Table of Contents
date title user score
2023-05-19 16:42:43 PyTorch for WebGPU mighdoll 200
2023-05-17 20:37:47 Tell HN: The next generation of videogames will be great with midjourney asdadsdad 2
2023-05-14 18:05:32 JavaScript state machines and statecharts stefankuehnel 173
2023-05-14 13:57:53 Rising number of lithium battery incidents on airplanes worry crew thunderbong 76
2023-05-14 14:40:04 The Simplest Universal Turing Machine Is Proved bpierre 6
2023-05-14 08:35:24 Run Llama 13B with a 6GB graphics card rain1 617
2023-05-13 16:56:34 Matter Raspberry Pi GPIO Commander – Turn Your Pi into a Matter Lighting Device sowbug 43
2023-05-12 13:57:22 Exploring the native use of 64-bit posit arithmetic in scientific computing PaulHoule 79
2023-05-10 06:42:11 Researchers craft a fully edible battery GlumWoodpecker 60
2023-05-10 02:52:12 MSG is the most misunderstood ingredient of the century. That’s finally changing DamonHD 11
2023-05-10 02:51:33 See this page fetch itself, byte by byte, over TLS gmac 1338
2023-05-10 14:10:32 Loophole-free Bell inequality violation with superconducting circuits rntn 6
2023-05-09 09:19:04 Show HN: – Better Python Notebooks diegogm934 60
2023-05-10 17:30:45 Google will label fake images created with its A.I mfiguiere 25
2023-05-10 08:20:05 Tell HN: We should start to add “ai.txt” as we do for “robots.txt” Jeannen 562
2023-05-09 13:15:04 Language models can explain neurons in language models mfiguiere 688
2023-05-10 04:30:03 IPyflow: Reactive Python Notebooks in Jupyter(Lab) smacke 186
2023-05-09 13:34:10 Machine Learning Containers Are Bloated and Vulnerable PaulHoule 28
2023-05-09 10:17:03 Health advisory on social media use in adolescence pseudolus 230
2023-05-09 05:30:53 Reactivating Dormant Cells in the Retina Brings New Hope for Vision Regeneration westurner 1
2023-05-06 14:47:32 Ask HN: Did anyone ever create GitLaw? robertn702 2
2023-05-06 05:15:44 Show HN: ReRender AI - Realistic Architectural Renders for AutoCAD/Blender Users eddieweng 50
2023-05-05 18:57:03 Exciton Fission Breakthrough Could Revolutionize Photovoltaic Solar Cells westurner 2
2023-04-30 04:23:13 Latex users are slower than Word users and make more errors (2014) sieste 5
2023-05-03 07:57:25 The skills gap for Fortran looms large in HPC rbanffy 83
2023-05-01 22:39:35 The Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide asicsp 386
2023-04-21 13:29:43 xPrize Wildfire – $11M Prize Competition TheBlapse 73
2023-04-30 09:05:01 Show HN: Frogmouth – A Markdown browser for the terminal willm 240
2023-04-26 09:33:18 Stanford, Harvard data science no more MauiWarrior 23
2023-04-25 16:55:37 Debugging a Mixed Python and C Language Stack quasiben 152
2023-04-23 03:14:08 Teach at a Community College zandert 171
2023-04-23 06:53:02 Twitter drops “Government-funded”/“state-affiliated“ from NPR, BBC, RT, Xinhua moose_man 10
2023-04-19 17:02:26 Physicists discover that gravity can create light wglb 232
2023-04-21 09:49:56 Manipulative Consent Requests openplatypus 123
2023-04-21 09:20:49 Proliferation of AI weapons among non-state actors could be impossible to stop rntn 57
2023-04-19 21:59:48 Only one pair of distinct positive integers satisfy the equation m^n = n^m keithmcnulty 526
2023-04-15 10:33:43 Show HN: IPython-GPT, a Jupyter/IPython Interface to Chat GPT santiagobasulto 144
2023-04-20 13:20:43 Building a ChatGPT-enhanced Python REPL synergy20 103
2023-04-20 15:49:14 When you buy a book, you can loan it to anyone – a judge says libraries can’t leotravis10 99
2023-04-18 11:59:28 Brain images just got 64 million times sharper amichail 206
2023-04-18 18:28:26 MRI brain images become 64M times sharper CharlesW 264
2023-04-13 16:44:25 There’s no universal cordless power tool battery – why? bitwise101 70
2023-04-10 09:07:56 Aura – Python source code auditing and static analysis on a large scale (2022) r9295 148
2023-04-13 09:50:04 A new approach to computation reimagines artificial intelligence theafh 73
2023-04-11 08:05:56 A number system invented by Inuit schoolchildren nathandaly 210
2023-04-11 11:09:03 California DMV wants to issue car titles as NFTs mmoustafa 26
2023-04-11 08:40:49 Show HN: Skip the SSO Tax, access your user data with OSS mathiasn 220
2023-04-09 09:46:55 Twitter Is Blocking Likes and Retweets that Mention Substack camjohnson26 223
2023-04-08 13:50:43 PEP 684 was accepted – Per-interpreter GIL in Python 3.12 bratao 75
2023-04-05 23:27:00 Detection of Common Cold from Speech Signals Using Deep Neural Network mfiguiere 4
2023-04-03 09:53:28 Pandas 2.0 calpaterson 325
2023-03-30 15:48:52 RFdiffusion: Diffusion model generates protein backbones jajoosam 114
2023-03-31 16:37:50 Llama.cpp 30B runs with only 6GB of RAM now msoad 1309
2023-03-24 01:28:58 We updated our RSA SSH host key todsacerdoti 1262
2023-03-20 05:15:18 Ask HN: Where can I find a primer on how computers boot? mog_dev 457
2023-03-15 13:18:26 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Remote Code Execution Vulnerability amenghra 56
2023-03-12 03:58:11 Show HN: PicoVGA Library – VGA/TV Display on Raspberry Pi Pico wvenable 59
2023-03-11 22:01:34 FDIC – SVB FAQ hi 224
2023-03-11 15:27:22 An Update on USDC and Silicon Valley Bank VagueMag 217
2023-03-11 18:42:57 Urgent: Sign the petition now version_five 397
2023-03-09 07:28:33 129-year-old vessel still tethered to lifeboat found on floor of Lake Huron mkmk 110
2023-03-08 10:59:35 Google Groups has been left to die ahelwer 506
2023-03-07 14:53:47 Zero energy ready homes are coming ricardou 296
2023-03-07 07:57:10 Stochastic gradient descent written in SQL Lemaxoxo 289
2023-02-24 12:41:50 U.S. corn-based ethanol worse for the climate than gasoline, study finds Brajeshwar 466
2023-02-25 16:09:50 SymPy makes math fun again okaleniuk 323
2023-03-03 20:59:08 Please tell us what features you’d like in news.ycombinator (2007) eternalban 37
2023-02-28 09:36:51 Client-side encryption for Gmail in Google Workspace is now generally available bertman 162
2023-03-03 06:57:27 Show HN: Classic FPS Wolfenstein 3D brought in the browser via Emscripten midzer 64
2023-03-02 13:34:45 Show HN: Mathesar – open-source collaborative UI for Postgres databases kgodey 281
2023-02-24 09:32:28 Portable low-field MRI scanners could revolutionize medical imaging bookofjoe 46
2023-02-28 03:37:13 First Law of Thermodynamics Breakthrough Upends Equilibrium Theory in Physics isaacfrond 6
2023-02-25 00:40:34 The Missing Semester of Your CS Education saikatsg 1020
2023-02-15 04:17:28 DeepMind has open-sourced the heart of AlphaGo and AlphaZero mariuz 328
2023-02-23 07:24:54 Emacs is on F-Droid eskilop 176
2023-02-22 09:58:45 Physicists Use Quantum Mechanics to Pull Energy Out of Nothing theafh 59
2023-02-22 21:50:25 Vikings went to Mediterranean for ‘summer jobs’ as mercenaries, left graffiti dxs 289
2023-02-22 14:47:44 Social media is a cause, not a correlate, of mental illness in teen girls anigbrowl 1141
2023-02-12 13:32:58 The fundamental thermodynamic costs of communication g0xA52A2A 83
2023-02-08 07:16:44 New neural network architecture inspired by neural system of a worm burrito_brain 218
2023-02-15 13:09:45 Scientists find first evidence that black holes are the source of dark energy qwertyuiop_ 46
2023-02-15 03:41:32 Introduction to Datalog jgrodziski 362
2023-02-11 17:13:02 Show HN: Polymath: Convert any music-library into a sample-library with ML samim 22
2023-02-13 17:05:15 Coffee won’t give you extra energy, just borrow a bit that you’ll pay for later throw0101c 89
2023-02-13 15:57:33 Let Teenagers Sleep LinuxBender 589
2023-02-10 03:28:21 Why is there so much useless and unreliable software? learningstud 76
2023-02-09 23:02:01 The Rust Implementation of GNU Coreutils Is Becoming Remarkably Robust sdht0 223
2023-02-07 21:09:43 DIY 1,500W solar power electric bike (2022) lxm 103
2023-02-07 17:56:32 Actors Say They’re Being Asked to Sign Away Their Voice to AI leotravis10 70
2023-02-07 13:16:12 Why do we create modern desktop GUI apps using HTML/CSS/JavaScript? (2022) airstrike 140
2023-02-06 00:54:20 Ask HN: Advice from people who strength train from home optbuild 62
2023-02-03 16:54:55 Show HN: DocsGPT, open-source documentation assistant, fully aware of libraries sadrobin 255
2023-02-02 19:19:15 Show HN: I turned my microeconomics textbook into a chatbot with GPT-3 mnkm 51
2023-02-01 16:49:50 ChatGPT is a bullshit generator but it can still be amazingly useful 1vuio0pswjnm7 193
2023-01-30 07:40:08 Sh1mmer – An exploit capable of unenrolling enterprise-managed Chromebooks XionXIV 223
2023-01-30 10:32:30 When Will Fusion Energy Light Our Homes? Brajeshwar 29
2023-01-31 14:56:39 Tell HN: GitHub will delete your private repo if you lose access to the original baobabKoodaa 530
2023-01-29 20:19:22 The Qubit Game (2022) westurner 1
2023-01-29 03:40:59 Calculators now emulated at Internet Archive sohkamyung 311
2023-01-29 19:51:26 Machine Learning for Fluid Dynamics Playlist westurner 3
2023-01-29 14:01:40 Intercepting links using DNS rewrites todsacerdoti 139
2023-01-26 21:44:37 MusicLM: Generating music from text georgehill 287
2023-01-26 18:18:24 SQLAlchemy 2.0 Released zzzeek 262
2023-01-25 12:12:17 Show HN: A script to test whether a program breaks without network access woodruffw 11
2023-01-24 07:44:51 Certified 100% AI-free organic content artpi 291
2023-01-23 14:12:30 An incomplete guide to stealth addresses DocFeind 116
2023-01-21 22:48:10 Do Large Language Models learn world models or just surface statistics? danboarder 286
2023-01-21 12:16:01 Thoughts on the Python packaging ecosystem BerislavLopac 130
2023-01-20 23:41:29 Google Calls in Help from Larry Page and Sergey Brin for A.I. Fight signa11 43
2023-01-21 10:08:13 On-demand electrical control of spin qubits (2023) westurner 2
2023-01-16 05:32:12 Reverse engineering a neural network's clever solution to binary addition Ameo 562
2023-01-16 01:59:11 Heat pumps of the 1800s are becoming the technology of the future adrian_mrd 399
2023-01-16 04:49:31 How Nvidia’s CUDA Monopoly in Machine Learning Is Breaking pella 147
2023-01-13 16:18:36 Large language models as simulated economic agents (2022) [pdf] benbreen 87
2023-01-14 13:42:52 Homelab analog telephone exchange zdw 125
2023-01-13 08:58:45 A 116kb WASM of Blink that lets you run x86_64 Linux binaries in the browser samwillis 294
2023-01-12 08:11:04 SQLite Wasm in the browser backed by the Origin Private File System bubblehack3r 371
2023-01-07 16:26:34 The i3-gaps project has been merged with i3 harporoeder 454
2023-01-07 11:29:30 Show HN: Futurecoder – A free interactive Python course for coding beginners alexmojaki 371
2023-01-07 07:22:11 Tell HN: Vim users, `:x` is like `:wq` but writes only when changes are made manaskarekar 536
2023-01-06 11:44:31 Ask HN: Is there academic research on software fragility? fedeb95 46
2023-01-07 13:35:49 Seattle Public Schools sues TikTok, YouTube, Instagram over youth mental health chimerasaurus 169
2023-01-02 10:08:28 Mechanical circuits: electronics without electricity [video] zdw 135
2022-12-23 02:04:29 Python malware starting to employ anti-debug techniques lukastyrychtr 143
2023-01-01 17:02:03 Adding design-by-contract conditions to C++ via a GCC plugin gavinray 128
2022-12-11 07:55:21 Paper-thin solar cell can turn any surface into a power source taubek 2
2022-12-17 08:34:00 Solar energy can now be stored for up to 18 years, say scientists westurner 3
2022-12-16 12:36:36 Solar panels open crop lands to farming energy mfiguiere 66
2022-12-16 10:18:56 California pulls the plug on rooftop solar DocFeind 190
2022-12-09 10:59:40 DeepMind Dramatron: a new tool for writers to co-write theatre and film scripts mfiguiere 116
2022-12-07 03:40:00 New Docker Desktop: Run WASM Applications Alongside Linux Containers in Docker 3Sophons 58
2022-11-30 02:13:58 Ask HN: Which books have made you a better thinker and problem solver? newsoul 354
2022-11-30 02:04:31 Building arbitrary Life patterns in 15 gliders mikro2nd 510
2022-11-21 16:56:53 MicroPython officially becomes part of the Arduino ecosystem kachnuv_ocasek 109
2022-11-14 14:57:46 ELIZA is Turing Complete abrax3141 72
2022-11-14 12:32:36 Draft RFC: Cryptographic Hyperlinks westurner 11
2022-11-11 23:17:22 Hydrogen-producing rooftop solar panels nearing commercialization danboarder 11
2022-11-13 07:00:06 Show HN: I built my own PM tool after trying Trello, Asana, ClickUp, etc. tonypham 608
2022-11-11 07:55:11 NSA urges orgs to use memory-safe programming languages AlexeyBrin 218
2022-11-11 03:54:26 YouTube confirms that it has removed the “sort by oldest/newest” option nixass 581
2022-11-06 23:33:45 Aluminum formate Al(HCOO)3: Earth-abundant, scalable, & material for CO2 capture westurner 122
2022-11-06 04:27:53 Electrons turn piece of wire into laser-like light source dr_dshiv 65
2022-10-25 18:58:31 TabPFN: Transformer Solves Small Tabular Classification in a Second jupiterelastica 60
2022-11-04 23:59:59 Mathics: A free, open-source alternative to Mathematica memorable 560
2022-11-05 04:45:50 Astronomers Discover Closest Black Hole to Earth tannhaeuser 69
2022-11-04 08:49:59 Sudo: Heap-based overflow with small passwords thewavelength 279
2022-11-02 16:08:11 Cree releases LEDs designed for horticulture milleramp 173
2022-11-02 11:28:26 Phlare: open-source database for continuous profiling at scale PaulWaldman 240
2022-11-01 16:38:25 NASA finds super-emitters of methane walterbell 767
2022-10-18 11:12:43 Show HN: Linen – Open-source Slack for communities cheeseblubber 291
2022-10-29 02:34:59 Protobuf-ES: Protocol Buffers TypeScript/JavaScript runtime jacobwg 205
2022-10-30 22:41:43 We need a replacement for TCP in the datacenter [pdf] kristianp 478
2022-10-30 09:21:37 A Message from Lunny on Gitea Ltd. and the Gitea Project fariszr 106
2022-10-30 11:45:53 Linux System Call Table – Chromiumos neophyt3 4
2022-10-27 03:27:52 Variability, not repetition, is the key to mastery maksimur 221
2022-10-24 14:33:43 The Docker+WASM Technical Preview soheilpro 201
2022-10-24 16:35:09 Python 3.11.0 Released maximilianroos 102
2022-10-24 09:36:17 Tomorrow the Unix timestamp will get to 1,666,666,666 bubblehack3r 248
2022-10-22 16:02:29 Bringing Modern Authentication APIs (FIDO2 WebAuthn, Passkeys) to Linux Desktop alfie42 20
2022-10-22 07:59:16 Science, technology and innovation isn’t addressing world’s most urgent problems giuliomagnifico 136
2022-10-19 09:20:55 Quantum Monism Could Save the Soul of Physics nyc111 33
2022-10-11 05:21:43 Geothermal may beat batteries for energy storage rbanffy 196
2022-10-19 20:45:32 PostgresML is 8-40x faster than Python HTTP microservices redbell 116
2022-10-14 23:12:51 Ask HN: How to become good at Emacs/Vim? mudrockbestgirl 42
2022-10-14 20:15:20 The VSCode GitLab extension now supports getting code completions from FauxPilot moyix 190
2022-10-14 11:18:17 You Can Now Google the Balances of Ethereum Addresses wslh 14
2022-10-11 06:26:53 Blender: Wayland Support on Linux TangerineDream 356
2022-10-11 12:43:01 Xpra: Multi-platform screen and application forwarding system for x11 nateb2022 111
2022-10-07 18:30:22 Retinoid restores eye-specific brain responses in mice with retinal degeneration bookofjoe 81
2022-10-01 07:46:12 How to turn waste polyethylene into something useful helsinkiandrew 9
2022-10-04 06:46:57 EU Passes Law to Switch iPhone to USB-C by End of 2024 popol12 572
2022-09-24 11:33:05 Vulhub: Pre-Built Vulnerable Environments Based on Docker-Compose nateb2022 100
2022-09-27 12:24:32 Bash 5.2 RealAlexClay 185
2022-09-24 04:48:16 Mozilla reaffirms that Firefox will continue to support current content blockers bj-rn 642
2022-09-23 06:54:53 Manifest V3, webRequest, and ad blockers dagurp 133
2022-09-19 13:41:52 1Hz CPU made in Minecraft running Minecraft at 0.1fps [video] reimertz 870
2022-09-20 07:07:02 Hash collisions and exploitations – Instant MD5 collision losfair 166
2022-09-19 12:50:41 AI Seamless Texture Generator Built-In to Blender myth_drannon 336
2022-09-18 11:15:07 Faraday and Babbage: Semiconductors and Computing in 1833 klelatti 28
2022-09-18 21:25:15 macOS Subsystem for Linux dzdt 253
2022-09-18 23:44:30 Global-Chem: A Free Dictionary from Common Chemical Names to Molecules Sulstice 35
2022-09-18 11:47:03 GCC's new fortification level: The gains and costs pjmlp 128
2022-09-18 12:50:41 Poor writing, not specialized concepts, drives difficulty with legal language rntn 559
2022-09-17 08:28:42 U.S. appeals court rejects big tech’s right to regulate online speech testrun 523
2022-09-12 10:26:48 Transformers seem to mimic parts of the brain theafh 140
2022-09-15 10:19:00 Chaos researchers can now predict perilous points of no return theafh 145
2022-09-14 18:13:12 GraphBLAS hui-zheng 104
2022-09-11 15:03:27 Common Lisp names all sixteen binary logic gates optimalsolver 158
2022-09-09 07:02:22 Google pays ‘enormous’ sums to maintain search-engine dominance, DOJ says helsinkiandrew 403
2022-09-10 06:59:09 Ask HN: Best empirical papers on software development? KingOfCoders 129
2022-09-09 04:24:28 Why public chats are better than direct messages stebunovd 156
2022-09-08 10:23:07 Planting trees not always an effective way of binding carbon dioxide hhs 122
2022-09-08 13:09:11 Caddyhttp: Enable HTTP/3 by Default fariszr 284
2022-09-08 12:39:07 Make better decisions with fewer online meetings bjuly 85
2022-09-08 09:06:22 Europe’s energy crisis hits science elashri 56
2022-09-08 02:09:26 The Risks of WebAssembly 0xmohit 66
2022-09-07 11:05:52 is running a survey on the state of Python packaging zbentley 233
2022-09-05 09:37:58 All poverty is energy poverty bedbot 309
2022-09-02 08:53:37 One Serverless Principle to Rule Them All: Idempotency [video] kiyanwang 73
2022-08-31 10:21:29 Ask HN: IT Security Checklist for Startups? faizshah 133
2022-08-30 20:48:51 Fed expects to launch long-awaited Faster Payments System by 2023 npalli 199
2022-08-30 10:05:42 REPL Driven Minecraft joelittlejohn 192
2022-08-26 13:31:32's Practical Deep Learning for Coders Has Been Updated EntICOnc 16
2022-08-26 10:42:45 Reducing methane is the fastest strategy available to reduce warming nipponese 123
2022-08-23 08:31:35 VS Code – What's the deal with the telemetry? ttctciyf 194
2022-08-18 07:05:28 Learn to sew your own outdoor gear almog 748
2022-08-18 10:58:43 FedNow FAQ hnburnsy 232
2022-08-18 00:32:43 Ask HN: Why are bookmarks second class citizens in browsers? vapemaster 271
2022-08-18 13:45:48 Millet, a Language Server for SML todsacerdoti 129
2022-08-15 20:23:20 The Cha Cha Slide Is Turing Complete eatonphil 7
2022-08-11 10:16:04 What is quantum field theory and why is it incomplete? digital55 106
2022-08-10 07:49:38 The Dymaxion car: Buckminster Fuller’s failed automobile conanxin 83
2022-08-10 16:43:34 Top Secret Rosies: The Female “Computers” of WWII jacquesm 66
2022-08-10 15:54:50 The World Excel Championship is being broadcast on ESPN dmitryminkovsky 517
2022-08-11 00:21:46 Quantum in the Chips and Science Act of 2022 westurner 1
2022-08-10 19:21:42 Where does energy go during destructive interference? amelius 32
2022-08-10 07:27:45 Adding Auditing to Pip chmaynard 67
2022-08-09 13:35:57 Tesla’s self-driving technology fails to detect children in the road, tests find philk10 75
2022-08-03 12:08:02 Why do tree-based models still outperform deep learning on tabular data? isolli 315
2022-08-01 18:40:38 AlphaFold's database grows over 200x to cover nearly all known proteins OnlineInference 152
2022-08-03 05:13:04 Django 4.1 j4mie 289
2022-08-02 00:18:26 Ask HN: Is there a tool / product that enables commenting on HTML elements? _lb7x 91
2022-07-22 00:52:35 Coinbase does not list securities. End of story kgwgk 30
2022-07-30 18:56:39 I Looked into 34 Top Real-World Blockchain Projects So You Don’t Have To ghuntley 247
2022-07-29 01:02:13 NIST announces preliminary winners of post-quantum competition zaik 87
2022-07-27 09:48:17 RStudio Is Becoming Posit tosh 119
2022-07-24 23:59:28 Ask HN: Why are there so few artificial sunlight or artificial window products? stevage 138
2022-07-26 12:14:28 LiteFS a FUSE-based file system for replicating SQLite sysbot 241
2022-07-24 22:30:22 Heaviest neutron star on record is 2.35 times the Solar mass lota-putty 2
2022-07-21 10:31:20 Show HN: Pg_jsonschema – A Postgres extension for JSON validation oliverrice 203
2022-07-18 11:56:47 Computer science proof unveils unexpected form of entanglement theafh 106
2022-07-20 11:34:10 Securing name resolution in the IoT: DNS over CoAP pantalaimon 22
2022-07-13 12:42:22 Maybe powers of π don't have unexpectedly good approximations? thomasahle 75
2022-07-15 02:12:15 Freezing Requirements with Pip-Tools BerislavLopac 54
2022-07-04 20:37:38 Qubit: Quantum register: Qudits and qutrits westurner 3
2022-07-05 12:10:38 To improve search results on YouTube, use the search prefix “intitle:” normhill 358
2022-07-05 17:08:28 OpenSSL Security Advisory arkadiyt 138
2022-07-04 23:13:50 Axial Higgs mode spotted in materials at room temperature (2022) westurner 1
2022-07-04 09:48:19 New study shows highly creative people’s brains work differently from others' NickRandom 136
2022-07-03 11:10:38 Visualizing quantum mechanics in an interactive simulation JoeDaDude 171
2022-07-01 09:27:12 Show HN: CSVFiddle – Query CSV files with DuckDB in the browser shbhrsaha 64
2022-06-30 21:00:55 A fast in-place interpreter for WebAssembly azhenley 29
2022-06-21 09:59:36 One-liner for running queries against CSV files with SQLite jdblair 747
2022-06-24 14:26:46 Show HN: Easily Convert WARC (Web Archive) into Parquet, Then Query with DuckDB llambda 116
2022-06-17 08:00:43 Bundling binary tools in Python wheels pcr910303 108
2022-06-17 04:37:45 Quantum Algorithm Implementations for Beginners rg111 110
2022-06-14 04:26:32 How to create a dashboard in Python with Jupyter Notebook pplonski86 188
2022-06-12 06:10:03 The Y Combinator in Go with generics mfrw 118
2022-06-09 18:54:08 Show HN: Pixie, open source observability for Kubernetes using eBPF nserrino 6
2022-06-10 17:52:12 Implementing strace in Rust JAKWAI 2
2022-06-09 16:36:58 Gitsign semiquaver 104
2022-06-09 16:54:49 Physicists discover never-before seen particle sitting on a tabletop spekcular 46
2022-06-08 12:45:24 The case for expanding rather than eliminating gifted education programs (2021) paulpauper 796
2022-06-08 09:32:13 Beautiful Soup memorable 226
2022-06-02 11:16:27 Formal methods only solve half my problems mjb 69
2022-06-01 06:37:20 Show HN: An open source alternative to Evernote (Self Hosted) vivekweb2013 241
2022-06-01 23:29:28 How are you using your whiteboard at home? regular_dev 1
2022-05-24 11:14:44 California parents could soon sue for social media addiction prostoalex 165
2022-05-26 03:39:12 Microsoft Flight Simulator – Top Gun: Maverick Expansion westurner 1
2022-05-22 12:03:07 Generating websites with SPARQL and Snowman, part 1 davidrupp 50
2022-05-22 10:12:50 Index funds officially overtake active managers andsoitis 176
2022-05-22 01:56:59 Why building profitable trading bot is hard? Kshitijmore 14
2022-05-14 00:59:26 The Good Ol' Days of QBasic Nibbles elvis70 80
2022-05-14 08:43:46 Can we make a black hole? And if we could, what could we do with it? nsoonhui 142
2022-05-14 13:18:21 DNS over Dedicated QUIC Connections mooreds 49
2022-05-13 05:57:58 Twitter Deal Temporarily on Hold palebluedot 650
2022-05-09 14:27:05 Show HN: – Live search for Python documentation danosull 74
2022-05-08 22:08:15 Colleges where everyone works and there's no tuition bale 186
2022-05-04 09:27:42 What are your most used self-hosted applications? geeked 735
2022-05-04 00:17:23 Sqldiff: SQLite Database Difference Utility thunderbong 210
2022-04-30 14:17:18 GitBOM: Enabling universal artifact traceability in software supply chains todsacerdoti 26
2022-04-26 07:05:34 Compostable fungi-based replacement for styrofoam gruuya 202
2022-04-24 13:30:52 Evolution is not a tree of life but a fuzzy network ALee 100
2022-04-23 10:53:06 U.S. interest rates have soared everywhere but savings accounts mgh2 237
2022-04-20 11:57:01 Changing std:sort at Google’s scale and beyond ashvardanian 557
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2019-12-21 07:55:04 Free and Open-Source Mathematics Textbooks vo2maxer 321
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2019-09-23 16:43:51 Scott’s Supreme Quantum Supremacy FAQ xmmrm 600
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2019-08-12 08:15:23 Root: CERN's scientific data analysis framework for C++ z3phyr 137
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2019-08-08 13:11:06 GitHub Actions now supports CI/CD, free for public repositories dstaheli 680
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2019-05-19 16:01:51 Congress should grow the Digital Services budget, it more than pays for itself rmason 68
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2019-03-21 05:18:51 LHCb discovers matter-antimatter asymmetry in charm quarks rbanffy 269
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2018-11-24 15:33:08 Time to break academic publishing's stranglehold on research joeyespo 692
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2018-04-06 19:16:25 GPU Prices Drop ~25% in March as Supply Normalizes merqurio 2
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2018-03-18 13:13:15 Hackers Are So Fed Up with Twitter Bots They’re Hunting Them Down Themselves CrankyBear 271
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2018-02-27 10:37:54 A framework for evaluating data scientist competency schaunwheeler 3
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2018-02-27 18:24:45 Chaos Engineering: the history, principles, and practice austingunter 2
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2018-02-16 00:16:09 The Benjamin Franklin method for learning more from programming books nancyhua 566
2018-02-10 20:41:21 Avoiding blackouts with 100% renewable energy ramonvillasante 2
2018-02-10 11:25:54 Ask HN: What are some common abbreviations you use as a developer? yagamidev 3
2018-02-09 19:42:21 There Might Be No Way to Live Comfortably Without Also Ruining the Planet SirLJ 43
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2018-01-02 10:48:10 A Year of Spaced Repetition Software in the Classroom misiti3780 4
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2017-12-17 07:32:06 Show HN: An educational blockchain implementation in Python jre 412
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2017-12-11 11:58:38 Tech luminaries call net neutrality vote an 'imminent threat' kjhughes 279
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2017-09-08 20:04:36 Open Source Ruling Confirms Enforceability of Dual-Licensing and Breach of GPL t3f 116
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PyTorch for WebGPU


