforms?

Streaming, encoding, and storage demands enormous costs -- especially at scale (e.g., on average each 4k video with close to 1 million views). Yet YouTube seems to charge no money for it.

I know advertisements are a thing for YT, but is it enough?

If tomorrow I want to start a platform that is supported with Advert revenues, I know I will likely fail. However, maybe at YT scale (or more specifically Google Advert scale) the economics works?

ps: I would like this discussion to focus on the absolute necessary elements (e.g., storing, encoding, streaming) and not on other factors contributing to latency/cost like running view count algorithms.

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VA-API, NVENC,

nvenc > See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nvidia_NVENC#See_also

NVIDIA Video Codec SDK v12.1 > NVENC Application Note: https://docs.nvidia.com/video-technologies/video-codec-sdk/1... :

> NVENC Capabilities: encoding for H.264, HEVC 8-bit, HEVC 10-bit, AV1 8-bit and AV1 10-bit. This includes motion estimation and mode decision, motion compensation and residual coding, and entropy coding. It can also be used to generate motion vectors between two frames, which are useful for applications such as depth estimation, frame interpolation, encoding using other codecs not supported by NVENC, or hybrid encoding wherein motion estimation is performed by NVENC and the rest of the encoding is handled elsewhere in the system. These operations are hardware accelerated by a dedicated block on GPU silicon die. NVENCODE APIs provide the necessary knobs to utilize the hardware encoding capabilities.

FFMPEG > Platform [hw video encoder] API Availability table: https://trac.ffmpeg.org/wiki/HWAccelIntro#PlatformAPIAvailab... :

> AMF, NVENC/NVDEC/CUVID (CUDA, cuda-nvcc and libnpp) (NVIDIA), VCE (AMD), libmfx (Intel), MediaCodec, Media Foundation, MMAL, OpenMAX, RockChip MPP, V4L2 M2M, VA-API (Intel), Video Toolbox, Vulkan

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Egypt's pyramids may have been built on a long-lost branch of the Nile

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Were there wheels before the stone pillars of the Osireion were created; and if so how how were those stonemasonry methods lost?

The Great Pyramid Grand Gallery locks have spots for things that roll or that rope rigging may have pulled around.

Hydrological engineering pyramid construction methods: Herodotus, Strabo, Edward J. Kunkel "The Pharaohs Pump", Steven Meyers, Chris Massey

Herodotus > Life > Early Travels: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herodotus#Early_travels

https://www.secretofthepyramids.com/herodotus :

> For this, they said, the ten years were spent, and for the underground chambers on the hill upon which the pyramids stand, which he caused to be made as sepulchral chambers for himself in an island, having conducted thither a channel from the Nile.

Sounds like the same story for the Osireion, according to Strabo.

There's a speculative map in "Water Transportation During Khufu Time" https://www.secretofthepyramids.com/projects/project-three-w... :

"Probable look at waterways of Giza during Khufu time" https://images.squarespace-cdn.com/content/v1/600615bf2f57da...

https://www.secretofthepyramids.com/latestnews references:

"Nile waterscapes Facilitated the Construction of Giza Pyramids During the 3rd Millennium BCE." (2022) https://www.pnas.org/doi/full/10.1073/pnas.2202530119

Timeline of Glaciation; the last ice age ended around 11,700 years ago: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_glaciation

"Rock art indicates cows once grazed a lush, green Sahara" (2024) https://newatlas.com/science/cattle-rock-art-sahara-desert/

Ancient megalithic Geopolymer masonry made with electrodes and [Lingam,] electricity is apparently lost to modern day as well.

FWIU, in the Great Pyramid, there were/are copper rods in the shafts out from the King's Chamber, and the conductive gold at the top of the pyramid was added after construction over top of a perhaps more ancient well shaft (that is not as geomagnetically-aligned) that may have been a hydraulic/hydrologic water tunnel given the water erosion in the subterranean chamber.

Fairly, Demonstrate moving and then placing an 80 ton granite stone with ancient materials and tools: copper, gold, limestone, granite, probably fulgurite (sand glass due to lightning) and/or volcanic glass, obsidian, grain dust, papyrus rope, papyrus boats, barges, [variable buoyancy] crane machines, masonry forms and jigs, chemistry in jars, large sceptre tuning forks, sand, porous cliffs by the sea

What are the dates on the outer structure, and on the oldest largest object within the structure?

Well: Cyprus (8400 BC),

Wheel: Pillars, Potter's wheel (4500–3300 BCE), chariot (2200–1550 BCE), stone saw

Gears: Antikythera (200 BC), Watchmaking c. 1300 AD

But the boat, and things that float due to ballast or no; how old is that?

Aliens of similar height, from the tunnel and stair heights and sarcophagi.

Such as the [presumed] Sarcophagus of Senusret II - which has a pyramid built around it with perhaps newer and less precise masonry methods - which one might've hoped had contained instructions on how to produce spec granite at those tolerances back then; [1]

[1] "The MOST precisely made granite object of Ancient Egypt - and why it's NOT Geopolymer" https://youtu.be/d8Ejf5etV5U?si=4GfDTL-QSGE5mO05?t=11m30s

There is little evidence of advanced mechanical masonry tools at the time, except for the remaining megalithic stonework that later cultures built upon.

FWIU there are only a few examples of circular polishing, and the core drilling method leaves different signatures than known methods in modern day.

Scientists show that there is indeed an 'entropy' of quantum entanglement

"Reversibility of quantum resources through probabilistic protocols" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-024-47243-2 :

> Abstract: Among the most fundamental questions in the manipulation of quantum resources such as entanglement is the possibility of reversibly transforming all resource states. The key consequence of this would be the identification of a unique entropic resource measure that exactly quantifies the limits of achievable transformation rates. Remarkably, previous results claimed that such asymptotic reversibility holds true in very general settings; however, recently those findings have been found to be incomplete, casting doubt on the conjecture. Here we show that it is indeed possible to reversibly interconvert all states in general quantum resource theories, as long as one allows protocols that may only succeed probabilistically. Although such transformations have some chance of failure, we show that their success probability can be ensured to be bounded away from zero, even in the asymptotic limit of infinitely many manipulated copies. As in previously conjectured approaches, the achievability here is realised through operations that are asymptotically resource non-generating, and we show that this choice is optimal: smaller sets of transformations cannot lead to reversibility. Our methods are based on connecting the transformation rates under probabilistic protocols with strong converse rates for deterministic transformations, which we strengthen into an exact equivalence in the case of entanglement distillation.

> The key consequence of this would be the identification of a unique entropic resource measure that exactly quantifies the limits of achievable transformation rates

IIRC I read on Wikipedia one day that Bell's actually says there's like a 60% error rate?(!)

Also I don't understand QKD 'repeaters'; to 'store a forward' wave function implies that the transmitted wave state is collapsed, but that's not a MITM if it's keyed and time synchronized? Is there no good way to amplify quantum photonic signal without distorting / transforming it?

> smaller sets of transformations cannot lead to reversibility

"Thermodynamics of Computations with Absolute Irreversibility, Unidirectional Transitions, and Stochastic Computation Times" (2024) https://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.14.02... :

- "New work extends the thermodynamic theory of computation" https://phys.org/news/2024-05-thermodynamic-theory.amp https://journals.aps.org/prx/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevX.14.02...

'Quantum discord'

From https://news.ycombinator.com/context?id=39954180 and [2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_discord :

> FWIU, there are various types of quantum entropy; entanglement and non-entanglement entropy. Quantum discord [2]:

>> In quantum information theory, quantum discord is a measure of nonclassical correlations between two subsystems of a quantum system. It includes correlations that are due to quantum physical effects but do not necessarily involve quantum entanglement.

'Nonquantum entanglement'

From https://news.ycombinator.com/context?id=40302396 :

> "Nonquantum Entanglement Resolves a Basic Issue in Polarization Optics"

'Multi-particle entanglement'

From https://news.ycombinator.com/context?id=40281756 :

> "Designing three-way entangled and nonlocal two-way entangled single particle states via alternate quantum walks" (2024) https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.05080 :

>> Herein, we generate three-way entanglement from an initially separable state involving three degrees of freedom of a quantum particle, which evolves via a 2D alternate quantum walk employing a resource-saving single-qubit coin. We achieve maximum possible values for the three-way entanglement quantified by the π-tangle between the three degrees of freedom. We also generate optimal two-way nonlocal entanglement, quantified by the negativity between the nonlocal position degrees of freedom of the particle. This prepared architecture using quantum walks can be experimentally realized with a photon.

Isn't there more total entropy if there is n-way entanglement?

Learning quantum Hamiltonians at any temperature in polynomial time

From "Scientists Find a Fast Way to Describe Quantum Systems" (2024) https://www.quantamagazine.org/scientists-find-a-fast-way-to... :

> So that’s what the team behind the new paper ended up doing: They ported an optimization tool from mathematics into their field of quantum learning. First they reformulated the problem of calculating a system’s Hamiltonian into a family of polynomial equations. Now the goal was to prove that they could solve these equations reasonably quickly — which seemed like an equally hard goal. “In general, if I have an arbitrary polynomial system, I cannot hope to solve it efficiently,” Bakshi said. Even simple polynomial systems are just too hard.

> But theoretical computer scientists are good at finding workarounds in such situations, by using what’s called a relaxation technique. This approach converts problems that are hard to optimize — they have too many solutions that appear right but aren’t valid everywhere — into simpler ones with a unique global solution. By approximating difficult problems via simpler ones, the relaxation technique helps find solutions closer to the true solution.

> The relaxation technique is well known in the field of approximation algorithms, but it had never been tried in quantum learning.