Could there be something like emscripten-forge/requests-wasm-polyfill for PyTorch with WebGPU?

How does the performance of webgpu-torch compare to compiling PyTorch to WASM with emscripten and WebGPU?

tfjs benchmarks: Environment > backend > {WASM, WebGL, CPU, WebGPU, tflite} src:




([...], tflite-support, tflite-micro)

From facebookresearch/shumai (a JS tensor library) :

> It doesn't make sense to support anything besides WebGPU at this point. WASM + SIMD is around 15-20x slower on my machine[1]. Although WebGL is more widely supported today, it doesn't have the compute features needed for efficient modern ML (transformers etc) and will likely be a deprecated backend for other frameworks when WebGPU comes online.

tensorflow rust has a struct.Tensor:

"ONNX Runtime merges WebGPU backend" ... TIL about wonnx:


Apache/arrow has language-portable Tensors for cpp: and rust: and Python:

Fwiw it looks like the llama.cpp Tensor is from ggml, for which there are CUDA and OpenCL implementations (but not yet ROCm, or a WebGPU shim for use with emscripten transpilation to WASM):

Are the recommendable ways to cast e.g. arrow Tensors to pytorch/tensorflow?

FWIU, Rust has a better compilation to WASM; and that's probably faster than already-compiled-to-JS/ES TensorFlow + WebGPU.

What's a fair benchmark?

> What's a fair benchmark?

- /? pytorch tensorflow benchmarks webgpu 2023

- [tfjs benchmarks]

- huggingface/transformers:src/transformers/benchmark


Tell HN: The next generation of videogames will be great with midjourney

carson-katri/dream-textures (Stable Diffusion, Blender)


/? midjourney stable diffusion DALL-E "Imagen" comparison

"Google will label fake images created with its [Imagen] A.I" (2023)

"Show HN: Polymath: Convert any music-library into a sample-library with ML" :

> Other cool #aiart things:


JavaScript state machines and statecharts

State machine: :

> Unlike Finite state machine based workflow, BPMN allows parallel task execution, and suitable to model real person collaboration patterns.

BPMN: Business Process Model and Notation:

On the difference between the map and the territory.

> - Can TLA+ find side-channels (which bypass all software memory protection features other than encryption-in-RAM)?

From :

>> Can there still be side channel attacks in formally verified systems? Can e.g. TLA+ help with that at all?

From :

> - TLA+ Model checker :

>> The TLC model checker builds a finite state model of TLA+ specifications for checking invariance properties


What are some strategies that could help determine what TLA+ has to do with state machines?


The Simplest Universal Turing Machine Is Proved–Turing–Deutsch_principl... :

> In computer science and quantum physics, the Church–Turing–Deutsch principle (CTD principle) is a stronger, physical form of the Church–Turing thesis formulated by David Deutsch in 1985.[1] The principle states that a universal computing device can simulate every physical process.

Are qubits enough to simulate qudits and qutrits?


Run Llama 13B with a 6GB graphics card


"Democratizing AI with PyTorch Foundation and ROCm™ support for PyTorch" (2023) :

> AMD, along with key PyTorch codebase developers (including those at Meta AI), delivered a set of updates to the ROCm™ open software ecosystem that brings stable support for AMD Instinct™ accelerators as well as many Radeon™ GPUs. This now gives PyTorch developers the ability to build their next great AI solutions leveraging AMD GPU accelerators & ROCm. The support from PyTorch community in identifying gaps, prioritizing key updates, providing feedback for performance optimizing and supporting our journey from “Beta” to “Stable” was immensely helpful and we deeply appreciate the strong collaboration between the two teams at AMD and PyTorch. The move for ROCm support from “Beta” to “Stable” came in the PyTorch 1.12 release (June 2022)

> [...] PyTorch ecosystem libraries like TorchText (Text classification), TorchRec (libraries for recommender systems - RecSys), TorchVision (Computer Vision), TorchAudio (audio and signal processing) are fully supported since ROCm 5.1 and upstreamed with PyTorch 1.12.

> Key libraries provided with the ROCm software stack including MIOpen (Convolution models), RCCL (ROCm Collective Communications) and rocBLAS (BLAS for transformers) were further optimized to offer new potential efficiencies and higher performance. :

>> AMD ROcm supports Pytorch, TensorFlow, MlOpen, rocBLAS on NVIDIA and AMD GPUs: :

> Intel® Extension for PyTorch extends PyTorch with up-to-date features optimizations for an extra performance boost on Intel hardware. Optimizations take advantage of AVX-512 Vector Neural Network Instructions (AVX512 VNNI) and Intel® Advanced Matrix Extensions (Intel® AMX) on Intel CPUs as well as Intel Xe Matrix Extensions (XMX) AI engines on Intel discrete GPUs. Moreover, through PyTorch xpu device, Intel® Extension for PyTorch provides easy GPU acceleration for Intel discrete GPUs with PyTorch (2023) :

> As part of the PyTorch 2.0 compilation stack, TorchInductor CPU backend optimization brings notable performance improvements via graph compilation over the PyTorch eager mode.

> The TorchInductor CPU backend is sped up by leveraging the technologies from the Intel® Extension for PyTorch for Conv/GEMM ops with post-op fusion and weight prepacking, and PyTorch ATen CPU kernels for memory-bound ops with explicit vectorization on top of OpenMP-based thread parallelization

DLRS Deep Learning Reference Stack:


Matter Raspberry Pi GPIO Commander – Turn Your Pi into a Matter Lighting Device


"Securing name resolution in the IoT: DNS over CoAP"

From :

> Matter aims to build a universal IPv6-based communication protocol for smart home devices. The protocol defines the application layer that will be deployed on devices and the different link layers to help maintain interoperability. The following diagram illustrates the normal operational mode of the stack:

> [...] It is built with market-proven technologies using Internet Protocol (IP) and is compatible with Thread and Wi-Fi network transports.

> Matter was developed by a Working Group within the Connectivity Standards Alliance (Alliance). This Working Group develops and promotes the adoption of the Matter standard, a royalty-free connectivity standard to increase compatibility among smart home products, with security as a fundamental design tenet. The vision that led major industry players to come together to build Matter is that smart connectivity should be simple, reliable, and interoperable.

> [...] The code examples show simple interactions, and are supported on multiple transports -- Wi-Fi and Thread -- starting with resource-constrained (i.e., memory, processing) silicon platforms to help ensure Matter’s scalability.

Would it make sense to have an mqtt transport for matter? Or a bridge; like homeassistant or similar? lists mqtt

Is there already a good (security) comparison of e.g. http basic auth, x10, ZigBee, mqtt, matter?


Exploring the native use of 64-bit posit arithmetic in scientific computing

Unum (number format) > Posit (Type III Unum) :

> Posits have superior accuracy in the range near one, where most computations occur. This makes it very attractive to the current trend in deep learning to minimise the number of bits used. It potentially helps any application to accelerate by enabling the use of fewer bits (since it has more fraction bits for accuracy) reducing network and memory bandwidth and power requirements.

> [...] Note: 32-bit posit is expected to be sufficient to solve almost all classes of applications [citation needed]


Researchers craft a fully edible battery

"Researchers find major storage capacity in metal-free aqueous batteries" :

"The role of the electrolyte in non-conjugated radical polymers for metal-free aqueous energy storage electrodes." (2023) DOI: 10.1038/s41563-023-01518-z

"A sustainable battery with a biodegradable electrolyte made from crab shells" (2022) :

"A sustainable chitosan-zinc electrolyte for high-rate zinc-metal batteries" (2022)

Chitosan :

> Chitosan /ˈkaɪtəsæn/ is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1→4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is made by treating the chitin shells of shrimp and other crustaceans with an alkaline substance, such as sodium hydroxide.

Is there a sustainable way to produce Chitosan, which is an electrolyte? Ctrl-F "anode" :

> Here's a discussion about the lower costs of hemp supercapacitors as compared with graphene super capacitors:

"Why Salt Water may be the Future of Batteries" ($5/kwh, energy density, desalinization too, graphene production too)

Flow battery > Other types > Membraneless


MSG is the most misunderstood ingredient of the century. That’s finally changing

MSG: Monosodium Glutamate:

Glutamate–glutamine cycle:

"Multiple Mechanistically Distinct Modes of Endoc annabinoid Mobilization at Central Amygdala Glutamatergic Synapses" (2014)

Glutamine :

> Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. The most relevant glutamine-producing tissue is the muscle mass, accounting for about 90% of all glutamine synthesized. Glutamine is also released, in small amounts, by the lungs and brain. [20] Although the liver is capable of relevant glutamine synthesis, its role in glutamine metabolism is more regulatory than producing, since the liver takes up large amounts of glutamine derived from the gut. [7]

"Glutamine-to-glutamate ratio in the nucleus accumbens predicts effort-based motivated performance in humans" (2020)

> High glutamine-to-glutamate ratio predicts the ability to sustain motivation: The researchers found that individuals with a higher glutamine-to-glutamate ratio had a higher success rate and a lower perception of effort.


Is cancer all about cellular energy from oxygen?

/? lactic acid atp:

- "What is lactic acid?"

> Although blood lactate concentration does increase during intense exercise, the lactic acid molecule itself dissociates and the lactate is recycled and used to create more ATP.

> "Your body naturally metabolizes the lactic acid, clearing it out. The liver can take up some of the lactic acid molecules and convert them back to glucose for fuel," says Grover. "This conversion also reduces the acidity in the blood, thus removing some of the burning sensation. This is a natural process that occurs in the body. Things such as stretching, rolling, or walking will have little to no impact."

> The burning sensation you feel in your legs during a heavy workout probably isn't caused by lactic acid, but instead by tissue damage and inflammation.

> It’s also important to remember that lactate itself isn’t 'bad'. In fact, research in [Bioscience Horizons] suggests that lactate is beneficial to the body during and after exercise in numerous ways. For example, lactate can be used directly by the brain and heart for energy or converted into glucose in the liver or kidneys, which can then be used by nearly any cell in the body for energy.

- :

> Lactic Acid Fermentation: You may have not been aware that your muscle cells can ferment. Fermentation is the process of producing ATP in the absence of oxygen, through glycolysis alone. Recall that glycolysis breaks a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, producing a net gain of two ATP and two NADH molecules. Lactic acid fermentation is the type of anaerobic respiration carried out by yogurt bacteria (Lactobacillus and others) and by your own muscle cells when you work them hard and fast.

Is that relevant to cancer and oxygen, IDK.

Hopefully NIRS + ultrasound ("HIFU" & modern waveguides) can inexpensively treat many more forms of cancer.

From :

> ... "A simple technique to overcome self-focusing, filamentation, supercontinuum generation, aberrations, depth dependence and waveguide interface roughness using fs laser processing" [w/ Dual Beams]


See this page fetch itself, byte by byte, over TLS

gmac | 2023-05-10 02:51:33 | 1338 | # | ^ (A proof-of-concept TypeScript TLS 1.3 client) is implemented with the SubtleCrypto API.

TIL about SubtleCrypto :

> The SubtleCrypto interface of the Web Crypto API provides a number of low-level cryptographic functions. Access to the features of SubtleCrypto is obtained through the subtle property of the Crypto object you get from the crypto property.

Can SubtleCrypto accelerate any of the W3C Verifiable Credential Data Integrity 1.0 APIs? vc-data-integrity: ctrl-f "signature suite"

> ISSUE: Avoid signature format proliferation by using text-based suite value The pattern that Data Integrity Signatures use presently leads to a proliferation in signature types and JSON-LD Contexts. This proliferation can be avoided without any loss of the security characteristics of tightly binding a cryptography suite version to one or more acceptable public keys. The following signature suites are currently being contemplated: eddsa-2022, nist-ecdsa-2022, koblitz-ecdsa-2022, rsa-2022, pgp-2022, bbs-2022, eascdsa-2022, ibsa-2022, and jws-2022.

But what about "Kyber, NTRU, {FIPS-140-3}? [TLS1.4/2.0?]" i.e. PQ Post-Quantum signature suites? Why don't those need to be URIs, too?


Loophole-free Bell inequality violation with superconducting circuits

"Loophole-free Bell test ‘Spooky action at a distance’, no cheating (" (2015)

/? ./hnlog: "nonlocal", "unitarity":

From "The fundamental thermodynamic costs of communication" (2023) :

> Isn't there more entropy if we consider all possible nonlocal relations between bits; or, is which entropy metric independent of redundant coding schemes between points in spacetime?

From "New neural network architecture inspired by neural system of a worm" (2023) :

> Is there an information metric which expresses maximal nonlocal connectivity between bits in a bitstring; that takes all possible (nonlocal, discontiguous) paths into account?

> `n_nodes2` only describes all of the binary, pairwise possible relations between the bits or qubits in a bitstring?*

> "But what is a convolution"

> Quantum discord:

From "Formal methods only solve half my problems" (2022) :

> It might be argued that side channels exist whenever there is a shared channel; which is always, because plenoptic functions, wave function, air gap, ram bus mhz, nonlocal entanglement

> Category:Side-channel attacks

/? ./hnlog: "entanglement" ... Quantum FlyTrap


Show HN: – Better Python Notebooks

Hello everyone,

I would like to introduce our startup to HN: is a production-ready SaaS Python notebook that provides a complete environment for building your data applications: Dashboards, Reports, and Data Pipelines based on Python notebooks.

Key features:

* Superpowered jupyter-compatible Python notebooks with extra goodies like: version control, commenting support, custom docker images, etc... enhanced with no code components that allow to create beautiful dashboards and reports.

* Data Pipelines: Ability to schedule and run one or more notebooks.

* Integrated file system to manage your files and projects with detailed permissions and groups.

We have a freemium licensing model, so you can start using Mineo just by registering with your Github/Google/Microsoft account for free without a credit card. And it's free for educational purposes ;-)



> Crafting workflows out of notebooks is a really bad idea; an anti-pattern. If you want to go down the road of "workflows for data scientists" Ctrl-F "DVC" ( ) , "Ten Simple Rules for Reproducible Computational Research", “Ten Simple Rules for Creating a Good Data Management Plan”, PROV

pygwalker :

> PyGWalker: Turn your pandas dataframe into a Tableau-style User Interface for visual analysis

"Generate code from GUI interactions; State restoration & Undo"

The Scientific Method is testing, so testing (tests, assertions, fixtures) should be core to any scientific workflow system.

- [ ] (It's not possible to run `!pytest` in a Jupyter notebook without installing an extension with JupyterLite in WASM onnly where there's not yet a terminal or even yet a slow-but-usable [cheerpx] webvm bridged to jupyter kernel WASM ~process-space.)


ml-tooling/best-of-jupyter lists papermill/papermill under "Interactive Widgets/Visualization"

"Markdown based notebooks" would store files next to the, which implies a need for an MHTML/ZIP-like archive (for report notebook artifacts produced by scientific workflow systems with provenance metadata); but W3C Web Bundles avoid modifying linked resources with new specs:


Google will label fake images created with its A.I

> Google’s approach is to label the images when they come out of the AI system, instead of trying to determine whether they’re real later on. Google said Shutterstock and Midjourney would support this new markup approach. Google developer documentation says the markup will be able to categorize images as trained algorithmic media, which was made by an AI model; a composite image that was partially made with an AI model; or algorithmic media, which was created by a computer but isn’t based on training data.

Can it store at least: (1) the prompt; and (2) the model which purportedly were generated by a Turing robot with said markup specification? Is it JSON-LD?

It's IPTC:

If IPTC-to-RDF i.e./e.g. schema:ImageObject (schema:CreativeWork > mappings are complete, it would be possible to sign IPTC metadata with W3C Verifiable Credentials (and e.g. W3C DIDs) just like any other [JSON-LD,] RDF; but is there an IPTC schema extension for appending signatures, and/or is there an IPTC graph normalization step that generates equivalent output to a (web-standardized) JSON-LD normalization function?

/? IPTC jsonschema:


IPTC extension schema:

[ Examples of input parameters & hyperparameters: from e.g. the screenshot in the of stablediffusion-webui or text-generation-webui: ]

How should input parameters and e.g. LLM model version & signed checksum and model hyperparameters be stored next to a generated CreativeWork? filename.png.meta.jsonld.json or similar?

If an LLM passes the Turing test ("The Imitation Game") - i.e. has output indistinguishable from a human's output - does that imply that it is not possible to stylometrically fingerprint its outputs without intentional watermarking?


Tell HN: We should start to add “ai.txt” as we do for “robots.txt”

I started to add an ai.txt to my projects. The file is just a basic text file with some useful info about the website like what it is about, when was it published, the author, etc etc.

It can be great if the website somehow ends up in a training dataset (who knows), and it can be super helpful for AI website crawlers, instead of using thousands of tokens to know what your website is about, they can do it with just a few hundred.


Thing > CreativeWork > WebSite ... scroll down to "Examples" and click the "JSON-LD" and/or "RDFa" tabs. (And if there isn't an example then go to the URL of a superClassOf (rdfs:subClassOf) of the rdfs:Class or rdfs:Property; there are many markup examples for CreativeWork and subtypes).



extruct is one way to parse linked data from HTML pages:

security.txt :

> security.txt provides a way for websites to define security policies. The security.txt file sets clear guidelines for security researchers on how to report security issues. security.txt is the equivalent of robots.txt, but for security issues.

Carbon.txt: :

> A proposed convention for website owners and digital service providers to demonstrate that their digital infrastructure runs on green electricity.

"Work out how to make it discoverable - well-known, TXT records or root domains" re: JSON-LD instead of txt, signed records with W3C Verifiable Credentials (and blockcerts/cert-verifier-js)

SPDX is a standard for specifying software licenses (and now SBOMs Software Bill of Materials, too)

It would be transparent to disclose the SBOM in AI.txt or elsewhere.

How many parsers should be necessary for metadata for resources with (Linked Data) URIs?


JSON-LD or RDFa (RDF in HTML attributes) in at least the /index.html the HTML footer should be sufficient to indicate that there is structured linked data metadata for crawlers that then don't need an HTTP request to a .well-known URL /.well-known/ai_security_reproducibility_carbon.txt.jsonld.json

OSV is a new format for reporting security vulnerabilities like CVEs and an HTTP API for looking up CVEs from software component name and version.

A number of tools integrate with OSV-schema data hosted by :

> We provide a Go based tool that will scan your dependencies, and check them against the OSV database for known vulnerabilities via the OSV API.

> Currently it is able to scan various lockfiles [ repo2docker REES config files like and requirements.txt, Pipfile lock, environment.yml, or a custom Dockerfile, ], debian docker containers, SPDX and CycloneDB SBOMs, and git repositories.


Language models can explain neurons in language models


Not supported by neuroimaging. Promoted without evidence or sufficient causal inference. :

> But, the evidence discounting the left/right brain concept is accumulating. According to a 2013 study from the University of Utah, brain scans demonstrate that activity is similar on both sides of the brain regardless of one's personality.

> They looked at the brain scans of more than 1,000 young people between the ages of 7 and 29 and divided different areas of the brain into 7,000 regions to determine whether one side of the brain was more active or connected than the other side. No evidence of "sidedness" was found. The authors concluded that the notion of some people being more left-brained or right-brained is more a figure of speech than an anatomically accurate description.

Here's wikipedia on the topic: "Lateralization of brain function"

Furthermore, "Neuropsychoanalysis"


Personality psychology > ~Biophysiological:

MBTI > Criticism:



Given that functional localization varies widely from subject to subject per modern neuroimaging, how are split brain experiments more than crude attempts to confirm functional specialization (which is already confirmed without traumatically severing a corpus callosum) "hemispheric" or "lateral"?

Neuroimaging indicates high levels of redundancy and variance in spatiotemporal activation.

Studies of cortices and other tissues have already shown that much of the neural tissue of the brain is general purpose.

Why is executive functioning significantly but not exclusively in the tissue of the forebrain, the frontal lobes?


Functional specialization > Major theories of the brain> Modularity or/and Distributive processing: :

> Modularity: [...] The difficulty with this theory is that in typical non-lesioned subjects, locations within the brain anatomy are similar but not completely identical. There is a strong defense for this inherent deficit in our ability to generalize when using functional localizing techniques (fMRI, PET etc.). To account for this problem, the coordinate-based Talairach and Tournoux stereotaxic system is widely used to compare subjects' results to a standard brain using an algorithm. Another solution using coordinates involves comparing brains using sulcal reference points. A slightly newer technique is to use functional landmarks, which combines sulcal and gyral landmarks (the groves and folds of the cortex) and then finding an area well known for its modularity such as the fusiform face area. This landmark area then serves to orient the researcher to the neighboring cortex. [7]

Is there a way to address the brain with space-filling curves around ~loci/landmarks? For brain2brain etc

FWIU, Markham's lab found that the brain is at max 11D in some places; But an electron wave model (in the time domain) may or must be sufficient according to psychoenergetics (Bearden)

> Distributive processing: [...] McIntosh's research suggests that human cognition involves interactions between the brain regions responsible for processes sensory information, such as vision, audition, and other mediating areas like the prefrontal cortex. McIntosh explains that modularity is mainly observed in sensory and motor systems, however, beyond these very receptors, modularity becomes "fuzzier" and you see the cross connections between systems increase.[33] He also illustrates that there is an overlapping of functional characteristics between the sensory and motor systems, where these regions are close to one another. These different neural interactions influence each other, where activity changes in one area influence other connected areas. With this, McIntosh suggest that if you only focus on activity in one area, you may miss the changes in other integrative areas.[33] Neural interactions can be measured using analysis of covariance in neuroimaging [...]

FWIU electrons are most appropriately modeled with Minkowski 4-space in the time-domain; (L^3)t

Neuroplasticity: :

> The adult brain is not entirely "hard-wired" with fixed neuronal circuits. There are many instances of cortical and subcortical rewiring of neuronal circuits in response to training as well as in response to injury.

> There is ample evidence [53] for the active, experience-dependent re-organization of the synaptic networks of the brain involving multiple inter-related structures including the cerebral cortex.[54] The specific details of how this process occurs at the molecular and ultrastructural levels are topics of active neuroscience research. The way experience can influence the synaptic organization of the brain is also the basis for a number of theories of brain function

"Representational drift: Emerging theories for continual learning and experimental future directions" (2022) :

> Recent work has revealed that the neural activity patterns correlated with sensation, cognition, and action often are not stable and instead undergo large scale changes over days and weeks—a phenomenon called representational drift. Here, we highlight recent observations of drift, how drift is unlikely to be explained by experimental confounds, and how the brain can likely compensate for drift to allow stable computation. We propose that drift might have important roles in neural computation to allow continual learning, both for separating and relating memories that occur at distinct times. Finally, we present an outlook on future experimental directions that are needed to further characterize drift and to test emerging theories for drift's role in computation.

So, to run the same [fMRI, NIRS,] stimulus response activation observation/burn-in again weeks or months later with the same subjects is likely necessary given Representational drift.

"EM Wave Polarization Transductions" Lt. Col. T.E Bearden (1999) :

> Physical observation (via the transverse photon interaction) is the process given by applying the operator ∂/∂t to (L^3)t, yielding an L3 output.


IPyflow: Reactive Python Notebooks in Jupyter(Lab)


jupyter_console is the IPython REPL for non-ipykernel jupyter kernels.

This magic command logs IPython REPL input and output to a file:

  %logstart -o


Machine Learning Containers Are Bloated and Vulnerable :

> jupyter-repo2docker is a tool to build, run, and push Docker images from source code repositories.

> repo2docker fetches a repository (from GitHub, GitLab, Zenodo, Figshare, Dataverse installations, a Git repository or a local directory) and builds a container image in which the code can be executed. The image build process is based on the configuration files found in the repository.

> repo2docker can be used to explore a repository locally by building and executing the constructed image of the repository, or as a means of building images that are pushed to a Docker registry.

> repo2docker is the tool used by BinderHub to build images on demand

There are maintenance advantages and longer time to patch with kitchen-sink ML containers like kaggle/docker-python because it takes work to entirely bump all of the versions in the requirements specification files (and run integration tests to make sure code still runs after upgrading everything or one thing at a time).

What's best practice for including a sizeable dataset in a container (that's been recently re-) built with repo2docker?


Health advisory on social media use in adolescence


Would it be abusive or advisable to adapt edtech offerings in light of social media and slot machines' UX user experience findings?

While they should never appease students, can't infotech and edtech learn how to keep their attention, too?

Perhaps prompt engineering can help to create engaging educational content with substantive progress metrics?

"Build a game in JS (like game category XYZ) to teach quantum entropy to beginners"

And then what prompt additions could help to social media-ify the game?

How should social media reinforce human communication behaviors with or without the stated age of the user? Should there be a "D- because that's harassment" panda video to reinforce? Which presidential role models' communication styles should AI emulate?

I find it sad to consider that the most impactful thing to do to improve children's lives would be to ban them from social media due to their age; though, for the record, e.g. Facebook did originally require a .edu email address at an approving institution.

Hopefully, Khanmigo and similar AI edtech offerings will be more engaging than preferentially reviewing unacceptable abuse online; but kids and people still need to learn to interact respectfully online in order to succeed.