Scientists show how to treat burns with susty plant-based Vitamin C bandage

- "Blessed Thistle Enhances Nerve Regeneration" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40105779

[+]

Susty is short for Sustainable, which is roughly synonymous with Environmentally Friendly.

The original headline is "Scientists show how to treat burns with an environmentally friendly plant-based bandage", but HN has a character limit.

Blessed Thistle

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GPT-4o's Memory Breakthrough – Needle in a Needlestack

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Show HN: Pico: An open-source Ngrok alternative built for production traffic

Pico is an open-source alternative to Ngrok. Unlike most other open-source tunnelling solutions, Pico is designed to serve production traffic and be simple to host (particularly on Kubernetes).

Upstream services connect to Pico and register endpoints. Pico will then route requests for an endpoint to a registered upstream service via its outbound-only connection. This means you can expose your services without opening a public port.

Pico runs as a cluster of nodes in order to be fault tolerant, scale horizontally and support zero downtime deployments. It is also easy to host, such as a Kubernetes Deployment or StatefulSet behind a HTTP load balancer.

[+]

Given a helm chart, also podman kube kubernetes YAML

podman-kube-play: https://docs.podman.io/en/latest/markdown/podman-kube-play.1...

helm template: https://helm.sh/docs/helm/helm_template/

"RFE Allow podman to run Helm charts" https://github.com/containers/podman/issues/15098#issuecomme...

  helm template --dry-run --debug . --generate-name \
    --values values.yaml | tee kube42.yml && \
  podman kube play kube42.yml;

[-]

The new APT 3.0 solver

> Solver3 is a fully backtracking dependency solving algorithm that defers choices to as late as possible. It starts with an empty set of packages, then adds the manually installed packages, and then installs packages automatically as necessary to satisfy the dependencies. [...]

> If you have studied SAT solver design, you’ll find that essentially this is a DPLL solver without pure literal elimination

DPLL algorithm: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DPLL_algorithm

prefix-dev/pixi is a successor to Mamba and Conda which wraps libsolv like dnf. https://github.com/prefix-dev/pixi

OpenSUSE/libsolv: https://github.com/openSUSE/libsolv

OpenSUSE/zypper may have wrapped or may still wrap libsolv?

TIL libsolv also supports arch .apk and .deb; there's a deb2solv utility to create libsolv .solv files: https://github.com/openSUSE/libsolv/blob/master/tools/deb2so...

"[mamba-org/rattler:] A new memory-safe SAT solver for package management in Rust (port of libsolv)" (2024) https://prefix.dev/blog/the_new_rattler_resolver https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37101862

Pixi is integrating uv: https://github.com/astral-sh/uv/issues/1572#issuecomment-194...

astral-sh/uv [1] solves versions with PubGrub [2], which was written for Dart: [1] https://github.com/astral-sh/uv [2] https://github.com/pubgrub-rs/pubgrub

uv's benchmarks are run with hyperfine, a CLI benchmarking tool: https://github.com/sharkdp/hyperfine

astral-sh/rye was mitsuhiko/rye, and rye wraps uv with "fallback to unearth [resolvelib] and pip-tools": https://github.com/astral-sh/rye https://lucumr.pocoo.org/2024/2/15/rye-grows-with-uv/

So, TIL it looks like rye for python and pixi for conda (python, r, rust, go,) are the latest tools for python packaging, not apt packaging.

fpm is one way to create deb packages from python virtualenvs for install with the new APT solver, which resulted in this research.

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Vikings razed the forests. Can Iceland regrow them?

Boats and Timber-framed houses probably.

Could sell or use the volcanic ash for Roman Concrete or Geopolymer Concrete?

Topsoil takes forever to create. What is the relation between glaciation and topsoil?

FWIU planting a monoculture of trees in the Gobi desert to reverse desertification has not been as successful as planting complete grassland and then forest ecosystems and trees.

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37590409#37623093

Water bunds look like they work to prevent water from flashing off, but probably initially disturb the mycorrhizae in the topsoil: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semicircular_bund

"Inoculating soil with mycorrhizal fungi can increase plant yield: study" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38526579#38527264

https://westurner.github.io/hnlog/#story-36158663 Ctrl-F "soil" [depletion], myco

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America is in the midst of an extraordinary startup boom

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Maybe that's more of a "savvy, likeable entrepreneur".

Google / Oxford Languages has: https://www.google.com/search?q=entrepreneur :

> en·tre·pre·neur: a person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so

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Electron Vortices in Graphene Detected

"Observation of current whirlpools in graphene at room temperature" (2024) https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adj2167 :

> Electron–electron interactions in high-mobility conductors can give rise to transport signatures resembling those described by classical hydrodynamics. Using a nanoscale scanning magnetometer, we imaged a distinctive hydrodynamic transport pattern—stationary current vortices—in a monolayer graphene device at room temperature. By measuring devices with increasing characteristic size, we observed the disappearance of the current vortex and thus verified a prediction of the hydrodynamic model. We further observed that vortex flow is present for both hole- and electron-dominated transport regimes but disappears in the ambipolar regime. We attribute this effect to a reduction of the vorticity diffusion length near charge neutrality. Our work showcases the power of local imaging techniques for unveiling exotic mesoscopic transport phenomena.

Could this imaging capability help observe this known free electrons from graphene approach?

From "Physicists Build Circuit That Generates Clean, Limitless Power from Graphene (2020)" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=30825430#30839636 :

> "Fluctuation-induced current from freestanding graphene" (2020) https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3748350803951231734...

[Fractional] Quantum Hall Effect: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39384522 :

> In 1988, it was proposed that there was quantum Hall effect without Landau levels. [3] This quantum Hall effect is referred to as the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. There is also a new concept of the quantum spin Hall effect which is an analogue of the quantum Hall effect, where spin currents flow instead of charge currents. [4]

How are spin currents and vorticity in electron vortices related?

[-]

16 years of CVE-2008-0166 – Debian OpenSSL Bug

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PyPI has only implemented the "server signs whatever's uploaded with that account" part of TUF; there are no Publisher Signatures for packages uploaded to pypi (because GPG ASC support was removed from PyPI, the ad-hoc signature support was removed from wheel, and only server signatures are yet implemented).

https://SLSA.dev/ recommends TUF and Sigstore.dev and trusted containers for build-signing.

Someday, Twine should prompt a PyPI package uploader to sign the package before uploading it, and download it to (prime the CDN cache and) check the Publisher and Package repo signature(s) at least once.

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Scientists have figured out way to make algae-based plastic that decomposes

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Any thoughts on CO2 + Lignin for the same applications?

"CO2 and Lignin-Based Sustainable Polymers with Closed-Loop Chemical Recycling" (2024) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adfm.202403035

- https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40079540

(Edit)

"Making hydrogen from waste plastic could pay for itself" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37886955 ; flash heating plastic yields Graphene and Hydrogen

"Synthesis of Clean Hydrogen Gas from Waste Plastic at Zero Net Cost" (2023) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/adma.202306763

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Ancient Egyptian Stone-Drilling (1983)

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If the claims of levitation, ultrasonic resonance, and/or lingam electrical plasma stone masonry methods are valid; perhaps the necessary RPMs for core drilling are lower than 1000 RPM.

Given drilled cores of e.g. (limestone, granite,), which are heavy cylinders that roll, when was the wheel invented in that time and place?

Wheel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel

"Specific cutting energy reduction of granite using plasma treatment: A feasibility study for future geothermal drilling" https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S235197892... :

> The plasma treatment showed a maximum of 65% and a minimum of 15% reduction in specific cutting energy and was regarded as being dependent on mainly the hardness and size of the samples [and the electrical conductivity of the stone]

E.g. this video identifies electrodes and protrusions in various megalithic projects worldwide: https://youtu.be/n8hRsg8tWXg

Perhaps the redundant doors of the great pyramid were water locks rigged with ropes. There do appear to be inset places to place granite cores for rigging.

Ancient and modern stonemasonry skills; how many times have they been lost and why?

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Supreme Court: There's No 'Time Limit' on Copyright Infringement Claims

Why is Copyright, of all things, exempt from the federal statute of limitations?

Are federal CSA cases exempted from the federal statute of limitations then?

For CSA cases, e.g. California has: two (2) years from when the victim remembers IIUC?

Are Conflict of Interest cases against the court exempted from the Statute of Limitations?

Can commuted and pardoned cases be reheard once the elected executive is out of office, if there no limit to the statute of limitations?

(Ludicrous that the court would consider total immunity for an executive of one branch, by the way.)

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Can the executive terminate the employment contract of a nominated director of a DOJ employee, if there are to be three separate branches of government?

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Ah, because the DOJ Department of Justice != the Judicial Branch.

Can SCOTUS censure Members of Congress or the Executive, then?

If there are insufficient checks and balances there should be Amendments to preserve separation of powers amongst the branches.

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There is a nomination procedure which requires (?) Congressional confirmation, but Congress has no recourse for obstructive termination of a nominated director by the executive?

Isn't that the wolf guarding the hen house; i.e. what the founders expressly intended to prevent?

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With the war powers authorized in the 2000s, there's more than impeachment.

Are they American? Where is their birthy certy? (Is there Habeas Corpus for all persons. "You're not even American!")

If the executive is totally immune, they wouldn't need to assist a foreign country illegally in order to get Congress to grant them extra power.

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New mirror that can be flexibly shaped improves X-ray microscopes

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Can x-rays be waveguided with x-rays and/or other bands?

- "Shattering the 'copper or optics' paradigm: humble plastic waveguides outperform" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39493372

- dual beam waveguiding with optics, NIRS + ultrasound: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=35617859

Femtosecond Lasers Solve Solar Panels' Recycling Issue

> Manufacturers globally are deploying enough solar panels to produce an additional 240 gigawatts each year. That rate is projected to increase to 3 terawatts by 2030, Ovaitt says. By 2050, anywhere from 54 to 160 million tonnes of PV panels will have reached the end of their life-spans, she says.

"Towards Polymer-Free, Femto-Second Laser-Welded Glass/Glass Solar Modules" (2024) https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/10443029 :

> [...] Key to this finding is that the module must be framed and braced, and the glass must be ribbed to allow pockets for the cells and welds inside the border of the module. The result is a module design that is completely polymer free, hermetically sealed, has improved thermal properties, and is easily recycled

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If people recycle PV and TPV panels at 20% from peak/new, the effective average product lifetime is shorter given a higher rate of failure.

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Is the largest root of a random real polynomial more likely real than complex?

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What do you get with discrete convolutions of the prime series, and what is the negative space called?

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New invention transforms any smartphone or TV into a holographic projector

"Computer-generated holography with ordinary display" (2024) https://opg.optica.org/viewmedia.cfm?r=1&rwjcode=ol&uri=ol-4... :

> We propose a method of computer-generated holography (CGH) using incoherent light emitted from a mobile phone screen. In this method, we suppose a cascade of holograms in which the first hologram is a color image displayed on the mobile phone screen. The hologram cascade is synthesized by solving an inverse problem with respect to the propagation of incoherent light. We demonstrate a three-dimensional color image reproduction using a two-layered hologram cascade composed of an iPhone and a spatial light modulator.

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Visual Studio Code for Education

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40115099 :

> JupyterLite, datasette-lite, and the Pyodide plugin for vscode.dev ship with Pyodide's WASM compilation of CPython and SciPy Stack / PyData tools.

Does this work in vscode.dev, in a Chrome or Edge browser?

But can students test and/or grade their own work using their own CPU? ; OtterGrader -> Canvas, nbgrader,: https://news.ycombinator.com/context?id=37981190

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Ointers: A library for representing pointers where bits have been stolen (2021)

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Can unused bits be used for signed pointers or CRCs?

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Pointer authentication: https://llvm.org/docs/PointerAuth.html :

> Pointer Authentication is a mechanism by which certain pointers are signed. When a pointer gets signed, a cryptographic hash of its value and other values (pepper and salt) is stored in unused bits of that pointer.

> Before the pointer is used, it needs to be authenticated, i.e., have its signature checked. This prevents pointer values of unknown origin from being used to replace the signed pointer value.

ECC can't solve for that because it would only have one key for all processes.

Given a presumption of side channel writes, pointer auth is another layer of defense that may or may not be worth the loss in performance.

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=21791269#21800181

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Quantum gravity gets a new test

"Quantum Gravity Gets a New Test" (2024) https://physics.aps.org/articles/v17/65 :

> As the pendulums oscillate, they change the size and therefore the resonant wavelength of each cavity. This change can be detected by shining laser light into the cavities and then measuring the intensity of the resulting interference pattern.

FWIU there is more information in light intensity; from https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37226160 :

> > The work, led by Xiaofeng Qian, assistant professor of physics at Stevens and reported in the August 17 online issue of Physical Review Research, also proves for the first time that a light wave's degree of non-quantum entanglement exists in a direct and complementary relationship with its degree of polarization. As one rises, the other falls, enabling the level of entanglement to be inferred directly from the level of polarization, and vice versa. This means that hard-to-measure optical properties such as amplitudes, phases and correlations—perhaps even these of quantum wave systems—can be deduced from something a lot easier to measure: light intensity

> [...] Qian's team interpreted the intensity of a light as the equivalent of a physical object's mass, then mapped those measurements onto a coordinate system that could be interpreted using Huygens' mechanical theorem. "Essentially, we found a way to translate an optical system so we could visualize it as a mechanical system, then describe it using well-established physical equations," explained Qian.

> Once the team visualized a light wave as part of a mechanical system, new connections between the wave's properties immediately became apparent—including the fact that entanglement and polarization stood in a clear relationship with one another.

Hypothetical unipolar magnets in free-fall.

/? hnlog Ctrl-f "quantum gravity":

- https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39954180 superfluid quantum gravity / SQS, demonstrated indefinite causal order in quantum systems

- n-ary entanglement; "Designing three-way entangled and nonlocal two-way entangled single particle states via alternate quantum walks" (2024) https://arxiv.org/abs/2402.05080 :

> Herein, we generate three-way entanglement from an initially separable state involving three degrees of freedom of a quantum particle, which evolves via a 2D alternate quantum walk employing a resource-saving single-qubit coin. We achieve maximum possible values for the three-way entanglement quantified by the π-tangle between the three degrees of freedom. We also generate optimal two-way nonlocal entanglement, quantified by the negativity between the nonlocal position degrees of freedom of the particle. This prepared architecture using quantum walks can be experimentally realized with a photon.

- This is a better - fluidic - sim render of sound waves between parabolic reflectors; where are the linked states in is combinatorial outcomes with itself just? "A wave traveling between two parabolic antennas" https://youtube.com/watch?v=v0cZjOIfwos

We like to model regular wavefronts, but waves do travel through fluids of various pressures and diffraction. Are gravitational waves ever so restricted, and why do they arrive after photonic waves from the same phenomena?

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39956484 :

> Deflection of electromagnetic waves by pseudogravity in distorted photonic crystals" (2023) .. "Distorted crystals use 'pseudogravity' to bend light like black holes do" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38008449

(Edit)

"Measuring gravity with milligram levitated masses" (2024) Fuchs, superconducting magnetic trap with Tantalum: https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.adk2949 https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39495570 :

> This regime opens the possibility of table-top testing of quantum superposition and entanglement in gravitating systems. Here, we show gravitational coupling between a levitated submillimeter-scale magnetic particle inside a type I superconducting trap and kilogram source masses, placed approximately half a meter away. Our results extend gravity measurements to low gravitational forces of attonewton and underline the importance of levitated mechanical sensors.

Also, potentially affecting any study of GW gravitational waves with photons,

> If photons come from gravity, can photons end as gravity; and then do they have an infinite lifetime? https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40090332

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From the paper:

> 7. B. N. Simon, S. Simon, F. Gori, M. Santarsiero, R. Borghi, N. Mukunda, and R. Simon, Nonquantum Entanglement Resolves a Basic Issue in Polarization Optics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 023901 (2010). http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.023901

https://arxiv.org/abs/0906.2467

Also from the paper:

> V. GENERALIZATION TO ARBITRARY DIMENSIONS

> The above polarization-entanglement complementary relation (8) along with its connection to the mechanical concepts of center of mass and moment of inertia can be further generalized to arbitrary dimensional tensor structures. In this case, the concept of polarization is not restricted to describe the three wave oscillation directions of the 3D space any longer. It is extended to represent all vectors of a generic vector space of arbitrary dimension [24,47].

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A 100x speedup with unsafe Python

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ctypes, c extensions, and CFFI are unsafe.

Python doesn't have an unsafe keyword like Rustlang.

In Python, you can dereference a null pointer and cause a Segmentation fault given a ctypes import.

lancedb/lance and/or pandas' dtype_backend="pyarrow" might work with pygame

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Static analysis of Python code should include review of "unsafe" things like exec(), eval(), ctypes, c strings, memcpy (*),.

Containers are considered nearly sufficient to sandbox Python, which cannot be effectively sandboxed using Python itself. Isn't that actually true for all languages though?

There's a RustPython, but it does support CFFI and __builtins__.eval, so

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Flying planes in Microsoft Flight Simulator with a JavaScript autopilot (2023)

A (lengthy!) tutorial on how to write your own JS-based autopilot code to fly planes in Microsoft Flight Simulator with a web page to both visualize the flight and control the AP.

Note that this is a complete do-over of a previous page that used a combination of Python and JavaScript, and only covered basic autopilot functionality. This rewrite threw all of that out, and goes much, much further:

you just want to have the plane take off without having to do anything? Check, this tutorial covers auto-takeoff.

Flying with waypoint-based navigation, not by "programming airports and radio beacons one letter at a time with a jog-dial" but by just placing markers on a map and dragging those around as you please, mid-flight, Google Maps style? Check. After all, why would we not, putting a map on a webpage is super easy (barely an inconvenience).

In fact, let's throw in flight plan saving and loading, so others can fly the same route!

And maybe you want the plane to fly a fixed distance above the ground, instead of at a fixed altitude... well: check. You'll learn about terrain-follow using free Digital Elevation Model datasets for planet Earth.

And of course the big one, for the ultimate "click button, JS flies the plane start to finish" experience: ever wished the in-game autopilot could just land the plane for you? Well, it's a video game, and we know programming, so: why not? We're also implementing auto-landing and it's going to be amazing.

If you play MSFS, and you're a developer/programmer, and you've always thought how cool it would be if you could just do some scripting for it... you can, there's a lot of cool stuff you can do!

And of course if you don't want to follow along and just want to have everything set up and ready to fly your plane, just clone https://github.com/Pomax/are-we-flying and have fun.

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Are there autopilot systems that do any sort of drone, bird, or other aerial object avoidance?

Then, aren't regional cultural ethics necessary to solve a trolley problem; when there are multiple simultaneous predictable accidents and you can only prevent one.

Does "autopilot" solve the trolley problem for the liable pilot?

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Flying things could sqwak with the inverse of the Doppler transform when subsonic

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37886514 :

> FAA UAS RemoteID: https://www.faa.gov/uas/getting_started/remote_id

Collision avoidance in transportation: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collision_avoidance_in_transpo...

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Fedora Cleared to Build Python Package with "-O3" Optimizations

From "A collection of compiler optimizations with brief descriptions and examples" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40275850 :

> Also, only SO has what specific optimizations are applied for clang's -O1/-O2/-03 args? https://stackoverflow.com/questions/15548023/clang-optimizat...