Reactivating Dormant Cells in the Retina Brings New Hope for Vision Regeneration

"Direct neuronal reprogramming by temporal identity factors" (2023) :

> Abstract: Temporal identity factors are sufficient to reprogram developmental competence of neural progenitors and shift cell fate output, but whether they can also reprogram the identity of terminally differentiated cells is unknown. To address this question, we designed a conditional gene expression system that allows rapid screening of potential reprogramming factors in mouse retinal glial cells combined with genetic lineage tracing. Using this assay, we found that coexpression of the early temporal identity transcription factors Ikzf1 and Ikzf4 is sufficient to directly convert Müller glial (MG) cells into cells that translocate to the outer nuclear layer (ONL), where photoreceptor cells normally reside. We name these “induced ONL (iONL)” cells. Using genetic lineage tracing, histological, immunohistochemical, and single-cell transcriptome and multiome analyses, we show that expression of Ikzf1/4 in MG in vivo, without retinal injury, mostly generates iONL cells that share molecular characteristics with bipolar cells, although a fraction of them stain for Rxrg, a cone photoreceptor marker. Furthermore, we show that coexpression of Ikzf1 and Ikzf4 can reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced neurons in culture by rapidly remodeling chromatin and activating a neuronal gene expression program. This work uncovers general neuronal reprogramming properties for temporal identity factors in terminally differentiated cells.

Is it possible to produce or convert Müller glial cells with Nanotransfection (stroma reprogramming), too?

From re: "Retinoid restores eye-specific brain responses in mice with retinal degeneration" (2022) :

> Null hypothesis: A Nanotransfection (vasculogenic stromal reprogramming) intervention would not result in significant retinal or corneal regrowth

> ... With or without: a nerve growth factor, e.g. fluoxetine to induce plasticity in the adult visual cortex, combination therapy with cultured conjunctival IPS, laser mechanical scar tissue evisceration and removal, local anesthesia, robotic support, Retinoid

> Nanotransfection: :

>> Most reprogramming methods have a heavy reliance on viral transfection. [22][23] TNT allows for implementation of a non-viral approach which is able to overcome issues of capsid size, increase safety, and increase deterministic reprogramming


Ask HN: Did anyone ever create GitLaw?

A thread from 11 years ago[0] proposed a "A GitHub for Laws and Legal Documents". Did anyone ever develop something similar to this? Even without the ability to propose changes, being able to view a git history of passed bills would be useful for anyone who would want to analyze the changes over time.

If a tool has been built, please share it. If not, what are the major blockers to at least building the history / diff tool?


Various localities upload their statutes to a git repository hosted as a GitHub project; but I'm not aware of any using Pull Request (PR) workflows to propose or debate legislative bills (or to enter or link to case law precedent for review).

The US Library of Congress operates the THOMAS system for legislative bills. How could THOMAS be improved; in order to support evidence-based policy; in order to improve democracy in democratic republics like the US?

How do state systems for legislative bills document workflows and beyond compare to THOMAS, the US federal Congress system? Why do we need 50+1 independent [open source?] software applications; could states work together on such essential systems?

IIRC, LOC invested in improving THOMAS with: markup language to typographically-readable HTML support?

It may be helpful to send an email to your state with the regex regular expression pattern necessary to make online statute section and subsection references a href links instead of non-clickable string. TIL the section sign ("§") is older than the hyperlink;

Parliamentary informatics:

FWIU, diffing documents is a solved problem.

How could pull request workflows be improved in order to support legislative and post-legislative workflows (like controlling for whether a funded plan actually has the proscribed impact)?

High School and College Policy debate (CX; Cross Examination debate) enjoy equal rights to 'fiat'. IRL, we must control for whether the plan and funding have the predicted impact.

E.g. GitHub and GitLab have various features that could support legislative workflows: code owners, multiple approvals required to merge, emoji reactions on Issues and Pull Requests and comments therein such that you don't have to say why you voted a particular way, GPG-signatures required for commit and merge, 2FA.

FWIU, the Aragorn / district0x projects have some of the first DLT-based (Blockchain) systems for democracy; all of the rest of us trust one party to share root access and multi-site backup responsibilities and have insufficient DDOS protections.


Show HN: ReRender AI - Realistic Architectural Renders for AutoCAD/Blender Users

Different but the same problem: "Generate a heat sink heat exchanger with maximum efficiency, shaped like a passive solar home"

TIL from off-gridders and homesteaders about passive solar design so that the air moves through the home without HVAC (compared with high rise buildings where it is necessary to pump water up like a gravitational potential water tower.)

Does ReRender AI have features for sustainable architecture?

Prompt: "Design a passive solar high-rise building with maximal energy storage and production"

Notes from "Zero energy ready homes are coming" (2023)


Exciton Fission Breakthrough Could Revolutionize Photovoltaic Solar Cells

> Researchers have resolved the mechanism of exciton fission, which could increase solar-to-electricity efficiency by one-third, potentially revolutionizing photovoltaic technology.

“Orbital-resolved observation of singlet fission” by Alexander Neef, Samuel Beaulieu, Sebastian Hammer, Shuo Dong, Julian Maklar, Tommaso Pincelli, R. Patrick Xian, Martin Wolf, Laurenz Rettig, Jens Pflaum and Ralph Ernstorfer, 12 April 2023, Nature. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-05814-1 : :

> Abstract: Singlet fission may boost photovoltaic efficiency by transforming a singlet exciton into two triplet excitons and thereby doubling the number of excited charge carriers. The primary step of singlet fission is the ultrafast creation of the correlated triplet pair. Whereas several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this step, none has emerged as a consensus. The challenge lies in tracking the transient excitonic states. Here we use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to observe the primary step of singlet fission in crystalline pentacene. Our results indicate a charge-transfer mediated mechanism with a hybridization of Frenkel and charge-transfer states in the lowest bright singlet exciton. We gained intimate knowledge about the localization and the orbital character of the exciton wave functions recorded in momentum maps. This allowed us to directly compare the localization of singlet and bitriplet excitons and decompose energetically overlapping states on the basis of their orbital character. Orbital- and localization-resolved many-body dynamics promise deep insights into the mechanics governing molecular systems and topological materials


Latex users are slower than Word users and make more errors (2014)

And neither typesetting activity results in reusable LinkedData; because it's still not possible to publish Linked Data (or indeed data and its schema) with LaTeX, or Word, or PDF.

ScholarlyArticles' most relevant purpose is to link to the schema:Dataset that the presented analysis is predicated upon.

ScholarlyArticle authors should consider the value of data reuse and (linked data) schema in choosing a typesetting and publishing format.

Is there a better way to publish Linked Data with existing tools like LaTeX, PDF, or Word? Which support CSVW? Which support RDF/RDFa/JSON-LD?

How could authors express experimental study controls with URIs; with qualified typed edges to the data (and a cryptographic signature from an IRB and the ScholarlyArticle's authors).

> Is there a better way to publish Linked Data with existing tools like LaTeX, PDF, or Word? Which support CSVW? Which support RDF/RDFa/JSON-LD?

- [ ] ~"How to publish Linked Data with Jupyter notebooks" #todo #LinkedReproducibility #LinkedResearch

- [ ] westurner/nbmeta, jupyter*/?: Linked Data result object for notebooks; with a _repr_mimebundle_() and application/ld+json

- [ ] python 3.x+ grammar: de-restrict use of the walrus assignment operator := so that users can assign to the LD dict result object and implicitly IPython.display.display() it because walrus assignment returns the object assigned (whereas normal = assignment does not return a value)

- [ ] westurner/nbmeta?, JLab, jupyter-book: JSON-LD Playground widget to display and reframe JSON-LD (& maybe YAML-LD, too)

- [ ] jupyterlab: notebook level bibliographic metadata

- [ ] jupyterlab: JS/TypeScript: JSON-LD/YAML-LD editor widget also built on codemirror like JLab or a different existing RDFJS library or?

- [ ] rdflib, jupyter nb, sphinx, pygments: add YAML-LD syntax support (now that there's a W3C spec)

- [ ] MyST markdown, sphinx, docutils: YAML-LD in MyST [in: code-fence attr syntax,] in order to add Linked Data to MyST Markdown documents and thus Jupyter Notebooks and Jupyter Books

- [ ] hypothesis/h, sphinx-comments: Linked Data Annotations (within nested Markdown, like hypothesis' W3C Web Annotations support); cc re: 'MyST-LD' Markdown: quoting "@id", "@context" in YAML-LD

- [ ] atomspace-like TrustValues with RDFstar/SPARQLstar (in YAML-LD because that implies JSON-LD)

- [ ] dvc, GitHub Actions, GitLab CI, Gitea Actions,: how to add PROV RDF Linked Data metadata to workflows like's & container+command-in-YAML approach

- [ ] Microsoft/excel, Microsoft/VSCode: How to CSVW and PROV with spreadsheets and or code ; see also Excel speed-running competitons

- [ ] REQ: jupyter/rtc+linkeddata/dokieli: howto integrate Jupyter notebooks with the list of specs in the dokieli README

- [ ] njupyter/nbformat#?: a post- .ipynb notebook + resources spec? W3C Web Bundles have advantages including: you don't have to rewrite URLs in content saved offline like MHTML (mv $1.mhtml $

- [ ] JupyterLab, VSCode: CoCalc - which supports Time Travel version control over notebooks, LaTeX docs, - added a TODO: ~not_editable code cell metadata item; which is more like lab notebooks in pen; but there's not GUI support in JLab or other Jupyter notebook nbformat implementations yet

- [ ] Jupyter/nbformat, ipywidgets, jupyterlab,: How to save widget state:

> How could authors express experimental study controls with URIs; with qualified typed edges to the data (and a cryptographic signature from an IRB and the ScholarlyArticle's authors).

Verifiable Credentials Data Model v1.1:

Verifiable Credential Data Integrity 1.0: Securing the Integrity of Verifiable Credential Data: :

> Abstract: This specification describes mechanisms for ensuring the authenticity and integrity of Verifiable Credentials and similar types of constrained digital documents using cryptography, especially through the use of digital signatures and related mathematical proofs.

Because data quality, data reuse, code reuse, web standard specifications, structured data outputs with provenance metadata for partially-automated metaanalyses,;


The skills gap for Fortran looms large in HPC


TIOBE index is rivaled by the annual Stack Overflow Developer Survey in some regards :

> Most popular technologies This year, we're comparing the popular technologies across three different groups: All respondents, Professional Developers, and those that are learning to code.

Most popular technologies > Programming, scripting, and markup languages

The Top 500 Green500 (and the TechEmpower Web Framework benchmarks) are also great resources for estimating what people did this past year; what are the "BigE" of our models in terms of water, kwh of [directly or PPA-offset] sourced clean energy.


The Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide

Ctrl-F "rust" links to LWN articles at that suggest that only basic modules are yet possible with the rust support in Linux kernels 6.2 and 6.3.

Rust-for-linux links to the Android binder module though: :

> Android Binder Driver: This project is an effort to rewrite Android's Binder kernel driver in Rust.

> Motivation: Binder is one of the most security and performance critical components of Android. Android isolates apps from each other and the system by assigning each app a unique user ID (UID). This is called "application sandboxing", and is a fundamental tenet of the Android Platform Security Model.

> The majority of inter-process communication (IPC) on Android goes through Binder. Thus, memory unsafety vulnerabilities are especially critical when they happen in the Binder driver

... "Rust in the Linux kernel" (2021) :

> [...] We also need designs that allow code in the two languages to interact with each other: we're particularly interested in safe, zero-cost abstractions that allow Rust code to use kernel functionality written in C, and how to implement functionality in idiomatic Rust that can be called seamlessly from the C portions of the kernel.

> Since Rust is a new language for the kernel, we also have the opportunity to enforce best practices in terms of documentation and uniformity. For example, we have specific machine-checked requirements around the usage of unsafe code: for every unsafe function, the developer must document the requirements that need to be satisfied by callers to ensure that its usage is safe; additionally, for every call to unsafe functions (or usage of unsafe constructs like dereferencing a raw pointer), the developer must document the justification for why it is safe to do so.

> We'll now show how such a driver would be implemented in Rust, contrasting it with a C implementation. [...]

Is this the source for the rust port of the Android binder kernel module?:

This guide with unsafe rust that calls into the C, and then with next gen much safer rust right next to it would be a helpful resource too.

What of the post-docker container support (with userspaces also written in go) should be cloned to rust first?

What are some good examples of non-trivial Linux kernel modules written in Rust?


In your opinion, do you think that the microkernel approach is more secure? (Should processes run as separate users with separate SELinux contexts like Android 4.4+)

Why do you think that the Android binder module rust implementation is listed as an example of a Rust for Linux kernel module on the site?

"Android AOSP Can Boot Off Mainline Linux 5.9 With Just One Patch" (2020) :

> The Android open-source project "AOSP" with its latest code is very close to being able to boot off the mainline Linux kernel when assuming the device drivers are all upstream.

Other distros support kmods and akmods: :

> How kmod / akmod // DKMS work is something that the community is maybe not real familiar with.


Waydroid (Android in containers) requires binder and optionally ashmem, though ashmem is not required anymore because memfd works with vanilla kernel:

There is a Google Play Certification process for waydroid devices:

(That manual provisioning step is not necessary for e.g. optional widevine DRM on other OSes)

IIRC, when I tried to install LEGO Boost app (before I found pybricks and wokwi simulator) on Waydroid, I had trouble patching Bluetooth BLE on the host through to the waydroid container; due to device virtualization less than modules fwiu


xPrize Wildfire – $11M Prize Competition


Wildfire suppression:

History of wildfire suppression in the United States:

Controlled burn:

> A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard reduction burning, [1] backfire, swailing, or a burn-off, [2] is a fire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, fire suppression, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. A controlled burn may also refer to the intentional burning of slash and fuels through burn piles. [3] Fire is a natural part of both forest and grassland ecology and controlled fire can be a tool for foresters.



Water-based batteries have less fire risk FWIU

"1,000% Difference: Major Storage Capacity in Water-Based Batteries Found" (2023)

> The metal-free water-based batteries are unique from those that utilize cobalt in their lithium-ion form. The research group’s focus on this type of battery stems from a desire for greater control over the domestic supply chain as cobalt and lithium are commonly sourced from outside the country. Additionally, the batteries’ safer chemistry could prevent fires.


TIL about building materials and fire hazard:

Fire resistance rating:


Here's a prompt to help with selecting sustainable building materials: """Generate a JSON-LD document of data with citations comparing building materials by: R-value, Fire Resistance Rating, typical structural integrity longevity in terms of years, VOCs at year 1 and year 5, and Sustainability factors like watt-hours and carbon and other pollutive outputs to produce, transport, distribute, install, and maintain . Include hempcrete (hemp and lime, which can be made from algae), rammed earth with and without shredded hemp hurds, wood, structural concrete, bamboo, and other emerging sustainable building materials.

Demonstrate loading the JSON data into a Pandas DataFrame and how to sort by multiple columns (with references to the docs for the tools used), and how to load the data into pygwalker."""

> a set of sprinklers that ring the house and cover the roof/deck. They are not designed to fight the fire, instead I can activate them before a fire arrives to get things good and wet. This perimeter reduces the available fuels, reduces the heat load on the structure and reduces the risk of ember cast. It was a fun project with an ESP controller to sequence the valves and provide remote control.

I searched a bit and couldn't find any smart home integrations that automatically hopefully turn the lawn and garden sprinklers on when a fire alarm goes off.

Are there any good reasons to not have that be a standard default feature if both smoke detectors and sprinklers are connected to a smart home system?


> Hydrogel

From :

>> What about #CO² -based #hydrogels for fire fighting?

>> /? Hydrogel firefighting (2022) […]

>> IDEA: How to make #hydrogels (and #aerogels) from mostly just {air*, CO², algae, shade, and sunshine,} [on earth, and eventually in space,]?

> Aerogel

From :

> Problem: #airogel made of CO² is an excellent insulator that's useful for many applications; but it needs structure, so foam+airogel but that requires smelly foam

> Possible solution: Cause structure to form in the airogel.

Backpack shoulder straps on e.g. Jansport backpacks have a geometric rubber mesh that's visible through a plastic window.

## Possible methods of causing structure to form in aerogel

- EM Hz: literally play EM waves (and possibly deliberately inverse convolutions) at the {#airogel,} production process

- Titratation

- Centrifugation

- "Volt grid": apply volts/amps/Hz patterns with a probe array

- Thermal/photonic bath 3d printing

- Pour a lattice-like lens as large as the aerogel sections and allow solar to cause it to slowly congeal to a more structural form in advantageous shapes

- Die-casting, pressure-injection molding

> Water-based batteries have less fire risk FWIU

CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage and Gravitational potential energy storage also have less fire risk then Lithium Ion batteries.

FWIU we already have enough abandoned mines in the world to do all of our energy storage needs?

Could CAES tanks filled with air+CO² help suppress wildfire?

> FWIU we already have enough abandoned mines in the world to do all of our energy storage needs?

Here's a prompt for this one, for the AI:

"Let's think step-by-step: how much depth or volume of empty mines are needed to solve for US energy storage demand with gravitational potential energy storage drones on or off tracks in abandoned mines? Please respond with constants and code as Python SymPy code with a pytest test_main and Hypothesis @given decorator tests"


Show HN: Frogmouth – A Markdown browser for the terminal

Hi HN,

Frogmouth is a TUI to display Markdown files. It does a passable job of displaying Markdown, with code blocks and tables. No image support as yet.

It's very browser like, with navigation stack, history, and bookmarks. Works with both the mouse and keyboard.

There are shortcuts for viewing files and other Markdown on GitHub and GitLab.

License is MIT.

Let me know what you think...

Could Frogmouth display Markdown cells in Jupyter Notebooks on the CLI?

FWIW, IPython is built with Python Prompt Toolkit and Jupyter_console is IPython for non-python kernels; `conda install -y jupyter_console; jupyter kernelspec -h`. But those only do `%logstart -o`; Markdown in notebooks on the CLI is basically unheard-of.


FWIU coc.vim works with vim and nvim and works with VSCode LSP support:

There are many LSP implementations:

awesome-neovim Ctrl-F "DAP":

mason.nvim: :

> Portable package manager for Neovim that runs everywhere Neovim runs. Easily install and manage LSP servers, DAP servers, linters, and formatters.


DAP: Debug Adapter Protocol


Stanford, Harvard data science no more

Do Stanford or Harvard have a UC BIDS: UC Berkeley Institute of Data Science?