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A collection of compiler optimizations with brief descriptions and examples

Optimizing compiler > Types of optimizations, Specific techniques: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimizing_compiler

Category:Compiler optimizations: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Compiler_optimization...

"LLVM’s Analysis and Transform Passes" -print-passes : https://llvm.org/docs/Passes.html

"A whirlwind tour of the LLVM optimizer" mentions Chrome and ART and LLVM: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=35893006

FreeBSD has docs in a man page on clang's optimization levels -O1/-O2/-O3: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/21447377/meaning-of-the-...

Also, only SO has what specific optimizations are applied for clang's -O1/-O2/-03 args? https://stackoverflow.com/questions/15548023/clang-optimizat...

What about quantum compilers and quantum embedding of classical data; what are the algorithmic advantages listed at Quantum Algorithm Zoo for $5m? Qubit operations are described as rotations on a bloch sphere; the unit circle with a complex coordinate z to make a sphere, but are also representable as matrix (tensor) transformations. https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39637175

Compiler optimization improvements are also incentivized by costed opcodes in e.g. smart contracts.

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PiFex: JTAG Hacking with a Raspberry Pi

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A $5 Pi Pico has two UARTS, but is not an FPGA; "Show HN: PicoVGA Library – VGA/TV Display on Raspberry Pi Pico" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=35117847#35120403

According to https://www.reddit.com/r/raspberrypipico/comments/1aut3l2/co... , pico-uart-bridge turns a pico into 6 TTL UARTs; https://github.com/Noltari/pico-uart-bridge

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A company is building a giant compressed-air battery in the Australian outback

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Is there any pump efficiency advantage to multiple pressure vessels instead of one large?

You could probably move the compressed air in a GPE gravitational potential energy storage system, or haul it up on a winch and set it on a shelf; but would the lateral vectors due to thrust from predictable leakage change the safety liabilities?

Air with extra CO2 is less of an accelerant, but at what concentration of CO2 does the facility need air tanks for hazard procedures?

FWIU, you can also get energy from a CO2 gradient: "Proof-of-concept nanogenerator turns CO₂ into sustainable power" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40079784

And, CO2 + Lignin => Better than plastic; "CO2 and Lignin-Based Sustainable Polymers with Closed-Loop Chemical Recycling" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40079540

From "Oxxcu, converting CO₂ into fuels, chemicals and plastics" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39111825 :

> "Solar energy can now be stored for up to 18 years [with the Szilard-Chalmers MOST process], say scientists"

> [...] Though, you could do CAES with captured CO2 and it would be less of an accelerant than standard compressed air. How many CO2 fire extinguishers can be filled and shipped off-site per day?

> Can CO2 can be made into QA'd [graphene] air filters for [onsite] [flue] capture?

"Geothermal may beat batteries for energy storage" (2022) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=33288586 :

> FWIU China has the first 100MW CAES plant; and it uses some external energy - not a trompe or geothermal (?) - to help compress air on a FWIU currently ~one-floor facility.

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Hubble Network makes Bluetooth connection with a satellite

> soil-moisture sensing

"Satellite images of plants' fluorescence can predict crop yields" (2024) ... "Sensor-Free Soil Moisture Sensing Using LoRa Signals (2022)" https://news.ycombinator.com/context?id=40234912

"Multimodal" Aperture synthesis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aperture_synthesis

> The company joined Y Combinator’s Winter 2022 cohort and closed a $20 million Series A last March. Hubble’s first innovation was to develop software enabling off-the-shelf Bluetooth chips to communicate over very long ranges [600km] with low power.

> [...] Once it’s up and running, a customer would simply need to integrate their devices’ chipsets with a piece of firmware to enable connection to Hubble’s network.

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Show HN: I built a free in-browser Llama 3 chatbot powered by WebGPU

abi | 2024-05-03 17:26:46 | 547 | # | ^

I spent the last few days building out a nicer ChatGPT-like interface to use Mistral 7B and Llama 3 fully within a browser (no deps and installs).

I’ve used the WebLLM project by MLC AI for a while to interact with LLMs in the browser when handling sensitive data but I found their UI quite lacking for serious use so I built a much better interface around WebLLM.

I’ve been using it as a therapist and coach. And it’s wonderful knowing that my personal information never leaves my local computer.

Should work on Desktop with Chrome or Edge. Other browsers are adding WebGPU support as well - see the Github for details on how you can get it to work on other browsers.

Note: after you send the first message, the model will be downloaded to your browser cache. That can take a while depending on the model and your internet connection. But on subsequent page loads, the model should be loaded from the IndexedDB cache so it should be much faster.

The project is open source (Apache 2.0) on Github. If you like it, I’d love contributions, particularly around making the first load faster.

Github: https://github.com/abi/secret-llama Demo: https://secretllama.com

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It generates things that you get to look up citations for. It doesn't care if its output converges, it does what it wants differently every time.

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Blessed Thistle Enhances Nerve Regeneration

> Cnicin, extracted from Blessed Thistle, has been shown to speed up axon growth, essential for nerve repair.

Cnicin: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnicin

Cnicus -> Centaurea (Asteraceae) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurea

Centaurea benedicta: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurea_benedicta :

> Centaurea benedicta, known by the common names St. Benedict's thistle, blessed thistle, holly thistle and spotted thistle, is a thistle-like plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region, [...]. It is known in other parts of the world, including parts of North America, as an introduced species and often a noxious weed.

Satellite images of plants' fluorescence can predict crop yields

> This strategy takes advantage of the growing availability of satellite data and is cheaper to use and faster to access than other yield-prediction methods, he said.

- "Sensor-Free Soil Moisture Sensing Using LoRa Signals (2022)" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38768947 https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3534608 :

> [...] However, existing commercial soil moisture sensors are either expensive or inaccurate, limiting their real-world deployment. In this paper, we utilize wide-area LoRa signals to sense soil moisture without a need of dedicated soil moisture sensors. Different from traditional usage of LoRa in smart agriculture which is only for sensor data transmission, we leverage LoRa signal itself as a powerful sensing tool. The key insight is that the dielectric permittivity of soil which is closely related to soil moisture can be obtained from phase readings of LoRa signals. Therefore, antennas of a LoRa node can be placed in the soil to capture signal phase readings for soil moisture measurements. Though promising, it is non-trivial to extract accurate phase information due to unsynchronization of LoRa transmitter and receiver. In this work, we propose to include a low-cost switch to equip the LoRa node with two antennas to address the issue. We develop a delicate chirp ratio approach to cancel out the phase offset caused by transceiver unsynchronization to extract accurate phase information

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Hawaiian scientist is working with distilleries to save native sugarcane

"Sugar cane waste converted into concrete-beating Sugarcrete" https://newatlas.com/environment/sugar-cane-waste-sugarcrete... https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39290854

Perhaps Sugarcrete operations could help to preserve and support native and classic varieties of sugarcane.

FWIU, with apple trees, you must have at least two different species to succeed.

From https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38935713 :

> Add'l notes on CEB, Algae, Sargassum, Hempcrete in the 2024 International and US Residential Building Code, and

> The Liberator

Autonomous Quantum Error Correction of Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill States

> [...] Finally, the advantages of the fully autonomous approach presented here and the measure-and-feedback approach of Ref. [17] could be combined. Indeed, by using a measurement followed by an unconditional reset of the auxiliary, one would have access to error syndromes that can be used in a second layer of quantum error correction, without requiring fast feedback and feed-forward operations within the first layer.

- "Noise Fuels Quantum Leap, Boosting [spin electron] Qubit Performance by 700%" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39762802

> In conclusion, we have demonstrated the preparation of GKP logical states in the mode of a superconducting cavity with state fidelities mainly limited by bit flips of the auxiliary and intrinsic dephasing of the storage mode. A quantum error correcting protocol based on reservoir engineering, in which the reset of the auxiliary serves as the dissipative process, is demonstrated. We have made the QEC protocol completely autonomous through the implementation of an unconditional auxiliary reset based on a dissipative swap to a lossy resonator. Despite the auxiliary having a relaxation time 10 times shorter than the storage mode, we demonstrate autonomous QEC of GKP states with a gain on the logical lifetime of about 24%. To guide the requirements at the second layer of error correction, further work is needed to upper bound the gain from QEC of the GKP code accessible with realistic hardware and software improvements.

- "A physical qubit with built-in error correction" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39243929

UV Superradiance from Mega-Networks of Tryptophan in Biological Architectures

"Ultraviolet Superradiance from Mega-Networks of Tryptophan in Biological Architectures" (2024) https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jpcb.3c07936

- "Quantum fiber optics in the brain enhance processing, may protect against degenerative diseases" (2024) https://phys.org/news/2024-04-quantum-fiber-optics-brain-deg...

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Artificial intelligence by mimicking natural intelligence

> Provided a connectome for a whole brain, it’s possible to simulate the model forward, using single-neuron models of varying biological plausibility, from linear-integrate-and-fire to detailed multi-compartment models with Hodgkin-Huxley dynamics. Simulate the body and environment, in addition, and you have yourself a whole-brain-body-environment simulation. We’re not there yet, but one could imagine this could happen in the not-too-distant future, especially for smaller organisms

Carl Rogers' Nineteen Propositions speak of an "Objective phenomenological field theory", wherein a self is only interpretable in context to the fields; which we now understand are typically nonlinear, and literally n-way nonlocally entangleable.

Is brain state completely describeable without modeling Representational drift; the field around the brain created by spreading activation that FWIU presumably nonlinearly affects connectome dynamics?

(Plenoptic function, Wave field recording, stochastic data carving from the aether, reflections in raindrops, mirrors in spacetime, NIR light stimulates neuronal growth, GA with perturbation and tissue ethics, brain2computer, brain2brain, BRIAN)

Hypothesis: There's not enough latent information in training data to infer or clone human cognitive processes without stream of consciousness training data.

From https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=32819221 :

> http://www.brain-score.org/

>> Is it necessary to simulate the quantum chemistry of a biological neural network in order to functionally approximate a BNN with an ANN?

>> "Neurons Are Fickle. Electric Fields Are More Reliable for Information" (2022)

[>>> A new study suggests that electric fields may represent information held in working memory, allowing the brain to overcome “representational drift,” or the inconsistent participation of individual neurons]

From https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=35877402#35886145 :

> Representational drift: Emerging theories for continual learning and experimental future directions" (2022) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095943882... :

> Recent work has revealed that the neural activity patterns correlated with sensation, cognition, and action often are not stable and instead undergo large scale changes over days and weeks—a phenomenon called representational drift. Here, we highlight recent observations of drift, how drift is unlikely to be explained by experimental confounds, and how the brain can likely compensate for drift to allow stable computation. We propose that drift might have important roles in neural computation to allow continual learning, both for separating and relating memories that occur at distinct times. Finally, we present an outlook on future experimental directions that are needed to further characterize drift and to test emerging theories for drift's role in computation.*

How does a connectomic description of the brain differ from a wave field recording of a brain; and given "Representational drift" can a connectomic model be sufficient or stable in functional localization?

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Show HN: Fun tool to turn your headshot into a MiniFigure

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From "PartCAD the first package manager for CAD models" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38789333 :

> Ideas for open source (parametric) parts libraries:

> - ldraw LEGO unofficial parts catalog: "LDraw.org Parts Update 2023-06" https://library.ldraw.org/updates?latest :

Build123d, bd-warehouse

Are any of the major LLMs sufficiently trained on ldraw - or e.g. build123 a parametric CAD library - for this task?

TinkerCAD can save a model as a composition of known bricks.

From https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37576296 :

> Is there a blenderGPT-like tool trained on build123d Python models?

ai-game-development tools lists a few CAD LLM apps like blenderGPT and blender-GPT: https://github.com/Yuan-ManX/ai-game-development-tools#3d-mo...

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OCCT supports STL, STEP, and AMF files for [extrusion] 3d printing with [sustainable: hemp, wood, bioplastic, etc] 3d printing filament.

Laser engraving for wood on 3d printed wood is a thing too

"GhostSCAD: Marrying OpenSCAD and Golang" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=30940563 re: OpenSCAD or OCCT (FreeCAD, cadquery, build123d), which supports NURBS

Unveiling a new quantum frontier: Frequency-domain entanglement

"NOON-state interference in the frequency domain" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41377-024-01439-9 :

> [...] In this paper, we demonstrate the photon number path entanglement in the frequency domain by implementing a frequency beam splitter that converts the single-photon frequency to another with 50% probability using Bragg scattering four-wave mixing. The two-photon NOON state in a single-mode fiber is generated in the frequency domain, manifesting the two-photon interference with two-fold enhanced resolution compared to that of single-photon interference, showing the outstanding stability of the interferometer. This successful translation of quantum states in the frequency domain will pave the way toward the discovery of fascinating quantum phenomena and scalable quantum information processing.

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PyPy v7.3.16

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FWICS pyqtwebgraph has a TableWidget: https://pyqtgraph.readthedocs.io/en/latest/api_reference/wid... https://github.com/pyqtgraph/pyqtgraph/blob/master/pyqtgraph... :

> Extends QTableWidget with some useful functions for automatic data handling and copy / export context menu. Can automatically format and display a variety of data types (see setData() for more information

DataTreeWidget handles nested structs: https://pyqtgraph.readthedocs.io/en/latest/api_reference/wid...

SO says it's better to extend Qt QTableView and do pagination for larger datasets: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/61517220/pyqt-pandas-fas... https://www.pythonguis.com/tutorials/qtableview-modelviews-n...

pyqtgraph mentions CUDA and NumPy support, but not pandas. Hard to believe there's not yet specific support for drawing spreadsheets of pandas dataframes in qt or pyqtgraph yet.

dask.DataFrame and dask-CuDF also support CUDA. sympy's lambdify function compiles readable symbolic algebra to fast code for various libraries and GPUs.

The Dataframe Protocol __dataframe__ interface spec Purpose and Scope doc mentions the NumPy __array_interface__ protocol; which may do sufficient auto-casting to a NumPy array before trying to draw a data table with formatting derived from then-removed columnar metadata: https://data-apis.org/dataframe-protocol/latest/purpose_and_...

Practically, pd.DataFrame(,dtype_backend="arrow") may be a quick performance boost.

Jupyter kernels with Papermill or cron and templated parameters at the top of a notebook with a dated filename in a (repo2docker compatible) git repo also solve for interactive reports. To provision a temporary container for a user editing report notebooks, there's Voila on binderhub / jupyterhub, https://github.com/binder-examples/voila

or repo2jupyterlite in WASM with MathTex and Pyodide's NumPy/pandas/sympy: https://github.com/jupyterlite/repo2jupyterlite

But that's not a GUI, that's notebooks. For Jupyter integration, TIL pyqtgraph has jupyter_rfb, Remote Frame Buffer: https://github.com/vispy/jupyter_rfb

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"Writing extension modules for pypy" https://doc.pypy.org/en/latest/extending.html ; CFFI, ~ ctypes (libffi), cppyy, or RPython

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Show HN: I built a self-hosted status page and monitoring tool for my projects

Hey HN! I'm excited to share Statusnook - a status page and monitoring tool.

I built Statusnook for my own projects, but I soon began incorporating bits of feedback from friends & colleagues.

My goal was to create a tool with a solid essential feature set, and to make it easy to self-host.

I welcome any feedback or suggestions.

awesome-status-page > Open Source: https://github.com/ivbeg/awesome-status-pages?tab=readme-ov-...

Logging cert hashes and checking them against a configurable list and/or CT Certificate Transparency logs would be helpful

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US came up with a plan to upgrade 100k miles of transmission lines in 5 years

> To ensure 100,000-miles-in-five-years goal is achieved and to mobilize private and public sector leaders, the Biden administration has made funding available through the Grid Resilience and Innovation Partnership (GRIP) program for upgrades to existing transmission lines. Plus, the US Department of Energy today simplified the environmental review process for transmission line upgrades.

- "Replacing Wires Could Double How Much Electricity the US Grid Can Handle" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39997189

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Py2wasm – A Python to WASM Compiler

fock | 2024-04-22 10:10:56 | 192 | # | ^
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WebGL, WebGPU, WebNN

Which have better process isolation; containers or Chrome's app sandbox at pwn2own how do I know what is running in a WASM browser tab?

JupyterLite, datasette-lite, and the Pyodide plugin for vscode.dev ship with Pyodide's WASM compilation of CPython and SciPy Stack / PyData tools.

`%pip install -q mendeley` in a notebook opened with the Pyodide Jupyter kernel works by calling `await micropip.install(["mendeley"])` IIRC.

picomamba installs conda packages from emscripten-forge, which is like conda-forge: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=33892076#33916270 :

> FWIU Service Workers and Task Workers and Web Locks are the browser APIs available for concurrency in browsers

sqlite-wasm, sqlite-wasm-http, duckdb-wasm, (edit) postgresql WASM / pglite ; WhatTheDuck, pretzelai ; lancedb/lance is faster than pandas with dtype_backend="arrow" and has a vector index

"SQLite Wasm in the browser backed by the Origin Private File System" (2023) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=34352935#34366429

"WebGPU is now available on Android" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39046787

"WebNN: Web Neural Network API" https://www.w3.org/TR/webnn/ : https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=36159049

"The best WebAssembly runtime may be no runtime" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38609105

(Edit) emscripten-forge packages are built for the wasm32-unknown-emscripten build target, but wasm32-wasi is what is now supported by cpython (and pypi?) https://www.google.com/search?q=wasm32-wasi+conda-forge

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Show HN: A storybook designed to teach kids about how computers work

yawl | 2024-04-19 14:45:53 | 132 | # | ^

I’ve been working on a unique storybook designed to teach kids about how computers work, and I would love to get your feedback.

Set 500 years in the future, the story follows two kids – one a robot, the other a human – as they explore the workings of what to them is ancient technology: our present-day computers. I’ve aimed to keep each story short and engaging, sprinkling in humor and illustrations to captivate young readers.

As an open-source project, you’re also welcome to check out the source here: https://github.com/yong/lostlanguageofthemachines

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Multiplication is repeated Addition. Exponentiation is repeated Multiplication.

  assert 2+3 == 5
  assert 2*3 == 6 == 2 + 2 + 2
  assert 2**3 == 8 == ((2+2) + (2+2))
And then fractional countability;

  assert 2.5*2 == 5 == (2*2) + (0.5*2)
  assert 2.5*10 == 25
  assert 2.5*100 == 250
  assert 2.5*104 == 260 == (2.5*100)+(2.5*4)
Functions are quickly demo'able with Desmos or Geogebra, or SymPy and matplotlib:

  # f(x) = x+1
  def f(x):
    return x+1
  assert f(0) == 1
  assert f(1) == 2
  assert f(999) == 1000
Calculus derivatives:

  # N-th derivatives of displacement; velocity, acceleration, jerk, jounce

  # (time t seconds, meters)
  xyvals = [(0,0), (1, 10), (2, 120)]

  # velocity:
  10-0 / 1-0 = 10m/s 
  100-10 / 2-1 = 110m/s

[-]

Environment shapes emotional cognitive abilities more than genes

> Decades of extensive research utilizing the classical twin paradigm have consistently demonstrated the heritability of nearly all cognitive abilities so far investigated.