> This is the [open] textbook for the Foundations of Data Science class at UC Berkeley: "Computational and Inferential Thinking: The Foundations of Data Science" (JupyterBook w/ notebooks and MyST Markdown) :

> [#1 Undergrad Data Science program, #2 ranked Graduate Statistics program]

Data literacy: :

> Data literacy is distinguished from statistical literacy since it involves understanding what data means, including the ability to read graphs and charts as well as draw conclusions from data.[6] Statistical literacy, on the other hand, refers to the "ability to read and interpret summary statistics in everyday media" such as graphs, tables, statements, surveys, and studies. [6]

Data Literacy and Statistical Literacy are essential for good leadership. For citizens to be capable of Evidence-Based Policy, we need Data Driven Journalism (DDJ) and curricular data science in the public high schools.


Debugging a Mixed Python and C Language Stack


From en ENH: Mixed Python/C debugging (GDB,) #284

> "Users can do [mixed mode] debugging with GDB (and/or other debuggers) and log the session in a notebook; in particular in order to teach.

> Your question is specifically about IDEs with support for mixed-mode debugging (with gdb), so I went looking for an answer:

> (which is not responsive and almost unreadable on a mobile device) links to , which mentions the py-list, py-up and py-down, py-bt, py-print, and py-locals GDB commands that are also described in * *

> Ctrl-F "gdb" mentions: DDD, pyclewn (vim), trepan3k (which is gdb-like and supports breaking at c-line and also handles bytecode disassembly)

> Apparently, GHIDRA does not have a debugger but there is a plugin for following along with gdb in ghidra called [...] (zero dependencies)

> lists a number of GUIs for GDB; including voltronnn:

>> There's Voltron, which is an extensible Python debugger UI that supports LLDB, GDB, VDB, and WinDbg/CDB (via PyKD) and runs on macOS, Linux and Windows. For the first three it supports x86, x86_64, and arm with even arm64 support for lldb while adding even powerpc support for gdb.

> "The GDB Python API" describes the GDB Python API.

> may be helpful [for writing-a-c-function-to-call-any-python-unit-test]

> The GDB Python API docs:

> The devguide gdb page may be the place to list IDEs with support for mixed-mode debugging of Python and C/C++/Cython specifically with gdb?

These days, we have CFFI and Apache Arrow for C+Python etc. lists the GDB debugging symbol packages for various distros

FWIU Fedora GDB now optionally automatically installs debug syms; from attempting to debug TuxMath SDL with GDB before just installing the Flatpak. (2021) describes more recent efforts to improve Python debugging with c extensions


Teach at a Community College

> Learning to teach

To learn, teach.


If none teach, few can do or teach.

"This is where teachers are paid the most" (2021) :

> Globally, teachers’ salaries vary hugely, according to the OECD’s Education At A Glance 2021 report


Twitter drops “Government-funded”/“state-affiliated“ from NPR, BBC, RT, Xinhua

Perhaps it would be more appropriate to retain the existing label, link to the resource indicating how much state financial support and/or editorial control, and also label other publishers by their known revenue methods:

- advertising supported

- directly politically supported

- PAC-funded

- SPAC-funded

- nonprofit organization [in territories x, y, z]

And maybe also their methods of journalism; in the interest of evidence-based policy by way of evidence-based journalism:

- Source and Method

- Motive and Intent

- Admissibility vs Publishability

- What else?

Media literacy > Media literacy education

- Do they require disclosure of editorial conflicts of interest?

- Do they require disclosure of journalistic conflicts of interest?

- Do they allow citations?

- Do they require citations?

- Do they list the DOI string in the citation or a URL for NewsArticles about ScholarlyArticles?

- Which contributors are paid?

- Which parent company owns the media outlet?

- Whether they contractually own their credible personalities' media likenesses

- Whether a given social media account is listed as an official disclosure account


Physicists discover that gravity can create light

wglb | 2023-04-19 17:02:26 | 232 | # | ^

Is there a corollary SQG Superfluid Quantum Gravity fluidic description of squeezed coherent states?

And what of a Particle-Wave-Fluid triality?

Noting that I attempted to link to relevant research and cite the source for fluidic corollaries but was prevented from contributing.

FWIW, so inspired, I continued to write a few better prompts for all of this.

"""Explain how specific (for example Fedi and Turok's) theories of gravitons and superfluidity differ from General Relativity, the Standard Model, prevailing theories of Quantum Gravity and dark matter and/or dark energy non-uniform correction coefficients, classical fluid dynamics, and quantum chaos theory in regards to specific phenomena in the quantum foam.

Also, are is there one wave function or are there many; and are they related by operators expressible with qubit quantum computers or are qudits and qutrits necessary to sufficiently model this domain of n body gravity gravitons in a fluid field?

If graviton fields result in photons, what are the conservation symmetry relations in regards to the exchange of gravitons for photons?"""

And then (though apparently currently one must remove "must use `dask_ml.model_selection.GridSearchCV`" presumably due to current response length limits of Google Bard):

"""Design an experiment as a series of steps and Python code to test (1) whether Bernoulli's equations describe gravitons in a superfluidic field; and also (2) there is conservational symmetry in exchange of gravitons and photons. The Python code must use `dask_ml.model_selection.GridSearchCV`, must use SymPy, define constants in the `__dict__` attribute of a class, return experimental output as a `dict`, have pytest tests and Hypothesis `@given` decorator tests, and a `main(argv=sys.argv)` function with a pytest `test_main`, and use `asyncio`."""

Is there now, ironically, a cycle in the comment graph like there are cycles of fluidic nonlinearities in graphs of relations in real complex - possibly adaptive - systems?

FWIR there are Degrees of curl: convergence, divergence

But are paths of photon particles always non-intersecting?



Manipulative Consent Requests

"fraudulent redefinition of consent"

Unconscionability: :

> Unconscionability (sometimes known as unconscionable dealing/conduct in Australia) is a doctrine in contract law that describes terms that are so extremely unjust, or overwhelmingly one-sided in favor of the party who has the superior bargaining power, that they are contrary to good conscience. Typically, an unconscionable contract is held to be unenforceable because no reasonable or informed person would otherwise agree to it. The perpetrator of the conduct is not allowed to benefit, because the consideration offered is lacking, or is so obviously inadequate, that to enforce the contract would be unfair to the party seeking to escape the contract.

Statute of frauds: :

> A statute of frauds is a form of statute requiring that certain kinds of contracts be memorialized in writing, signed by the party against whom they are to be enforced, with sufficient content to evidence the contract. [1][2] […]

> Raising the defense: A defendant in a contract case who wants to use the statute of frauds as a defense must raise it as an affirmative defense in a timely manner. [7] The burden of proving that a written contract exists comes into play only when a statute of frauds defense is raised by the defendant.

Statute of frauds > United States > Uniform Commercial Code: :

> Uniform Commercial Code: In addition to general statutes of frauds, under Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), every state except Louisiana has adopted an additional statute of frauds that relates to the sale of goods. Pursuant to the UCC, contracts for the sale of goods where the price equals $500 or more fall under the statute of frauds, with the exceptions for professional merchants performing their normal business transactions, and for any custom-made items designed for one specific buyer. [42]

IIUC, that means that if the USD amount of a contract for future performance is over $500 the court would regard a statute of frauds argument as just cause for dismissal? Or just goods?


Proliferation of AI weapons among non-state actors could be impossible to stop

Artificial intelligence arms race > Proposals for international regulation:

Counterproliferation: :

> In contrast to nonproliferation, which focuses on diplomatic, legal, and administrative measures to dissuade and impede the acquisition of such weapons, counterproliferation focuses on intelligence, law enforcement, and sometimes military action to prevent their acquisition. [2]


  def hasRightTo_(person) -> bool:
  def hasRight(thing, right) -> bool:
  def haveEqualRights(persons:Iterable, rights:Iterable[Callable]) -> bool:
Practical methods of evidentiary proofs:

  Source, Method; Motive, Intent


Only one pair of distinct positive integers satisfy the equation m^n = n^m


Axiomatic system > Axiomatic method

Inference ; inductive, deductive, abductive

Propositional calculus > Proofs in propositional calculus:

Quantum logic: :

> [ Is quantum logic the correct or a sufficient logic for propositional logic? ]

What are quantum "expectation values"; and how is that Axiomatic wave operator system different from standard propositional calculus?


Show HN: IPython-GPT, a Jupyter/IPython Interface to Chat GPT

This would be great in conjunction with e.g. papermill for running the same prompts over time and with the model as a parameter.

Do IPython-GPT or jetmlgpt work in JupyterLite in WASM in a browser tab?


JupyterLite How to docs:

"Create a custom kernel" :

> We recommend checking out how to create a server extension first

It may also be possible to just pip install the plain python package with micropip, or include it in a `jupyterlite build`; From re: 'micropip':

  %pip install $@
  # __import__('piplite').install($@)
There's also micromamba, for mamba-forge packages (which are build with empack (emscripten) into WASM)


Cocalc also has new "generate a Jupyter Notebook from a [ChatGPT] prompt" functionality.

'2023-04-19: LaTeX + ChatGPT "Help me fix this..." buttons into our LaTeX editor'


When you buy a book, you can loan it to anyone – a judge says libraries can’t


Brain images just got 64 million times sharper

[+] :

> For decades, that [Abbe diffraction] limit has operated as a sort of roadblock to engineering materials, drugs, or other objects at scales smaller than the wavelength of light manipulating them. But now, the researchers from Southampton, together with scientists from the universities of Dortmund and Regensburg in Germany, have successfully demonstrated that a beam of light can not only be confined to a spot that is 50 times smaller than its own wavelength but also “in a first of its kind” the spot can be moved by minuscule amounts at the point where the light is confined.

> According to that research, the key to confining light below the previous impermeable Abbe diffraction limit was accomplished by “storing a part of the electromagnetic energy in the kinetic energy of electric charges.” This clever adaptation, the researchers wrote, “opened the door to a number of groundbreaking real-world applications, which has contributed to the great success of the field of nanophotonics.”

> “Looking to the future, in principle, it could lead to the manipulation of micro and nanometre-sized objects, including biological particles,” De Liberato says, “or perhaps the sizeable enhancement of the sensitivity resolution of microscopic sensors.”

"Electrons turn piece of wire into laser-like light source" (2022)

Could such inexpensive coherent laser light sources reduce medical and neuroimaging costs?

"A simple technique to overcome self-focusing, filamentation, supercontinuum generation, aberrations, depth dependence and waveguide interface roughness using fs laser processing",4... :

> Several detrimental effects limit the use of ultrafast lasers in multi-photon processing and the direct manufacture of integrated photonics devices, not least, dispersion, aberrations, depth dependence, undesirable ablation at a surface, limited depth of writing, nonlinear optical effects such as supercontinuum generation and filamentation due to Kerr self-focusing. We show that all these effects can be significantly reduced if not eliminated using two coherent, ultrafast laser-beams through a single lens - which we call the Dual-Beam technique. Simulations and experimental measurements at the focus are used to understand how the Dual-Beam technique can mitigate these problems. The high peak laser intensity is only formed at the aberration-free tightly localised focal spot, simultaneously, suppressing unwanted nonlinear side effects for any intensity or processing depth. Therefore, we believe this simple and innovative technique makes the fs laser capable of much more at even higher intensities than previously possible, allowing applications in multi-photon processing, bio-medical imaging, laser surgery of cells, tissue and in ophthalmology, along with laser writing of waveguides.

TL Transfer Learning might be useful for training a model to predict e.g. [portable] low-field MRI with NIRS Infrared and/or Ultrasound? FWIU, "Mind2Mind" is one way to ~train a GAN from another already-trained GAN?

From :

> Idea: Do sensor fusion with all available sensors timecoded with landmarks, and then predict the expensive MRI/CT from low cost sensors

> Are there implied molecular structures that can be inferred from low-cost {NIRS, Light field, [...]} sensor data?

> Task: Learn a function f() such that f(lowcost_sensor_data) -> expensive_sensor_data

FWIU OpenWater has moved to NIRS+Ultrasound for ~ live in surgery MRI-level imaging and now treatment?

FWIU certain Infrared light wavelengths cause neuronal growth; and Blue and Green inhibit neuronal growth.

What are the comparative advantage and disadvantages of these competing medical imaging and neuroimaging capabilities?


If quantum information is never destroyed – and classical information is quantum information without the complex term i – perhaps our brain states are already preserved in the universe; like reflections in water droplets in the quantum foam.

Lagrangian points, non-intersecting paths through accretion discs, and microscopic black holes all preserve data - modulated energy; information - for some time before reversible or unreversible transformation.

Perhaps Superfluid quantum gravity can afford insight into the interior topology of black holes and other quantum foam phenomena?



Defence mechanisms § Level 4: mature:


There’s no universal cordless power tool battery – why?

From "USB-C is about to go from 100W to 240W, enough to power beefier laptops" :

> What are the costs to add a USB PD module to an electronic device?

> - [ ] Create an industry standard interface for charging and using [power tool,] battery packs; and adapters

From "Zero energy ready homes are coming" :

  # USB power specs (DC)
    7.5w = 1.5amp * 5volts  # USB
   15w   = 3a * 5v  # USB-C
  100w   = 5a * 20v # USB-C PD
  240w   = 5a * 48v # USB-C PD 3.1
Others could also send emails to power tool manufacturers about USB-C PD support and evolving the spec to support power tool battery packs.


Hopefully the counter-proposal doesn't involve a custom barrel jack, eh?


Aura – Python source code auditing and static analysis on a large scale (2022)


Could aura scan packages at the pulp pypi proxy?


Gitea can also (scan and build and test and) host python packages [1], conda packages [2], container images, etc.



https:// URLs probably already solve for scanning Python packages hosted by Gitea and/or Pulp with Aura.

From :

> Additional lists of static analysis, dynamic analysis, SAST, DAST, and other source code analysis tools:


A new approach to computation reimagines artificial intelligence


"A Neuro-vector-symbolic Architecture for Solving Raven's Progressive Matrices" (2023) :

> […] our proposed neuro-vector-symbolic architecture (NVSA) [implements] powerful operators on high-dimensional distributed representations that serve as a common language between neural networks and symbolic AI. The efficacy of NVSA is demonstrated by solving the Raven's progressive matrices datasets. Compared to state-of-the-art deep neural network and neuro-symbolic approaches, end-to-end training of NVSA achieves a new record of 87.7% average accuracy in RAVEN, and 88.1% in I-RAVEN datasets. Moreover, compared to the symbolic reasoning within the neuro-symbolic approaches, the probabilistic reasoning of NVSA with less expensive operations on the distributed representations is two orders of magnitude faster.


A number system invented by Inuit schoolchildren


Finger binary: :

> Finger binary is a system for counting and displaying binary numbers on the fingers of either or both hands. Each finger represents one binary digit or bit. This allows counting from zero to 31 using the fingers of one hand, or 1023 using both: that is, up to 2**5−1 or 2**10−1 respectively.

- "How to count to 1000 on two hands" by 3blue1brown

- "Polynesian People Used Binary Numbers 600 Years Ago - Scientific American"

What is the comparative value of radixes like Binary, Octal, andHexadecimal compared to Decimal (radix 10)?

Perhaps a radix like eπI would be more useful; though some amost-mystic physicists do tend to radix 9: "nonary" (which is actually ~ also radix-3).

List of numeral systems > By culture / time period, By type of notation :

> Numeral systems are classified here as to whether they use positional notation (also known as place-value notation), and further categorized by radix or base.


California DMV wants to issue car titles as NFTs

Can this also be solved with W3C Verified Claims and ~ (and an append-only, multiply distributed/synchronized/replicated/redundantly-backed-up permissioned database/Blockchain)?

And then, again, what is the TPS of the DB? How many read and write Transactions Per Second do the candidate datastores support with or without strong Consistency, Availability, and/or Partition Tolerance? And then what about cryptographic Data Integrity assurances.

FWIU, issuing shares on a Blockchain is challenging due to lost keys / shared cryptographic keys and reissuance?


It takes patience to keep politely explaining the inadequacies of "5 people and the manager and the owner share the sole root backup credentials - which aren't cryptographic keys, so there is no way to tell whether data has been rewritten without the correct key - and tape backup responsibilities; and we have no way to verify the online database against the tape backups [so, can we write it off now]"

Notes on centralized databases with Merkel hashes : Ctrl-F "trillian", "iavl"

If you've ever set up SQL replication before, you wouldn't be claiming it's adequate.

Are RDS and CloudSQL good enough? What does Accumulo do differently?


Show HN: Skip the SSO Tax, access your user data with OSS

As the former CTO of an Insurtech and Fintech startup I always had the “pleasure” to keep regulators and auditors happy. Think of documenting who has access to what, quarterly access reviews, yearly audits and so on…

Like many others we couldn’t justify the Enterprise-plan for every SaaS tool to simply get access to SSO and SCIM/SAML APIs. For Notion alone the cost would have nearly doubled to $14 per user per month. That’s insane! Mostly unknown to people, SSO Tax also limits access to APIs that are used for managing user access (SCIM/SAML).

This has proven to be an incredibly annoying roadblock that prevented me from doing anything useful with our user data: - You want to download the current list of users and their permissions? Forget about it! - You want to centrally assign user roles and permissions? Good luck with that! - You want to delete user accounts immediately? Yeah right, like that's ever gonna happen!

It literally cost me hours to update our access matrix at the end of every quarter for our access reviews and manually assigning user accounts and permissions.

I figured, there must be a better way than praying to the SaaS gods to miraculously make the SSO Tax disappear (and open up SCIM/SAML along the way). That’s why I sat down a few weeks ago and started building OpenOwl ( It allows me to just plug in my user credentials and automatically download user lists, including permissions from SaaS tools.

Granted, OpenOwl is still a work in progress, and it's not perfect. At the moment it's limited to non-SSO login flows and covers only 7 SaaS vendors. My favorite part is that you can configure integrations as “recipes”. The goal was for anybody to be able to add new integrations (IT managers and developers alike). Therefore you ideally don’t even have to write any new code, just tell OpenOwl how the new SaaS vendor works.

What do you think? Have you dealt with manually maintaining a list of users and their permissions? Could this approach get us closer to overcoming parts of the SSO Tax?


Schools, colleges, and universities typically have SSO but no budget or purchase authority.


For a small-scale implementation in a university, open core without SSO is no-go: nobody has any money or purchase authority. :

> Glim is a simple identity access management system that speaks some LDAP and has a REST API to manage users and groups

"Proxy LDAP to limit scope of access #60"


Twitter Is Blocking Likes and Retweets that Mention Substack


Isn't that completely contradictory to their supporting free speech mission?

It sure looks like someone has hijacked Elon and Jack and run off with those operations.

Maybe you have to add the year to the search query to find search results from before when Donny got kicked out fairly for serial disrespect.