> “Our findings emphasize that these shared family environmental factors, such as parental nurturing and the transmission of cultural values, likely play a significant role in shaping the mental state representations in metacognition and mentalizing.”*

"Distinct Genetic and Environmental Origins of Hierarchical Cognitive Abilities in Adult Humans" (2024) https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(24)003... :

> Human cognitive abilities ranging from basic perceptions to complex social behaviors exhibit substantial variation in individual differences. These cognitive functions can be categorized into a two-order hierarchy based on the levels of cognitive processes. Second-order cognition including metacognition and mentalizing monitors and regulates first-order cognitive processes. These two-order hierarchical cognitive functions exhibit distinct abilities. However, it remains unclear whether individual differences in these cognitive abilities have distinct origins. We employ the classical twin paradigm to compare the genetic and environmental contributions to the two-order cognitive abilities in the same tasks from the same population. The results reveal that individual differences in first-order cognitive abilities were primarily influenced by genetic factors. Conversely, the second-order cognitive abilities have a stronger influence from shared environmental factors. These findings suggest that the abilities of metacognition and mentalizing in adults are profoundly shaped by their environmental experiences and less determined by their biological nature.

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There is observable hierarchy in visual and auditory cortical topology.

Is hierarchical clustering appropriate for cognitive processes?

Control for clusterable Personality factors, Attachment styles, Educational instruction styles, Parenting styles,

Cognitive psychology > Cognitive psychology vs. cognitive science: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_psychology#Cognitive...

Cognitive psychology > Cognitive processes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_psychology#Cognitive...

Defence mechanism > Relation with coping; Mature defense mechanisms or not, a Boolean: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defence_mechanism

Social cognition > Social cognitive neuroscience: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognition#Social_cognit...

Systems neuroscience: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_neuroscience

Hypotheses: Theory of mind is advantageous in assessments emotional cognitive abilities, and even an NT or non-NT Boolean factor also predicts variance in the given assessments

Theory of mind > Brain mechanisms: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_mind#Brain_mechanism...

Three-Stratum Theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-stratum_theory :

> The three-stratum theory is a theory of cognitive ability proposed by the American psychologist John Carroll in 1993.[1][2] It is based on a factor-analytic study of the correlation of individual-difference variables from data such as psychological tests, school marks and competence ratings from more than 460 datasets. These analyses suggested a three-layered model where each layer accounts for the variations in the correlations within the previous layer.

> The three layers (strata) are defined as representing narrow, broad, and general cognitive ability. The factors describe stable and observable differences among individuals in the performance of tasks. Carroll argues further that they are not mere artifacts of a mathematical process, but likely reflect physiological factors explaining differences in ability (e.g., nerve firing rates). This does not alter the effectiveness of factor scores in accounting for behavioral differences.

There are multiple methods of studying neural topology and emergent cognitive processes, and their possibly hierarchically clusterable topology in feature space. What are some of the current developments in neural topology and feature clustering?

Three-Stratum Theory > See also lists: CHC, g-factor, Fluid and crystallized intelligence, and g-VST (2005).

CHC: Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattell%E2%80%93Horn%E2%80%93C...

g-VPR (2005): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G-VPR_model

/? hierarchy of cognitive processes: https://www.google.com/search?q=hierarchy+of+cognitive+proce... https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C43&q=hie...

Neurodevelopmental framework for learning > Other learning frameworks references e.g. CHC and further developments in education: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurodevelopmental_framework_f...

OTOH other factors to control for: postal code and school funding and teaching practices in those years,

Compensatory education: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compensatory_education

Remedial education > Research on outcomes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remedial_education

Learning styles: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles :

> [...] specific study strategies, unrelated to learning style, were positively correlated with final course grade.[46]

Differentiated instruction: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differentiated_instruction :

> Teachers can differentiate in four ways: 1) through content, 2) process, 3) product, and 4) learning environment based on the individual learner. [7]*

But FWIU none of these models of cognitive hierarchy or instruction are informed by newer developments in topological study of neural connectivity; from https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=18218504 :

> According to "Cliques of Neurons Bound into Cavities Provide a Missing Link between Structure and Function" (2017) https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2017.0004... , the human brain appears to be [at most] 11-dimensional (11D); in terms of algebraic topology https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_topology

There is math for classical causal inference with observational data; that FWIU also hasn't been applied to cognitive outcomes studies.

From "The World Needs Computational Social Science" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=37746921 :

> "Answering causal questions using observational data" (2021) [PDF] https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2021/10/advanced-economic... https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/economic-sciences/2021/pop...

Si se puedes!

Emotional self regulation is a normed behavior that is modelable.

Head start programs would thus be justified in having SEL Social and Emotional Learning components; but how much more effective is parental behavioral modeling than non-parental caregiving?

Can't be done.

In Africa, they say "It takes a village".

One of perhaps 20 questions to split the sets with: "Can people change?"

[+]

There appears to be hippocampal neurogeneration even in old age.

From "Multiple GWAS finds 187 intelligence genes and role for neurogenesis/myelination" (2018) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=16337941 :

> re: nurture, hippocampal plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis also appear to be affected by dancing and omega-3,6 (which are transformed into endocannabinoids by the body): https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=15109698

Neuroplasticity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroplasticity

Adult neurogenesis: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adult_neurogenesis

When we forget, we must re-learn. By studying forgetting, we learn about learning and creativity.

Forgetting curve: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forgetting_curve

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Mentally stimulating work plays key role in staving off dementia, study finds

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Occupational burnout > Treatment and prevention: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupational_burnout

Work-life balance: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Work%E2%80%93life_balance

Maybe you could start a 20% hobby project at work on their tab. "Why companies lose their best innovators (2019)" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=23887903

Hypothesis; it's probably normal and healthy to pursue different biomechanical activities when not working (possibly regardless of tech career or not)

[-]

Does light have an infinite lifetime?

Here, a second time, I point to this measured exchange of gravitational waves for photonic waves. If photons come from gravity, can photons end as gravity; and then do they have an infinite lifetime?

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40090332

[flagged]

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New Mexico: Psychologists to dress up as wizards when providing expert testimony

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Which behaviors are reinforced more than a general level of consideration and positive regard?

I hadn't heard of this study. I had heard that the case count for psychoanalytic psychotherapy was insufficient to fairly cluster by symptoms as (e.g. hierarchical) features, even. And then Milgram's selection bias.

Is all "Talk Therapy" bad then, and what's a good way to actually help;

Clean language > Clean language in detail: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_language#Clean_language_... :

> Clean language offers a template for questions that are as free as possible of the facilitator's suggestions, presuppositions, mind-reading, second guessing, references and metaphors. Clean questions incorporate all or some of the client's specific phrasing and might also include other auditory components of the client's communication such as speed, pitch, tonality. Besides the words of the client, oral sounds (sighs, oo's and ah's) and other nonverbals (e.g. a fist being raised or a line-of-sight) can be replicated or referenced in a question when the facilitator considers they might be of symbolic significance to the client.

> [...] "What would you like to have happen?

Clean Language Questions : https://cleanlearning.co.uk/blog/discuss/clean-language-ques... :

> The questions containing the verb ‘to be’ help to keep time still and are mostly used for developing individual perceptions:

> Questions containing the verb ‘to happen’ generally encourage the client to move time forwards or backwards:

> Questions which utilise other verbs are:

A prompt: Leadership and Public Speaking: which can utilize Clean Language; and which are necessarily suggestive of direction, course, or sequalae of events?

[-]

Scientists solve long-standing mystery surrounding the moon's 'lopsided' geology

[+]

Existing gravimeter tech:

"City-size seamount triple the height of world's tallest building discovered via gravitational anomalies" (2024) https://www.livescience.com/planet-earth/rivers-oceans/city-...

"Kerr-enhanced optical spring for next-generation gravitational wave detectors" (2024) , and/or Tantalum; https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39957123

How does this finding compare with those from this simulated video of the moon forming?

"Collision May Have Formed the Moon in Mere Hours, Simulations Reveal" https://www.nasa.gov/solar-system/collision-may-have-formed-... https://youtu.be/kRlhlCWplqk

And this, from the moon:

"Scientists discover huge, heat-emitting blob on the far side of the moon" (2023) https://www.livescience.com/space/the-moon/scientists-discov...

"Remote detection of a lunar granitic batholith at Compton–Belkovich" [from a dormant volcano] (2023) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-023-06183-5

Goldene: New 2D form of gold makes graphene look boring

> The researchers say that goldene gets its new properties because in its 2D form, the atoms get two “free bonds.” This means it could eventually find use as a catalyst for converting carbon dioxide, producing hydrogen or valuable chemicals, or purifying water. And of course, electronics could benefit, even if it just means less gold is needed to make them.

"Synthesis of goldene comprising single-atom layer gold" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s44160-024-00518-4 :

> [...] Our developed synthetic route is by a facile, scalable and hydrofluoric acid-free method. The two-dimensional layers are termed goldene. Goldene layers with roughly 9% lattice contraction compared to bulk gold are observed by electron microscopy. While ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that two-dimensional goldene is inherently stable, experiments show some curling and agglomeration, which can be mitigated by surfactants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals an Au 4f binding energy increase of 0.88 eV. Prospects for preparing goldene from other non-van der Waals Au-intercalated phases, including developing etching schemes, are presented.

- https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40079841 8mins ago lol

Proof-of-concept nanogenerator turns CO₂ into sustainable power

> "We've worked out how to make the positive ions much larger than the negative ions and because the different sizes move at different speeds, they generate a diffusion current which can be amplified into electricity to power light bulbs or any electronic device.

> "In nature and in the human body, ion transportation is the most efficient energy conversion—more efficient than electron transportation which is used in the power network."

> The two components were embedded in a hydrogel which is 90% water, cut into 4-centimeter disks and small rectangles and then tested in a sealed box pumped full of CO2.

> "When we saw electrical signals coming out, I was very excited but worried I'd made a mistake," Dr. Wang said.

"Electricity generation from carbon dioxide adsorption by spatially nanoconfined ion separation" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-024-47040-x :

> Abstract: Selective ion transport underpins fundamental biological processes for efficient energy conversion and signal propagation. Mimicking these ‘ionics’ in synthetic nanofluidic channels has been increasingly promising for realizing self-sustained systems by harvesting clean energy from diverse environments, such as light, moisture, salinity gradient, etc. Here, we report a spatially nanoconfined ion separation strategy that enables harvesting electricity from CO2 adsorption. This breakthrough relies on the development of Nanosheet-Agarose Hydrogel (NAH) composite-based generators, wherein the oppositely charged ions are released in water-filled hydrogel channels upon adsorbing CO2. By tuning the ion size and ion-channel interactions, the released cations at the hundred-nanometer scale are spatially confined within the hydrogel network, while ångström-scale anions pass through unhindered. This leads to near-perfect anion/cation separation across the generator with a selectivity (D-/D+) of up to 1.8 × 106, allowing conversion into external electricity. With amplification by connecting multiple as-designed generators, the ion separation-induced electricity reaching 5 V is used to power electronic devices. This study introduces an effective spatial nanoconfinement strategy for widely demanded high-precision ion separation, encouraging a carbon-negative technique with simultaneous CO2 adsorption and energy generation.

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LLMs approach expert-level clinical knowledge and reasoning in ophthalmology

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"Large language models approach expert-level clinical knowledge and reasoning in ophthalmology: A head-to-head cross-sectional study" (2024) https://journals.plos.org/digitalhealth/article?id=10.1371/j...

> [...] We trialled GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 on 347 ophthalmology questions before GPT-3.5, GPT-4, PaLM 2, LLaMA, expert ophthalmologists, and doctors in training were trialled on a mock examination of 87 questions. Performance was analysed with respect to question subject and type (first order recall and higher order reasoning). Masked ophthalmologists graded the accuracy, relevance, and overall preference of GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 responses to the same questions. The performance of GPT-4 (69%) was superior to GPT-3.5 (48%), LLaMA (32%), and PaLM 2 (56%). GPT-4 compared favourably with expert ophthalmologists (median 76%, range 64–90%), ophthalmology trainees (median 59%, range 57–63%), and unspecialised junior doctors (median 43%, range 41–44%). Low agreement between LLMs and doctors reflected idiosyncratic differences in knowledge and reasoning with overall consistency across subjects and types (p>0.05). All ophthalmologists preferred GPT-4 responses over GPT-3.5 and rated the accuracy and relevance of GPT-4 as higher (p<0.05). LLMs are approaching expert-level knowledge and reasoning skills in ophthalmology. In view of the comparable or superior performance to trainee-grade ophthalmologists and unspecialised junior doctors, state-of-the-art LLMs such as GPT-4 may provide useful medical advice and assistance where access to expert ophthalmologists is limited. Clinical benchmarks provide useful assays of LLM capabilities in healthcare before clinical trials can be designed and conducted.

[-]

Can You Grok It – Hacking together my own dev tunnel service

awesome-tunneling lists a number of ngrok alternatives: https://github.com/anderspitman/awesome-tunneling

- https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39754786

- FWIU headscale works with the tailscale client and supports MagicDNS

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Ask HN: Methods for removing parts per trillions of PFAS from water?

What are the most cost efficient methods for removing PFAS from water?

There is now $1.5b/yr in federal funding for PFAS removal from water supplies [2].

There is a $10-12b 3M PFAS settlement approved 2024-04-01 with hundreds of municipal water supply plaintiffs. There is a $1.2b DuPont/Dow PFAS settlement also with hundreds of drinking water provider plaintiffs. [1]

PFAS and microplastics and Nitrogen and Oxygen are in rainwater, which plants prefer. Crops don't need tap water levels of e.g. chlorine or fluoride, which damage the soil microbiome.

Municipal, commercial, residential, and farm to table customers need solutions for SDG6: Clean Water;

What are the low-cost and gold-standard sensors for water quality? And,

What are the most cost efficient methods for removing PFAS and microplastics from water supplies, ground water, well water, tap water, sea water, and hobbyist rainwater collection systems?

[1] https://apnews.com/article/pfas-drinking-water-settlement-3m-fa41cadfe0d65b9723377a681df43af1

[2] "Biden-Harris Administration Finalizes First-Ever National Drinking Water Standard to Protect 100M People from PFAS Pollution" https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/biden-harris-administration-finalizes-first-ever-national-drinking-water-standard

[+]

"review" and "systematic review" are also good keywords for research. /? 'PFAS remov' might be a better search term

"Single-Step Method Swiftly Removes Micropollutants from Water" (2024) https://www.chemicalprocessing.com/industrynews/news/3301747...

"Multifunctional zwitterionic hydrogels for the rapid elimination of organic and inorganic micropollutants from water" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s44221-023-00180-8 https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C11&q=Mul...

https://news.mit.edu/2024/zwitterionic-hydrogels-swiftly-eli... :

> Perhaps most importantly, the particles in the Doyle group’s system can be regenerated and used over and over again. By simply soaking the particles in an ethanol bath, they can be washed of micropollutants for indefinite use without loss of efficacy. When activated carbon is used for water treatment, the activated carbon itself becomes contaminated with micropollutants and must be treated as toxic chemical waste and disposed of in special landfills. Over time, micropollutants in landfills will reenter the ecosystem, perpetuating the problem.

/?hn pfas method: https://hn.algolia.com/?dateRange=all&page=0&prefix=true&que...

/? pfas method: https://www.google.com/search?q=pfas+method

"PFAS Treatment in Drinking Water and Wastewater – State of the Science" https://www.epa.gov/research-states/pfas-treatment-drinking-... :

> It is currently known that three treatment processes can be effective for PFAS removal: granular activated carbon, ion exchange resins, and high-pressure membrane systems

/?gscholar PFAS removal method + review: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=pfas+removal+method+rev...

Click "Cited by 131" to find Citations of e.g "Comparison of currently available PFAS remediation technologies in water: A review" (2021) https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1170583541201234310...

/?hnlog https://westurner.github.io/hnlog/ Ctrl-F: water, CleanWater, SDG6

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39731290 :

> "Desalination system could produce freshwater that is cheaper than tap water" (2023) : "Extreme salt-resisting multistage solar distilation with thermohaline convection" (2023) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39507692

But does that also filter PFAS or microplastics?

"/?hn PFAS methods" found Magnetic and TODO removal approaches that aren't yet acknowledged by EPA for the purpose, but could be more sustainable and cost-effective.

> Municipal, commercial, residential, and farm to table customers need solutions for SDG6: Clean Water; [...]

> [2] "Biden-Harris Administration Finalizes First-Ever National Drinking Water Standard to Protect 100M People from PFAS Pollution" https://www.epa.gov/newsreleases/biden-harris-administration...

SDG6: Clean Water: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_Development_Goal_6

OTOH, e.g. Spout has an atmospheric water generator product for preorder with a 98/99 water quality score; but does the water quality score account for parts per trillions of PFAS?

Do any of the solar+water products that sterilize and/or filter the water handle PFAS already?

Some types of under-sink water treatment systems already remove most PFAS.

If the user doesn't replace the filters what should it do?

FWIU reverse osmosis (RO) is a high-pressure membrane method that wastes water, but doesn't require replaceable filters?

Jim Keller suggests Nvidia should have used Ethernet to link Blackwell GPUs

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https://www.windowscentral.com/hardware/computers-desktops/n... :

> "The reason why we took [NVLink] out was because we needed the we needed the I/Os for something else, and so, so we use the I/O area to cram in as much as much AI processing as we could," Huang confirmed and explained of NVLink's absence.

> For gamers, creators, and workstation users who want a multi-GPU setup with the latest RTX 4000 series, Nvidia is switching from NVLink as a bridge to the PCIe Gen 5 standard.

PCIe 5.0 x32 supports 128GB/s.

"PCIe 7.0 Draft 0.5 Spec: 512 GB/s over PCIe x16 On Track For 2025" https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39933959

> The HBM3E [RAM] Wikipedia article says 1.2TB/s (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39938652

"Fiber-optic data transfer speeds hit a rapid 301 Tbps" (2024-03) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39864107

HPE Cray Slingshot is a copper Ethernet HPC interconnect: https://www.nextplatform.com/2022/01/31/crays-slingshot-inte... ... "HPE Slingshot Makes The GPUs Do Control Plane Compute" https://www.nextplatform.com/2022/08/15/hpe-slingshot-makes-... :

> Here’s the gist. With normal GPU aware MPI software, inside the node the GPU vendors – the only two that matter today are Nvidia and AMD – have their own mechanisms for doing peer-to-peer communications between the GPUs – in this case NVLink and Infinity Fabric. For MPI data exchanges between GPUs located in different nodes, which is often required for running large simulations and models as well as for large AI training runs, MPI data movement is done through Remote Direct Memory Access methods, pioneered with InfiniBand adapters decades ago, which allow for the transfer of data between a GPU and a network interface card without the interaction of the host CPU’s network stack. [...]

> In a [recent paper], HPE showed off the new MPI offload method, making the distinction between the typical MPI communication that is GPU aware versus the stream triggered method that is GPU stream aware.

"Exploring GPU Stream-Aware Message Passing using Triggered Operations" (2022) https://arxiv.org/abs/2208.04817 https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1354761056738606744...