Become a more effective censorship apparatus.

[+] :

> What is Twitter's mission statement?

> The mission we serve as Twitter, Inc. is to give everyone the power to create and share ideas and information instantly without barriers. Our business and revenue will always follow that mission in ways that improve – and do not detract from – a free and global conversation

"Defending and respecting the rights of people using our service"


PEP 684 was accepted – Per-interpreter GIL in Python 3.12


"PEP 703 – Making the Global Interpreter Lock Optional in CPython" (2023)

colesbury/nogil :

  docker run -it nogil/python
  docker run -it nogil/python-cuda


Pandas 2.0


From pandas-dataclasses #166 "ENH: pyarrow and optionally pydantic" :

> What should be the API for working with pandas, pyarrow, and dataclasses and/or pydantic?

> Pandas 2.0 supports pyarrow for so many things now, and pydantic does data validation with a drop-in dataclasses.dataclass replacement at pydantic.dataclasses.dataclass.

Model output may or may not converge given the enumeration ordering of Categorical CSVW columns, for example; so consistent round-trip (Linked Data) schema tool support would be essential.

CuML is scikit-learn API compatible and can use Dask for distributed and/or multi-GPU workloads. CuML is built on CuDF and CuPY; CuPy is a replacement for NumPy arrays on GPUs with 100x relative performance.

CuPy: :

> CuPy is a NumPy/SciPy-compatible array library for GPU-accelerated computing with Python. CuPy acts as a drop-in replacement to run existing NumPy/SciPy code on NVIDIA CUDA or AMD ROCm platforms. :

> CuPy is an open-source array library for GPU-accelerated computing with Python. CuPy utilizes CUDA Toolkit libraries including cuBLAS, cuRAND, cuSOLVER, cuSPARSE, cuFFT, cuDNN and NCCL to make full use of the GPU architecture.

> The figure shows CuPy speedup over NumPy. Most operations perform well on a GPU using CuPy out of the box. CuPy speeds up some operations more than 100X. Read the original benchmark article Single-GPU CuPy Speedups on the RAPIDS AI Medium blog


CuML: :

> cuML is a suite of libraries that implement machine learning algorithms and mathematical primitives functions that share compatible APIs with other RAPIDS projects.*

> cuML enables data scientists, researchers, and software engineers to run traditional tabular ML tasks on GPUs without going into the details of CUDA programming. In most cases, cuML's Python API matches the API from scikit-learn.

> For large datasets, these GPU-based implementations can complete 10-50x faster than their CPU equivalents. For details on performance, see the cuML Benchmarks Notebook.

FWICS there's now a ROCm version of CuPy, so it says CUDA (NVIDIA only) but also compiles for AMD. IDK whether there are plans to support Intel OneAPI, too.

What of the non-Arrow parts of other pandas-compatible and not pandas-compatible DataFrame libraries can be ported back to Pandas (and R)?

One could run the benchmarks with the new version of the software under concern and report back


RFdiffusion: Diffusion model generates protein backbones


Can optical tweezers construct such proteins; or is there a more efficient way?

Optical tweezers:

"'Impossible' photonic breakthrough: scientist manipulate light at subwavelength scale" :

> have successfully demonstrated that a beam of light can not only be confined to a spot that is 50 times smaller than its own wavelength but also “in a first of its kind” the spot can be moved by minuscule amounts at the point where the light is confined.

> According to that research, the key to confining light below the previous impermeable Abbe diffraction limit was accomplished by “storing a part of the electromagnetic energy in the kinetic energy of electric charges.” This clever adaptation, the researchers wrote, “opened the door to a number of groundbreaking real-world applications, which has contributed to the great success of the field of nanophotonics.”

> “Looking to the future, in principle, it could lead to the manipulation of micro and nanometre-sized objects, including biological particles,” De Liberato says, “or perhaps the sizeable enhancement of the sensitivity resolution of microscopic sensors.”

"Digging into DNA Repair with Optical Tweezer Technology"


TIL about mail-order CRISPR kits. "Mail-Order CRISPR Kits Allow Absolutely Anyone to Hack DNA" (2017)

Protein production:

Tissue Nanotransfection reprograms e.g. fibroblasts into neurons and endothelial cells (for ischemia) using electric charge. Are there different proteins then expressed? Which are the really useful targets?

> The delivered cargo then transforms the affected cells into a desired cell type without first transforming them to stem cells. TNT is a novel technique and has been used on mice models to successfully transfect fibroblasts into neuron-like cells along with rescue of ischemia in mice models with induced vasculature and perfusion

> [...] This chip is then connected to an electrical source capable of delivering an electrical field to drive the factors from the reservoir into the nanochannels, and onto the contacted tissue

Are there lab safety standards for handling yeast or worse?

"Bacterial ‘Nanosyringe’ Could Deliver Gene Therapy to Human Cells" (2023) :

> In a paper published today in Nature, researchers report refashioning Photorhabdus’s syringe—called a contractile injection system—so that it can attach to human cells and inject large proteins into them. The work could provide a way to deliver various therapeutic proteins into any type of cell, including proteins that can “edit” the cell’s DNA. “It’s a very interesting approach,” says Mark Kay, a gene therapy researcher at Stanford University who was not involved in the study. “Where I think it could be very useful is when you want to express proteins that can do genome editing” to correct or knock out a gene that is mutated in a genetic disorder, he says.

> The nano injector could provide a critical tool for scientists interested in tweaking genes. “Delivery is probably the biggest unsolved problem for gene editing,” says study investigator Feng Zhang, a molecular biologist at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Broad Institute of M.I.T. and Harvard. Zhang is known for his work developing the gene editing system CRISPR-Cas9. Existing technology can insert the editing machinery “into a few tissues, blood and liver and the eye, but we don’t have a good way to get to anywhere else,” such as the brain, heart, lung or kidney, Zhang says. The syringe technology also holds promise for treating cancer because it can be engineered to attach to receptors on certain cancer cells.

From "New neural network architecture inspired by neural system of a worm" (2023) :

> "I’m skeptical that biological systems will ever serve as a basis for ML nets in practice"

>> First of all, ML engineers need to stop being so brainphiliacs, caring only about the 'neural networks' of the brain or brain-like systems. Lacrymaria olor has more intelligence, in terms of adapting to exploring/exploiting a given environment, than all our artificial neural networks combined and it has no neurons because it is merely a single-cell organism [1].

Which proteins code for organisms that compute?


Llama.cpp 30B runs with only 6GB of RAM now

msoad | 2023-03-31 16:37:50 | 1309 | # | ^

The CPython mmap module docs:

zero_buffer (CFFI, 2013)

"Buffers on the edge: Python and Rust" (2022) :

> If you have a Python object and want to obtain its buffer, you can do so with memoryview in Python or PyObject_GetBuffer in C. If you’re defining a class and want to expose a buffer, you can do so in Python by… actually you can’t, only classes implemented in C can implement the buffer protocol. To implement the buffer protocol in C, you provide the bf_getbuffer and bf_releasebuffer functions which are called to obtain a buffer from an object and when that buffer is being released, respectively.

iocursor (CPython C API, ~Rust std::io::Cursor)

Arrow Python (C++) > On disk and MemoryMappedFile s:

"Apache Arrow: Read DataFrame With Zero Memory" (2020)


ONNX is built on protocolbuffers/protobufs (google/protobufs), while Arrow is built on google/flatbuffers.

FlatBuffers :

> It supports “zero-copy” deserialization, so that accessing the serialized data does not require first copying it into a separate part of memory. This makes accessing data in these formats much faster than data in formats requiring more extensive processing, such as JSON, CSV, and in many cases Protocol Buffers. Compared to other serialization formats however, the handling of FlatBuffers requires usually more code, and some operations are not possible (like some mutation operations).


We updated our RSA SSH host key


WKD also lacks key revocation and CT Certificate Transparency.

E.g. keybase could do X.509 like Certificate Transparency.


  $ keybase pgp -h
   keybase pgp - Manage keybase PGP keys

   keybase pgp <command> [arguments...]

   gen          Generate a new PGP key and write to local secret keychain
   pull         Download the latest PGP keys for people you follow.
   update       Update your public PGP keys on keybase with those exported from the local GPG keyring
   select       Select a key from GnuPG as your own and register the public half with Keybase
   sign         PGP sign a document.
   encrypt      PGP encrypt messages or files for keybase users
   decrypt      PGP decrypt messages or files for keybase users
   verify       PGP verify message or file signatures for keybase users
   export       Export a PGP key from keybase
   import       Import a PGP key into keybase
   drop         Drop Keybase's use of a PGP key
   list         List the active PGP keys in your account.
   purge        Purge all PGP keys from Keybase keyring
   push-private Export PGP keys from GnuPG keychain, and write them to KBFS.
   pull-private Export PGP from KBFS and write them to the GnuPG keychain
   help, h      Shows a list of commands or help for one command

  $ keybase pgp drop -h
   keybase pgp drop - Drop Keybase's use of a PGP key

   keybase pgp drop <key-id>

   "keybase pgp drop" signs a statement saying the given PGP
   key should no longer be associated with this account. It will **not** sign a PGP-style
   revocation cert for this key; you'll have to do that on your own.
/?q=PGP-style revocation cert :

- "Revoked a PGP key, is there any way to get a revocation certificate now?"

- "Overview of Certification Systems: X.509, CA, PGP and SKIP"


- k8s docker vault secrets [owasp, inurl:awesome]

- Why secrets shouldn't be passed in $ENVIRONMENT variables; though e.g. the "12 Factor App" pattern advises to parametrize applications mostly with environment variables that show in /proc/pid/environ but not /proc/pid/cmdline

W3C DID supports GPG proofs and revocation IIRC:

"9.6 Key and Signature Expiration"

"9.8 Verification Method Revocation"

Blockerts is built upon W3C DID and W3C Verified Credentials, W3C Linked Data Signatures, and Merkel trees (and JSON-LD). From the Blockerts FAQ :

> How are certificates revoked?

> Even though certificates can be issued to a cohort of people, the issuer can still revoke from a single recipient. The Blockcerts standard supports a range of revocation techniques. Currently, the primary factor influencing the choice of revocation technique is the particular schema used.

> The Open Badges specification allows a HTTP URI revocation list. Each id field in the revokedAssertions array should match the field in the certificate to revoke.

Re: CT and W3C VC Verifiable Credentials (and DNS record types for cert/pubkey hashes that must also be revoked; DoH/DoT + DNSSEC; EDNS):

"Verifiable Credential Data Integrity 1.0: Securing the Integrity of Verifiable Credential Data" (Working Draft March 2023) > Security Considerations

If a system does not have key revocation it cannot be sufficiently secured.


Ask HN: Where can I find a primer on how computers boot?

As a developer, I recently encountered challenges with GRUB and discovered I lacked knowledge about my computer's boot process. I realized terms like EFI partition, MBR, GRUB, and Bootloader were unfamiliar to me and many of my colleagues. I'm seeking introductory and easy-to-understand resources to learn about these concepts. Any recommendations would be appreciated!

Booting process of Linux:

Booting process of Windows NT since Vista:

UEFI > Secure Booting, Boot Stages:

The EFI system partition is conventionally /boot/efi on a Linux system; and there's a signed "shim loader" that GRUB launches, which JMP- launches the kernel+initrd after loading the initrd into RAM (a "RAM drive") and mounting it as the initial root filesystem /, which is pivot_root'd away from after the copy of /sbin/init (systemd) mounts the actual root fs and launches all the services according to the Systemd unit files in order according to a topological sort given their dependency edges:


runlevel 5 is runlevel 3 (multi-user with networking) + GUI. On a gnome system, GDM is the GUI process that is launched. GDM launches the user's Gnome session upon successful login. `systemctl restart gdm` restarts the GDM Gnome Display Manager "greeter" login screen, which runs basically runs ~startx after `bash --login`. Systemd maps the numbered runlevels to groups of unit files to launch:

  telinit 6 # reboot
  telinit 3 # kill -15 GDM and all logged in *GUI* sessions
You can pass a runlevel number as a kernel parameter by editing the GRUB menu item by pressing 'e' if there's not a GRUB password set; just the number '3' will cause the machine to skip starting the login greeter (which may be what's necessary to troubleshoot GPU issues). The word 'rescue' as a kernel parameter launches single-user mode, and may be what is necessary to rescue a system failing to boot. You may be able to `telinit 5` from the rescue runlevel, or it may be best to reboot.


Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

Does or does this not limit the impact of this RCE in ping, which could easily be rewritten in Rust?:

  chmod ugo-sS /bin/ping
  setcap cap_net_raw+ep /bin/ping


Show HN: PicoVGA Library – VGA/TV Display on Raspberry Pi Pico

TV/VGA + Serial Console on an RP2040 would be cool.

- rs232


- USB-TTL w/ configurable (3.3v/5v) voltage levels

- (optional) VGA output

- (optional) WiFi/Bluetooth (RP2040W Pi Pico W)

The OpenWRT hardware/port.serial wiki page explains how to open a serial console with screen and a tty /dev; and about 3.3V/5V bricking a router and/or the cable:

PiKVM may have console support but with a Pi 3/4+, not a $4/$6 RP2040 /W with or without low-level WiFi+Bluetooth

"Raspberry Pi Pico Serial Communication Example (MicroPython)"

> The RP2040 microcontroller in Raspberry Pi Pico has two UART peripherals, UART0 and UART1. The UART in RP2040 has the following features: [pinout]


Can it run a ~GNUscreen text console attached to a serial port attached to pins on the other side of the Pico, and maybe a BLE keyboard/controller? (And how, while I'm at it; Thonny has an AST parse tree menu item)


> - RS232


Serial Port:

> - UART

UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter:

> - USB-TTL w/ configurable (3.3v/5v) voltage levels

USB-to-serial adapter:

> Most commonly the USB data signals are converted to either RS-232, RS-485, RS-422, or TTL-level UART serial data.

- SunFounder Thales Pi Pico Kit > Components > Slide Switch, Resistor, : Kepler has the 2040W:

/? how to limit voltage to 3.3v:

- Zener diode > Voltage shifter:

- Voltage regulator > DC voltage stabilizer:

- TIL electronics.stackexchange has CircuitLab built-in: . Autodesk TinkerCAD is a neat, free, web-based circuit simulator, too; though it supports Arduino and bbc:micro but not (yet?) Pi Pico like Wokwi.

There is at least one RP2040 JS simulator:

Wokwi appears to support {MicroPython, CircuitPython,} on {Pi Pico} and also Rust on ESP32:

Wokwi > New Pi Pico project:

Wokwi > New Pi Pico + MicroPython project:

wokwi/rp2040js :

> - (optional) WiFi/Bluetooth (RP2040W Pi Pico W)

/? "pi pico" bluetooth 5.2 [BLE] :

- From :

>> The Raspberry Pi Pico W board was launched with a WiFi 4 and Bluetooth 5.2 module based on the Infineon CYW43439 wireless chip in June 2022

bluekitchen/btstack is the basis for the Bluetooth support i Pi Pico SDK 1.5.0+:

> MicroPython

awesome-micropython: :

- There is a web-based MicroPython REPL, and it only works over HTTP due to WebSockets WSS, so it's best to clone that file locally:


- microsoft/vscode-python-devicesimulator lacks maintainers and Pi Pico Support: is the official hosted copy of VSCode as WASM in a browser tab. YMMV with which extensions work after compilation to WASM and without WASI (node/fs,) in a browser tab.

From "MicroPython officially becomes part of the Arduino ecosystem" (2022) :

> [in addition to the Arduino IDE support for Pi Pico now] For VSCode, there are a number of extensions for CircuitPython and MicroPython:

> joedevivo.vscode-circuitpython:

> Pymakr

> Pico-Go: has bbc:microbit (and LEGO Boost) extensions when you click plus at the lower left; but not (yet?) Pi Pico support:



hi | 2023-03-11 22:01:34 | 224 | # | ^

How would the strict separation between savings deposits and investment banking from Glass-Steagull (1933) (which was repealed by GLBA in 1999) banking regulations have prevented this?

From "1999 Repeal of Glass-Steagall was the worst deregulation enacted in US history" (2022) :

> Yeah what was the deal with that dotcom correction in the early 2000s? Did banks invest differently after GLBA said that they can gamble against peoples' savings deposits (because they created a 'sociallist' $100b credit line, called it FDIC, and things like that don't happen anymore)

> Decline of the Glass-Steagall Act:

> Dot-com bubble:


An Update on USDC and Silicon Valley Bank


On Treasuries over what windowed series?

Is this the one?

"10-Year Treasury Constant Maturity Minus 3-Month Treasury Constant Maturity"


Urgent: Sign the petition now


Stress test (financial) > Bank stress test , Payment and settlement systems stress test

List of bank stress tests > Americas

From "Transparency & Accountability - EGRRCPA (S. 2155) Rulemakings" :

> The FDIC is responsible for a number of rulemakings under the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (EGRRCPA). This page provides links to proposed and final rules and related documents.

"FDIC Releases Economic Scenarios for 2022 Stress Testing" (2022)

How can the scenarios and policies be improved?


129-year-old vessel still tethered to lifeboat found on floor of Lake Huron

mkmk | 2023-03-09 07:28:33 | 110 | # | ^
[+] :

> DCS [Decompression Sickness] is best known as a diving disorder that affects divers having breathed gas that is at a higher pressure than the surface pressure, owing to the pressure of the surrounding water. The risk of DCS increases when diving for extended periods or at greater depth, without ascending gradually and making the decompression stops needed to slowly reduce the excess pressure of inert gases dissolved in the body.

DCS > Prevention > Underwater diving: :

> Decompression time can be significantly shortened by breathing mixtures containing much less inert gas during the decompression phase of the dive (or pure oxygen at stops in 6 metres (20 ft) of water or less). The reason is that the inert gas outgases at a rate proportional to the difference between the partial pressure of inert gas in the diver's body and its partial pressure in the breathing gas; whereas the likelihood of bubble formation depends on the difference between the inert gas partial pressure in the diver's body and the ambient pressure. Reduction in decompression requirements can also be gained by breathing a nitrox mix during the dive, since less nitrogen will be taken into the body than during the same dive done on air. [85]

> It’s seriously non intuitive to a layman the whole pressure thing.

Is there an issue with the above explanation?