"New RISC-V microprocessor can run CPU, GPU, and NPU workloads simultaneously" (2024) https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39938538

Sat-based entanglement distribution and teleportation with continuous variables

"Satellite-based entanglement distribution and quantum teleportation with continuous variables" (2024) https://www.nature.com/articles/s42005-024-01612-x :

> [...] The results show the feasibility of free-space entanglement distribution and quantum teleportation in downlink paths up to the LEO region, but also in uplink paths with the help of the intermediate station. Finally, we complete the study with microwave-optical comparison in bad weather situations, and with the study of horizontal paths in ground-to-ground and inter-satellite quantum communication.

How does this approach compare to micrometers between a quantum dot and a THz optical resonator? https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39365579

[-]

Quantum Algorithms for Lattice Problems

[+]

CRYSTALS-Kyber, NTRU, SABER, CRYSTALS-Dilithium, and FALCON are lattice-based method finalists in NIST PQC Round 3.

[1] NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NIST_Post-Quantum_Cryptography...

The NTRU article mentions PQ resistance to Shor's only, other evaluations, and that IEEE Std 1363.1 (2008) and the X9 financial industry spec already specify NTRU, which is a Round 3 Finalist lattice-based method.

In [1] Under "Selected Algorithms 2022", the article lists "Lattice: CRYSTALS-Kyber, CRYSTALS-Dilithium, FALCON; Hash-based: SPHINCS+".

Round 4 includes Code-based and Supersingular elliptic curve isogeny algos.

FWIU There's not yet a TLS 1.4/2.0 that specifies which [lattice-based] PQ algos webservers would need to implement to support a new PQ TLS spec.

[-]

Can Gemini 1.5 read all the Harry Potter books at once?

> All the books have ~1M words (1.6M tokens). Gemini fits about 5.7 books out of 7. I used it to generate a graph of the characters and it CRUSHED it.

An LLM could read all of the books with Infini-attention (2024-04): https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=40001626#40020560

[-]

Leave No Context Behind: Efficient Infinite Context Transformers

"Leave No Context Behind: Efficient Infinite Context Transformers with Infini-attention" (2024) https://arxiv.org/abs/2404.07143 :

> This work introduces an efficient method to scale Transformer-based Large Language Models (LLMs) to infinitely long inputs with bounded memory and computation. A key component in our proposed approach is a new attention technique dubbed Infini-attention. The Infini-attention incorporates a compressive memory into the vanilla attention mechanism and builds in both masked local attention and long-term linear attention mechanisms in a single Transformer block. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on long-context language modeling benchmarks, 1M sequence length passkey context block retrieval and 500K length book summarization tasks with 1B and 8B LLMs. Our approach introduces minimal bounded memory parameters and enables fast streaming inference for LLMs.

[-]

Replacing Wires Could Double How Much Electricity the US Grid Can Handle

[+]
[+]
[+]

So there are three parameters; watts, conductor_path_length, and watt_meters?

[+]

Transmission line > Matrix parameters > Variable definitions: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line#Variable_def...

But, FWIU how this applies to line length and transmission time hadn't been tested until Veritasium's experimental video with CalTech with like a mile of cable: https://youtu.be/oI_X2cMHNe0

So, it doesn't need multiple length parameters.

Here's that with Pint for Quantities and Units with `%pip install -q` for Jupyter notebooks with e.g. Google Colab or vscode.dev+pyodide or JupyterLite or ... in Jupyter notebook Percent format with the %%ipytest cell magic function to upgrade test assertions (and @pytest.fixture s) and run everything starting with test_ with the pytest test runner:

  # %%
  %pip install -q pint ipytest pytest-cov
  import ipytest
  ipytest.autoconfig()

  # %%
  %%ipytest -v  # --help
  def test_pint_units_for_watt_meters():
      import pint
      ureg = pint.UnitRegistry()
      unit1 = ureg.kilogram*(ureg.meter**2)*(ureg.seconds**-3)
      unit2 = unit1 * ureg.meter
      assert 1*unit1 == 1*ureg.watt
      assert 1*unit2 == 1*ureg.watt*ureg.meters

[-]

Nimble: A new columnar file format by Meta [video]

[+]

How do Parquet, Lance, and Nimble compare?

lancedb/lance: https://github.com/lancedb/lance :

> Modern columnar data format for ML. Convert from Parquet in 2-lines of code for 100x faster random access, a vector index, data versioning, and more. Compatible with pandas, DuckDB, Polars, and pyarrow

Can the optimizations in lance be ported to other formats without significant redesign?

[-]

Transformer as a general purpose computer

tosh | 2024-04-08 07:16:45 | 148 | # | ^
[+]
[+]

Perhaps similarly, neural activation patterns in biological neural networks are cyclic: there are cycles in the graph (which has oscillating voltage due to the heart being an electrical generator in addition to a pump).

[-]

Preview of Explore Logs, a new way to browse your logs without writing LogQL

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[+]

strace and gdb can trace and close and reopen process file handles 0,1,2.

ldpreloadhook has an example of hooking write() with LD_PRELOAD=, which e.g. golang programs built without libc don't support.

When systemd is /sbin/init, it owns all subprocess' file handles already, so there's no need to close(0), time, open(0) with gdb.

Without having to logship (copy buffers that are flushed and/or have newline characters in the stream) to a network or local Arrow database files and or SQLite vtables,

journalctl (journald) supports pattern matching with: -t syslogidentifier, -u unit; and -g grepexpr of the MESSAGE= field:

  journalctl -u <TAB>
  journalctl -u init.scope --reverse
  journalctl -u unit.scope -g "Reached target"  # and then "/sleep" to search and highlight with less
  
  journalctl -u auditd.service

  # this is slow because it's a full table scan, because
  # journald does not index the logfiles;
  # and -g/--grep is case insensitive if the query is all lowercase:
  journalctl -g avc --reverse
  journalctl -g AVC --reverse

  # this is faster:
  journalctl -t audit -g AVC -r

  # this is still faster,
  # because it only searches the current boot:
  journalctl -b 0 -t audit -g AVC

  # these are equivalent:
  journalctl -b 0 --dmesg -t kernel
  journalctl -k

  # 
  journalctl -b 0 --user | grep -i -C "xyz123"
There is a GNOME Logs viewer that has 'All' and a few mutually exclusive filter/reports in a side pane, and a search expression field to narrow a filter/report like All or Important.

There is a Grafana Loki Docker Driver that logships from all containers visible on that DOCKER_HOST docker socket to Grafana for querying with Loki: https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/send-data/docker-driver...

Podman with Systemd doesn't need the Grafana Docker Driver (or other logshippers like logstash, loggly, or fluentd) because systemd spawns containers and optionally pipes their stdout/stderr logs to journald.

Influx has Telegraf, InfluxDB, Chronograf, and Kapacitor. Chronograf is their WebUI which provides a query interface for configurable chart dashboards and InfluxQL.

Grafana supports SQL, PromQL, InfluxQL, and LogQL.

Graylog2 also indexes logfiles.

But you can't query stdout and stderr you or /sbin/init haven't logged to a file.

[-]

Show HN: FizzBee – Formal methods in Python

GitHub: https://www.github.com/fizzbee-io/FizzBee

Traditionally, formal methods are used only for highly mission critical systems to validate the software will work as expected before it's built. Recently, every major cloud vendor like AWS, Azure, Mongo DB, confluent, elastic and so on use formal methods to validate their design like the replication algorithm or various protocols doesn't have a design bug. I used TLA+ for billing and usage based metering applications.

However, the current formal methods solutions like TLA+, Alloy or P and so on are incredibly complex to learn and use, that even in these companies only a few actually use.

Now, instead of using an unfamiliar complicated language, I built formal methods model checker that just uses Python. That way, any software engineer can quickly get started and use.

I've also created an online playground so you can try it without having to install on your machine.

In addition to model checking like TLA+/PlusCal, Alloy, etc, FizzBee also has performance and probabilistic model checking that be few other formal methods tool does. (PRISM for example, but it's language is even more complicated to use)

Please let me know your feedback. Url: https://FizzBee.io Git: https://www.github.com/fizzbee-io/FizzBee

How does FizzBee compare to other formal methods tools for Python like Nagini, Deal-solver, Dafny? https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=39139198

https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=36504073 :

>>> Can there still be side channel attacks in formally verified systems? Can e.g. TLA+ [or FizzBee] help with that at all?

[+]

Is it advantageous to maintain separation between formal design, formal implementation, and formal verification formal methods?

Is there still a place for implementation language agnostic tools for formal methods?

icontract and pycontracts do runtime type checking and value constraints with DbC Design-by-Contract patterns that more clearly separate the preconditions and postconditions from the command, per Hoare logic. Both can read Python type annotations and apply them at runtime or not, both support runtime checking of invariants: values that shouldn't have changed when postconditions are evaluated after the function returns, but could have due to e.g. parallelism and concurrency and (network I/O) latency and pass by reference in distributed systems.

[+]

Having also written lots of code with nothing but Tests as the Functional Spec I'm not sufficiently familiar with Formal Methods, though I should make myself learn. TIL that there are different tools for Design/Implementation/Verification instead of just code and decorators and IDK annotations as decorators and autocorrect.

(TODO: link to post about university-level FM programs)

Always wondered whether there's some advantage to translating to another language's AST for static and/or dynamic analysis or not. AFAIU Fuzzing is still necessary even given Formal Implementation?

Python is Turing complete, but does [TLA,] need to be? Is there an in-Python syntax that can be expanded in place by tooling for pretty diffs; How much overlap between existing runtime check DbC decorators and these modeling primitives and feature extraction transforms should there be? (In order to: minimize cognitive overload for human review; sufficiently describe the domains, ranges, complexity costs, inconstant timings, and the necessary and also the possible outcomes given concurrency,)

"FaCT: A DSL for Timing-Sensitive Computation" and side channels https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=38527663