Google Groups has been left to die


When you get promoted, they tend to move you to different projects (that need different resources at founding time than the operations folks that have experience scaling up)


Zero energy ready homes are coming


Passive solar building design :

Low-energy house:

List of low-energy building techniques:

/? Passive solar home (tbm=isch image search)

/? Passive solar house:

/? passive solar house:


Maximum solar energy is on the equatorial side of the house.

Full-sun plants prefer maximum solar energy.

10ft (3m) underground it's about 75°F (24°C) all year. Geothermal systems leverage this. (Passive) Walipini greenhouses are partially or fully underground or in a hillside, but must also manage groundwater seepage and flooding; e.g. with a DC solar sump pump and/or drainage channels filled with rock.

Passive solar greenhouses (especially in China and now Canada) have a natural or mounded earthen wall thermal mass on one side, and they lower wool blankets over the upside-down wing airfoil -like transparent side at night and when it's too warm (with a ~4HP motor).

TIL an aquarium heater can heat a tank of water working as a thermal mass in a geodesic growing dome; which can be partially-buried or half-walled with preformed hempcrete block.

Round structures are typically more resilient to wind:

Shear stress > Beam shear:

Deformation (physics) > Strain > Shear strain:

GH topic: finite-element-analysis

GH topic: structural-analysis:

What open source software is there for passive home design and zero-energy home design?

Round house:

The shearing force due to wind on structures with corners (and passive rooflines) causes racking and compromise of structural integrity; round homes apparently fare best in hurricanes.

Walipini passive solar green houses:

Earthship passive solar homes:

Underground living:

Root cellar passive refrigeration:

Ground source heat pump (Geothermal heat pump)

Solar-assisted heat pump:

(Geothermal Power = Geothermal Electricity) != (Geothermal Heating)

Geothermal power:

Geothermal Heating is so old,


AC-to-DC (rectifier; GaNprime, GaN) and DC-to-AC (inverter) are inefficient conversions: it wastes electricity as heat.

Residential and Commercial AC electrical systems have a GFCI ground loop (for the ground pin on standard AC adapters)

  WAV: Watts = Amps * Volts

  # USB power specs (DC)
    7.5w = 1.5amp * 5volts  # USB
   15w   = 3a * 5v  # USB-C
  100w   = 5a * 20v # USB-C PD
  240w   = 5a * 48v # USB-C PD 3.1

  # 110v/120v AC: 15amp; Standard  Residential AC in North America: 
  1500w = 15a * 100v  # Microwave oven
  1650w = 15a * 110v
  1440w = 12a * 120v  # AC EV charger

  # 110/120 AC: 20amp 
  2400w = 20a * 120v  # Level 1 EV charger

  # 240v AC plug: Dryer, Oven, Stove, EV
   4800w = 20a * 240v
   7200w = 30a * 240v # Public charging station
   9600w = 40a * 240v # Level 2 EV charget
  14400w = 60a * 240v 

   120000w =  300a *  400v # Supercharger v2
   120kW   =  300a *  400v 
  1000000w = 1000a * 1000v # Megacharger
  1000kW   = 1000a * 1000v
  1MW      = 1000a * 1000v
USB > Power related standards:

Charging station > Charging time > charger specs table:

(Trifuel) generators do not have catalytic converters.

Wood stoves must be sufficiently efficient; and can be made so with a catalytic combustor or a returning apparatus (and/or thermoelectrics to convert heat to electricity).

/? Catalytic combustor (wood stove)

Wood-burning stove > Safety and pollution considerations > US pollution control requirements:

Gravitational potential energy is less lossy than CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage is less lossy than thermal salt is less lossy than chemical batteries.


For which types of compost is there risk of spontaneous combustion?

What design safety features are necessary for a heat pump to efficiently extract the heat of a wood boiler or a compost pile? Is it safe to locate them next to a heat pump or a dwelling or a thermoelectric boiler?


What do you have for low energy, zero energy, passive solar homes?

Buy-all-sell-all says you can't use your solar to power your duct fans even when the grid is down?

Write me a ScholarlyArticle.


Stochastic gradient descent written in SQL


What are some adversarial cases for gradient descent, and/or what sort of e.g. or W3C PROV provenance information should be tracked for a production ML workflow?

Gradient descent:

Stochastic gradient descent:

Online machine learning:

adversarial gradient descent inurl:awesome :

Robust machine learning:

Robust gradient descent


U.S. corn-based ethanol worse for the climate than gasoline, study finds


Can Ethanol be sustainably produced from corn?

Which other crops have sufficient margin given commodity prices?

Can solar and goats and wind and IDK algae+co2 make up the difference?

Is solar laser weeding a more sustainable approach?

What rotations improve the compost and soil situation?

> Can solar and goats and wind and IDK algae+co2 make up the difference?

Can row covers etc be made from corn; from cellulose and what other sustainable inputs (ideally that are waste outputs)?

Compostable thermoformable biopolymers for food packaging

FWIU transparent wood "windows" are made out of treated cellulose? How do they compare with glass and plastic in terms of transparency for full spectrum UV for e.g. plant growth, sanitization, and vitamin D?

> Is solar laser weeding a more sustainable approach?

From "Solar-Powered Plant Protection Equipment: Perspective and Prospects" (2022) :

>> The unmanned system (robot) is well suited for weeding operations, and it helps to minimize the required workforce and herbicide usage while weeding. Two solar-powered weeders, EcoRobot and AVO robot models, are developed by Ecorobotix, Switzerland (Figure 2). These models work more effectively in row crops based on the detection of weeds (>85%), and a herbicides is applied precisely on the weeds to destroy them. The solar power used in EcoRobot and AVO models is 380 W and 1150 W, respectively, and they have a working time of 8 and 12 h once fully charged by solar panels [64].

> What rotations improve the compost and soil situation?

Crop rotation:


SymPy makes math fun again


> They have other things to smooth out the parts of python which are annoying in math, like exponentiation works with ^, and dividing integers returns a rational number instead of floating point or an integer.

SageMath also has a multivariate inequality solver IIRC. `*` is repeated multiplication (exponentiation) in Python. If you require preprocessing to translate ^ to *, you don't have valid Python code that'll run with any other interpreter.

Is it easier to import SageMath from a plain Python script now; with conda repackaging?

Type promotion in Python:

   from rational import Rational
   assert Rational(1, 4) / 2 == Rational(1, 8)
Python 2 had a __future__ import to do floatdiv instead of floordiv:

  from __future__ import division
  assert 3 / 2 == 1.5
  assert 3 // 2 == 1
  assert 4 / 2 == 2.0
Python 3 returns floats from ints or decimals IIRC:

   assert 3 / 2 == 1.5
   assert 3.0 / 2 == 1.5
   assert 3 // 2 == 1
   assert 4 / 2 == 2.0


Recently I've been working with the %%ipytest magic command for running pytest in notebooks.

Is there a %%sage IPython magic method that passes code through the input transform?


Please tell us what features you’d like in news.ycombinator (2007)



Zulip supports:

  quoted text
  the end
But on HN, it's still:

  > *Quoted text"

  > *etc*

  > *the end*
HN could implement two spaces at the end of a line creates a <br> like Markdown, so that it could be this:

  > *Quoted text..
  > etc..
  > the end*


Client-side encryption for Gmail in Google Workspace is now generally available


Looks like you are correct: WebUSB and WebBluetooth and WebAuth don't already cover HSM use cases?

/? secure enclave browser

But WebCrypto: "PROPOSAL: Add support for general (hardware backed) cryptographic signatures and key exchange #263"


Show HN: Classic FPS Wolfenstein 3D brought in the browser via Emscripten

TuxMath and TuxTyping are FOSS games written with SDL.

Giving your experience with porting Wolfenstein 3D SDL to emscripten, would it be easier to rewrite TuxMath given the exercise XML files or port it to WASM/emscripten (and emscripten-forge)?

Notably, the TuxMath RPM currently segfaults with recent Fedora but the Flatpak (which presumably statically-ships it's own copy of SDL) does work fine.

(Other someday priorities: Looking at SensorCraft, wanting to port it to (JupyterLite WASM) notebooks w/ jupyter-book)

The latest Wolfenstein where you're girls that respawn only if tagteam is good, too; Wolfenstein: Youngblood.


Show HN: Mathesar – open-source collaborative UI for Postgres databases

Hi HN! We just released the public alpha version of Mathesar (, code:

Mathesar is an open source tool that provides a spreadsheet-like interface to a PostgreSQL database.

I was originally inspired by wanting to build something like Dabble DB. I was in awe of their user experience for working with relational data. There’s plenty of “relational spreadsheet” software out there, but I haven’t been able to find anything with a comparable UX since Twitter shut Dabble DB down.

We're a non-profit project. The core team is based out of a US 501(c)(3).


* Built on Postgres: Connect to an existing Postgres database or set one up from scratch.

* Utilizes Postgres Features: Mathesar’s UI uses Postgres features. e.g. "Links" in the UI are foreign keys in the database.

* Set up Data Models: Easily create and update Postgres schemas and tables.

* Data Entry: Use our spreadsheet-like interface to view, create, update, and delete table records.

* Data Explorer: Use our Data Explorer to build queries without knowing anything about SQL or joins.

* Schema Migrations: Transfer columns between tables in two clicks in the UI.

* Custom Data Types:: Custom data types for emails and URLs (more coming soon), validated at the database level.






WEBSITE: https:/



JSONLD types are specified with @type, and the range of a @type attribute includes rdfs:Class.

icontract and pycontracts (Design-by-Contract programming) have runtime type and constraint checking; data validation. Preconditions, Command, Postconditions (assertions, assertions of invariance after command C_funcname executed)


> Pydantic_schemaorg contains all the models defined by The pydantic classes are auto-generated from the model definitions that can be found on [ ]


Portable low-field MRI scanners could revolutionize medical imaging

How does this MRI neuroimaging capability differ from openwater's Phase Wave aoproach?

Is MRI-level neuroimaging possible with just NIRS Near-Infrared Spectroscopy?


First Law of Thermodynamics Breakthrough Upends Equilibrium Theory in Physics

Laws of Thermodynamics (in 2023) :

> The zeroth law of thermodynamics defines thermal equilibrium and forms a basis for the definition of temperature: If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

> The first law of thermodynamics states that, when energy passes into or out of a system (as work, heat, or matter), the system's internal energy changes in accordance with the law of conservation of energy.

> The second law of thermodynamics states that in a natural thermodynamic process, the sum of the entropies of the interacting thermodynamic systems never decreases. A common corollary of the statement is that heat does not spontaneously pass from a colder body to a warmer body.

> The third law of thermodynamics states that a system's entropy approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. With the exception of non-crystalline solids (glasses), the entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically close to zero. [2]

First law of thermodynamics

Quantum thermodynamics

Thermal quantum field theory :

> In theoretical physics, thermal quantum field theory (thermal field theory for short) or finite temperature field theory is a set of methods to calculate expectation values of physical observables of a quantum field theory at finite temperature.

From the article:

> [170 years ago] the technology of the time dictated the gases or fluids that people would have studied are in equilibrium at the densities and temperatures that they were using back then.”

"Quantifying Energy Conversion in Higher-Order Phase Space Density Moments in Plasmas" (2023)

- "Thermodynamics of Computation Wiki"

- Phase diagram > Types; where is plasma in this diagram

Potential applications?:

- "Thin film" and compact pulsed fusion plasma confinement reactor thermoelectric efficiency ;

- What do plasmas compute, as a computation medium per Constructor Theory and/or an information medium in deep space?

- Can laser transmutation be achieved more efficiently with the heat of a sustained compact fusion plasma reactor? 4He and 3He are useful outputs with an equilibrium price in recent years, apparently.

There should probably be a facility with omnidirectional conveyors for automated sample testing that runs samples next to the heat?


DeepMind has open-sourced the heart of AlphaGo and AlphaZero


Replication crisis: :

> The replication crisis (also called the replicability crisis and the reproducibility crisis) is an ongoing methodological crisis in which the results of many scientific studies are difficult or impossible to reproduce. Because the reproducibility of empirical results is an essential part of the scientific method,[2] such failures undermine the credibility of theories building on them and potentially call into question substantial parts of scientific knowledge.

People should publish automated tests. How does a performance-optimizer know that they haven't changed the output of there are no known-good inputs and outputs documented as executable tests? Pytest-hypothesis seems like a nice compact way to specify tests.


GH topic "AlphaZero"

I believe ther are one or more JAX implementations of AlphaZero?

Though there's not yet a quantum-inference-based self-play (AlphaZero) algorithm?

TIL about the modified snow plow problem is a variation on TSP, and there are already quantum algos capable of optimally solving TSP.


Sources of variance; Experimental Design, Hardware, Software, irrelevant environmental conditions/state, Data (Sample(s)), Analysis

Can you run the notebook again with the exact same data sample (input) and get the same charts and summary statistics (output)? Is there a way to test the stability of those outputs over time?

Can you run the same experiment (the same 'experimental design'), ceteris paribus (everything else being equal) and a different sample (input) and get a very similar output? Is it stable, differentiable, independent, nonlinear, reversible; Does it converge?

Now I have to go look up the definitions for Replication, Repeatability, Reproducibility

Replication: (disambiguation)

Replication_(scientific_method) -> Reproducibility :

> Measures of reproducibility and repeatability: In chemistry, the terms reproducibility and repeatability are used with a specific quantitative meaning. [7] In inter-laboratory experiments, a concentration or other quantity of a chemical substance is measured repeatedly in different laboratories to assess the variability of the measurements. Then, the standard deviation of the difference between two values obtained within the same laboratory is called repeatability. The standard deviation for the difference between two measurement from different laboratories is called reproducibility. [8] These measures are related to the more general concept of variance components in metrology.

Replication (statistics) :

> In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. ASTM, in standard E1847, defines replication as "... the repetition of the set of all the treatment combinations to be compared in an experiment. Each of the repetitions is called a replicate."

> Replication is not the same as repeated measurements of the same item: they are dealt with differently in statistical experimental design and data analysis.

> For proper sampling, a process or batch of products should be in reasonable statistical control; inherent random variation is present but variation due to assignable (special) causes is not. Evaluation or testing of a single item does not allow for item-to-item variation and may not represent the batch or process. Replication is needed to account for this variation among items and treatments.

Accuracy and precision: :

> In simpler terms, given a statistical sample or set of data points from repeated measurements of the same quantity, the sample or set can be said to be accurate if their average is close to the true value of the quantity being measured, while the set can be said to be precise if their standard deviation is relatively small.

Reproducible builds; to isolate and minimize software variance:

Re: reproducibility, containers, Jupyter books, REES, repo2docker: (Ctrl-F #linkedreproducibility)


Emacs is on F-Droid


Here's how to install conda, mamba, and pip with MambaForge in Termux w/ proot from FDroid because there are no official APKs on the play store as is now necessary to bless binaries with context labels:


Physicists Use Quantum Mechanics to Pull Energy Out of Nothing

Energy teleportation in 2023:

> Now in the past year, researchers have teleported energy across microscopic distances in two separate quantum devices, vindicating Hotta’s theory. The research leaves little room for doubt that energy teleportation is a genuine quantum phenomenon."

Quantum foam:


Social media is a cause, not a correlate, of mental illness in teen girls

Perhaps Facebook should again require an email address at an approving college or university for sign up.

But what about supporting the NCMEC National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, without biometrics due to new laws?

Can you teach your daughters to be considerate of others on the internet?

They used to tell us not to put any personal information online as kids; no real names, etc.

Perhaps social media is a mirror from which we can determine parenting approach?

Are violent video games less bad than social media for which unhealthily-competitive strata?

"Please do not bully people on the internet because:"

"Please be considerate and helpful on the internet because:"

"How to Make a Family Media Use Plan" ( (AAP))

Internet safety:

[after school] emotional restraint collapse: :

; It's exhausting for many of us to withhold nonverbal emotions all day; and so after school a minute to just chill without typical questioning may or may not help prevent bullying on the internet

TIL Iceland provides vouchers for whatever after school activities: taxes pay for sports and other programs.


The fundamental thermodynamic costs of communication


Furthermore, representational drift observes that a biological single neuron's output given activation is not stable over time; which implies that there is greater emergent complexity than is modeled with ANNs (which have stable outputs given training, NN topology parameters, and activation functions that effectively weight training samples (which are usually also noise))

/? Representational drift brain ...

"Causes and consequences of representational drift" (2019)

> The nervous system learns new associations while maintaining memories over long periods, exhibiting a balance between flexibility and stability. Recent experiments reveal that neuronal representations of learned sensorimotor tasks continually change over days and weeks, even after animals have achieved expert behavioral performance. How is learned information stored to allow consistent behavior despite ongoing changes in neuronal activity? What functions could ongoing reconfiguration serve? We highlight recent experimental evidence for such representational drift in sensorimotor systems, and discuss how this fits into a framework of distributed population codes. We identify recent theoretical work that suggests computational roles for drift and argue that the recurrent and distributed nature of sensorimotor representations permits drift while limiting disruptive effects. We propose that representational drift may create error signals between interconnected brain regions that can be used to keep neural codes consistent in the presence of continual change. These concepts suggest experimental and theoretical approaches to studying both learning and maintenance of distributed and adaptive population codes.

"The geometry of representational drift in natural and artificial neural networks" (2022) :

> [...] We examine stimulus representations from fluorescence recordings across hundreds of neurons in the visual cortex using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and we corroborate previous studies finding that such representations change as experimental trials are repeated across days. This phenomenon has been termed “representational drift”. In this study we geometrically characterize the properties of representational drift in the primary visual cortex [...]

> The features we observe in the neural data are similar to properties of artificial neural networks where representations are updated by continual learning in the presence of dropout, i.e. a random masking of nodes/weights, but not other types of noise. Therefore, we conclude that a potential reason for the representational drift in biological networks is driven by an underlying dropout-like noise while continuously learning and that such a mechanism may be computational advantageous for the brain in the same way it is for artificial neural networks, e.g. preventing overfitting.

"Neurons are fickle: Electric fields are more reliable for information" (2022) :

> [...] And when the scientists trained software called a "decoder" to guess which direction the animals were holding in mind, the decoder was relatively better able to do it based on the electric fields than based on the neural activity.

> This is not to say that the variations among individual neurons is meaningless noise, Miller said. The thoughts and sensations of people and animals experience, even as they repeat the same tasks, can change minute by minute, leading to different neurons behaving differently than they just did. The important thing for the sake of accomplishing the memory task is that the overall field remains consistent in its representation.

> "This stuff that we call representational drift or noise may be real computations the brain is doing, but the point is that at that next level up of electric fields, you can get rid of that drift and just have the signal," Miller said.

> The researchers hypothesize that the field even appears to be a means the brain can employ to sculpt information flow to ensure the desired result. By imposing that a particular field emerge, it directs the activity of the participating neurons.

> Indeed, that's one of the next questions the scientists are investigating: Could electric fields be a means of controlling neurons?

/? representational drift

Computational neuroscience: :

> Models in theoretical neuroscience are aimed at capturing the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, and chemical coupling via network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, nuclei, all the way up to psychological faculties like memory, learning and behavior. These computational models frame hypotheses that can be directly tested by biological or psychological experiments.


Perhaps I was too polite. The collapsed entropy (absent real world noise per observation) of the binary relations in the brain is a useful metric.


> [...] Here we present the first study that rigorously combines such a framework, stochastic thermodynamics, with Shannon information theory. We develop a minimal model that captures the fundamental features common to a wide variety of communication systems. We find that the thermodynamic cost in this model is a convex function of the channel capacity, the canonical measure of the communication capability of a channel. We also find that this function is not always monotonic, in contrast to previous results not derived from first principles physics. These results clarify when and how to split a single communication stream across multiple channels. In particular, we present Pareto fronts that reveal the trade-off between thermodynamic costs and channel capacity when inverse multiplexing. Due to the generality of our model, our findings could help explain empirical observations of how thermodynamic costs of information transmission make inverse multiplexing energetically favorable in many real-world communication systems.

What is the Shannon entropy interpretation of e.g. (quantum wave function) amplitude encoding?

"Quantum discord"

> In quantum information theory, quantum discord is a measure of nonclassical correlations between two subsystems of a quantum system. It includes correlations that are due to quantum physical effects but do not necessarily involve quantum entanglement.

Isn't there more entropy if we consider all possible nonlocal relations between bits; or, is which entropy metric independent of redundant coding schemes between points in spacetime?


New neural network architecture inspired by neural system of a worm


> Once you stop caring about the brain and neurons and you find out that almost every cell in the body has gap junctions and voltage-gated ion channels which for all intents and purposes implement boolean logic and act as transistors for cell-to-cell communication, biology appears less as something which has been overcome and more something towards which we must strive with our primitive technologies: for instance, we can only dream of designing rotary engines as small, powerful, and resilient as the ATP synthase protein [2].

But what of wave function(s); and quantum chemistry at the cellular level?

Is emergent cognition more complex than boolean entropy, and are quantum primitives necessary to emulate apparently consistently emergent human cognition for whatever it's worth?

[Church-Turing-Deutsch, Deutsch's Constructor theory]

Is ATP the product of evolutionary algorithms like mutation and selection? Heat/Entropy/Pressure, Titration/Vibration/Oscillation, Time

From the article:

> The next step, Lechner said, “is to figure out how many, or how few, neurons we actually need to perform a given task.”

Notes regarding Representational drift* and remarkable resilience to noise in BNNs) from "The Fundamental Thermodynamic Cost of Communication:

It's never just one neuron.

And furthermore, FWIU, human brains are not directed graphs of literally only binary relations.

In a human brain, there are cyclic activation paths (given cardiac electro-oscillations) and an imposed (partially extracerebral) field which nonlinearly noises the almost-discrete activation pathways and probably serves a feed-forward function; and in those paths through the graph, how many of the neuronal synapses are simple binary relations (between just nodes A and B)?

> The group also wants to devise an optimal way of connecting neurons. Currently, every neuron links to every other neuron, but that’s not how it works in C. elegans, where synaptic connections are more selective. Through further studies of the roundworm’s wiring system, they hope to determine which neurons in their system should be coupled together.

Is there an information metric which expresses maximal nonlocal connectivity between bits in a bitstring; that takes all possible (nonlocal, discontiguous) paths into account?

`n_nodes*2` only describes all of the binary, pairwise possible relations between the bits or qubits in a bitstring?

"But what is a convolution"

Quantum discord:


Introduction to Datalog


With RDF* and SPARQL* ("RDF-star" and "SPARQL-star") how are triple (or quad) stores still distinct from property graphs?

RDFS and SHACL (and OWL) are optional in a triple store, which expects the subject and predicate to be string URIs, and there is an object datatype and optional language:

  (?s ?p ?o <datatype> [lang])

  (?subject:URI, ?predicate:URI, ?object:datatype, object_datatype, [object_language])
RDFS introduces rdfs:domain and rdfs:range type restrictions for Properties, and rdfs:Class and rdfs:subClassOf.

`a` means `rdf:type`; which does not require RDFS:

  ("#xyz", a,        "")
  ("#xyz", rdf:type, "")
Quad stores have a graph_id string URI "?g" for Named Graphs:

  (?g ?s ?p ?o)

  ("", "#xyz", a, "")

  ("", "#xyz", a, "")
There's a W3C CG (Community Group) revising very many of the W3C Linked Data specs to support RDF-star:

Looks like they ended up needing to update basically most of the current specs:

"RDF-star and SPARQL-star" (Draft Community Group Report; 08 December 2022)

GH topics: rdf-star, rdfstar:,

pyDatalog does datalog with SQLAlchemy and e.g. just the SQLite database: ; and it is apparently superseded by IDP-Z3:

From :

> A feature comparison of SQL w/ EAV, SPARQL/SPARUL, [SPARQL12 SPARQL-star, [T-SPARQL, SPARQLMT,]], Cypher, Gremlin, GraphQL, and Datalog would be a useful resource for evaluating graph query languages.

> I'd probably use unstructured text search to identify the relevant resources first.


Show HN: Polymath: Convert any music-library into a sample-library with ML

Polymath is a open-source tool that converts any music-library into a sample-library with machine learning. It separates songs into stems, quantizes to same BPM, detects key and much more. A game-changing workflow for music producers & DJ

Other cool #aiart things:

- "MusicLM: Generating music from text"

- /? awesome Generative AI

- #GenerativeArt #GenerativeMusic

- BespokeSynth DAW: :

> [...] live-patchable environment, so you can build while the music is playing; VST, VST3, LV2 hosting; Python livecoding; MIDI, [...]

> Using Polymath's search capability to discover related tracks, it is a breeze to create a polished, hour-long mash-up DJ set :

> How does it work?

> - Music Source Separation is performed with the [facebook/demucs] neural network

> - Music Structure Segmentation/Labeling is performed with the [wayne391/sf_segmenter] neural network

> - Music Pitch Tracking and Key Detection are performed with [marl/Crepe] neural network

> - Music Quantization and Alignment are performed with [bmcfee/pyrubberband]

> - Music Info retrieval and processing is performed with [librosa/librosa]


Coffee won’t give you extra energy, just borrow a bit that you’ll pay for later

From the article:

> This is because the caffeine won’t bind forever, and the adenosine that it blocks doesn’t go away. So eventually the caffeine breaks down, lets go of the receptors and all that adenosine that has been waiting and building up latches on and the drowsy feeling comes back – sometimes all at once.

> So, the debt you owe the caffeine always eventually needs to be repaid, and the only real way to repay it is to sleep.

Does drinking water offset the exertion-resultant dehydration that caffeine and other stimulants tend to result in?


Let Teenagers Sleep


/? ADHD and sleep; REM / non-REM:

Sleep hygiene:

- Enough exercise and water

- Otherwise, limit calories and/or protein in the preceding hours

Sleep induction:

Pranayama; breathing yoga:

4-7-8 breathing:

Attributed both to Army and Navy: :

> The Independent says the technique was first described in a book from 1981 called "Relax and Win: Championship Performance" by Lloyd Bud Winter.

/? "Relax and Win: Championship Performance"


Why is there so much useless and unreliable software?

Linear logic has been known since 1987. The first release of Coq (dependent types for functional programming and writing proofs) was in 1989. The HoTTBook came out in 2013. Ada/SPARK 2014 came out the same year as Java 8 did. We also witnessed the Software Foundations series, the CompCert C compiler, the Sel4 microkernel, and the SPARKNaCl cryptographic library.

Instead of learning about those achievements and aiming to program for the same reliability, clarity, and sophistication, we see an abundance of software that cannot clearly describe their own behavior nor misbehavior.

Instead of incorporating the full functionality of XML/HTML/CSS/SVG/JS/WebGL into the development experience and providing ways to control them at the fundamental level, we reinvent crude approximations like the various web frameworks.

YAML and JSON often trumps XML/XSD until things get out of control, and even then, people still don't learn the lesson. Protobuf, flatbuffer, capnproto, and the like keep reinventing ASN.1.

Naive microservices partially reimplements Erlang's BEAM VM while ignoring all the hard parts that BEAM VM got right. Many people riding the microservice bandwagon have never even heard of Paxos, not to mention TLA+.

Many programmers keep learning new shining frameworks but are reluctant to learn about the crucial fundamentals, e.g., Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures, nor how to think clearly and unambiguously in the spirit of Coq/Agda/Lean.

No wonder ChatGPT exposes how shallow most of programming is and how lacking most programmers are in actual understanding. Linear logic and dependent types are there to help us design and think with clarity at a high level, but people would rather fumble around with OOP class hierarchies (participate in the pointless is-a/has-a arguments) and "architecture" design that only complicate things.

What is this madness? This doesn't sound like engineering.

The adoption curve of advanced technologies that solve it all. Is it just the cognitive burden of the tooling or the concepts, are the training methods different, a dearth of already trained talent and sufficient post-graduate or post-doctoral instructors, unclear signals between demand and a supply funnel?

The limited availability of Formal Methods and Formal Verification training.

The growing demand for safety critical software for things that are heavy and that move fast and that fly over our heads and our homes.

In order to train, you need to present URLs: CreativeWork(s) in an outline (a tree graph), identify competencies (typically according to existing curricula) and test for comprehension, and what else is necessary to boost retention for and of identified competencies?

There are many online courses, but so few on Computer Science Education. You can teach with autograded Jupyter notebooks and your own edX instance all hosted in OCI containers in your own Kubernetes cloud, for example. Containers and Ansible Playbooks help minimize cost and variance in that part of the learning stack.

We should all learn Coq and TLA+ and Lean, especially. What resources and traversal do you recommend for these possibly indeed core competencies? For which domains are no-code tools safe?

If we were to instead have our LLM (,ChatGPT,Codex,) filter expression trees in order to autocomplete from only Formally Verified code with associated Automated Tests, and e.g. Lean Mathlib, how would our output differ from that of an LLM training on code that may or may not have any tests?

Could that also implement POSIX and which other interfaces, please?

> The adoption curve of advanced technologies that solve it all. Is it just the cognitive burden of the tooling or the concepts, are the training methods different, a dearth of already trained talent and sufficient post-graduate or post-doctoral instructors, unclear signals between demand and a supply funnel?

> The limited availability of Formal Methods and Formal Verification training.*

From "Are software engineering “best practices” just developer preferences?" :

>>> From "Why Don't People Use Formal Methods?" :

>>>> Which universities teach formal methods?

>>>> - q=formal+verification

>>>> - q=formal+methods

>>>> Is formal verification a required course or curriculum competency for any Computer Science or Software Engineering / Computer Engineering degree programs?

Formal methods should be required course or curriculum competency for various Computer Science and Software Engineering credentials.

> The growing demand for safety critical software for things that are heavy and that move fast and that fly over our heads and our homes.

"The Case of the Killer Robot"

> In order to train, you need to present URLs: CreativeWork(s) in an outline (a tree graph), identify competencies (typically according to existing curricula) and test for comprehension, and what else is necessary to boost retention for and of identified competencies?

A Multi-track "ThingSequence" which covers; And there are URIs for the competencies and exercises that cover.

> There are many online courses, but so few on Computer Science Education. You can teach with autograded Jupyter notebooks and your own edX instance all hosted in OCI containers in your own Kubernetes cloud, for example. Containers and Ansible Playbooks help minimize cost and variance in that part of the learning stack.

Automation with tooling is necessary to efficiently compete. In order to support credentialing workflows that qualify point-in-time performance, it is advisable to adopt tools that support automation of grading, for example.

> We should all learn Coq and TLA+ and Lean, especially. What resources and traversal do you recommend for these possibly indeed core competencies?

Links above. When should Formal Methods be introduced in a post-secondary or undergraduate program? Is there any reason that a curriculum can't go from math proofs, to logical proofs, to logical argumentation?

> For which domains are no-code tools safe?

Unfortunately, no-code tools in even low-risk applications can be critical vulnerabilities if persons do not understand their limitations. For example, "we used to have already-printed [offline] forms on hand [before the new computerized workflows [enabled by no-code, no review development workflows]]".

Should there be 2 or 3 redundant processes with an additional component that discards low-level outputs if there is no consensus? Is that plus No-code tools safe?

> If we were to instead have our LLM (,ChatGPT,Codex,) filter expression trees in order to autocomplete from only Formally Verified code with associated Automated Tests, and e.g. Lean Mathlib, how would our output differ from that of an LLM training on code that may or may not have any tests?

You should not be autocompleting from a training corpus of code without tests.

> Could that also implement POSIX and which other interfaces, please?

Eventually, AI will produce an OS kernel that is interface compatible with what we need to run existing code.

How can experts assess whether there has been sufficient review of an [AI-generated] alternative interface implementation?


What are some of the limits of TLA+ for dynamic analysis? Which other tools model variable-latency distributed systems?


The Rust Implementation of GNU Coreutils Is Becoming Remarkably Robust


BusyBox has Ash sh and a number of other binaries all compiled into a multiply-symlinked executable.

BusyBox and Ash (and Bash) in Rust would be neat. IDK that docstring parity would be a good thing?

There's also RustPython.


DIY 1,500W solar power electric bike (2022)

lxm | 2023-02-07 21:09:43 | 103 | # | ^

<wagon in tow> Yeah, Good call boss.

The cost figures in this article about [rooftop,] wind do not take into account latest gen [Dyneema] ultralight rooftop solar:

"Rooftop wind energy innovation claims 50% more energy than solar at same cost" (2022)

> The scalable, “#motionless” #WindEnergy unit can produce 50% more energy than rooftop solar at the same cost, said the company.

> The technology leverages aerodynamics similar to #airfoils in a race car to capture and amplify each building’s airflow. The unit requires about 10% of the space required by solar panels and generates round-the-clock energy. Aeromine said unlike conventional wind turbines that are noisy, visually intrusive, and dangerous to migratory birds, the patented system is motionless and virtually silent.

> An #Aeromine system typically consists of 20 to 40 units installed on the edge of a building facing the predominant wind direction. The company said the unit can minimize energy storage capacity needed to meet a building’s energy needs, producing energy in all weather conditions. With a small footprint on the roof, the unit can be combined with rooftop solar, providing a new tool in the toolkit for decarbonization and energy independence.

"18 Times More Power: MIT Researchers Have Developed Ultrathin Lightweight Solar Cells" (2022) :

> When they tested the device, the MIT researchers found it could generate 730 watts of power per kilogram when freestanding and about 370 watts-per-kilogram if deployed on the high-strength Dyneema fabric, which is about 18 times more power-per-kilogram than conventional solar cells.

> “A typical rooftop solar installation in Massachusetts is about 8,000 watts. To generate that same amount of power, our fabric photovoltaics would only add about 20 kilograms (44 pounds) to the roof of a house,” he says.

> They also tested the durability of their devices and found that, even after rolling and unrolling a fabric solar panel more than 500 times, the cells still retained more than 90 percent of their initial power generation capabilities.

E.g. Hyperlite Mountain Gear sells Dyneema ultralight backpacking packs and coats. There are Dyneema Patch Kits that work for various types of gear.

Wise to look at Ultralight backpacking gear before buying regular camping gear. Solarcore Aerogel is warm and light and also in encased in PVA foam rubber which is like a new wet suit. Kayaking bags are waterproof, but are there yet Dyneema ones?

You mightn't have understood?

730-370 watts/kilogram is the number to beat (for DIY electric bicycle applications)

And rooftop wind is competitive (for charging offline batteries)

Presumably, bicycling is like ultralight hiking: wHr/kg is the or a limit

A pedaling electric bicycler could tow a solar wagon, eh


Actors Say They’re Being Asked to Sign Away Their Voice to AI


S1M0̸NE (2002) Frankenstein.

Her (2013) She's too smart for you anyway.

Upload (2020, 2022) She buys in game credits for his existence.

Faust / The Little Mermaid:

"Final cut, Suit!" - Billy Walsh, Entourage

Final cut privilege: :

> typically reluctant


Why do we create modern desktop GUI apps using HTML/CSS/JavaScript? (2022)

Because Web Standards are Portable and Accessible.

You can recreate the accessible GUI widget tree universe in ASM or WASM, but it probably won't be as accessible as standard HTML form elements unless you spend more time than you have for that component on it.

For example, video game devs tend to do this: their very own text widget (and hopefully a ui scaling factor) with a backgroundColor attribute - instead of CSS's background-color - and then it doesn't support tabindex or screen readers or high contrast mode or font scaling.

It's a widget tree with events either way, but Web Standards are Portable and Accessible (with a comparative performance cost that's probably with it)


Flutter > See also is a good list:

/? flutter python ... TIL about flet:

Mobile-first development says develop the mobile app first and teh desktop version can get special features later; one responsive layout for Phone, Tablet, and desktop

Phosh (GTK) and KDE Plasma Mobile are alternatives to iOS and Android (which do have a terminal, bash, git, and a way to install CPython (w/ MambaForge ARM64 packages) and IPython)


Ask HN: Advice from people who strength train from home

I have a pullup bar and a Lebert Equalizer kind of thing. I live in a small room at my university. I am planning on training bodyweight or calisthenics as it is called popularly.

HNers who train from home using minimal weights or equipments, can you suggest a path for me.

I am looking for some hints on:

1. What is the bare minimum balanced routine I can start with?

2. How long should I stick to it before I see or feel actual results from it?

3. Diet? Eggs are easily available for me.

4. A bit about your journey. How you started and how have you progressed on parameters of strength, routine, size, energy, etc.

P.S: I came across this youtube channel: where he suggests that to gain strength and general fitness you can train daily with 3 movements but not to failure. Is it possible?

My goals are to have enough muscle and strength so that I don't get tired doing chores lifting something for my household. I want this to go far into my old age so that I don't fall and spend my final years in a nursing home bed.

(Secondhand) Total Gym XLS & 4x 20lb 5gal bucket concrete weights on 1.25" fittings, Basketball filled with sand, occasional Yoga, lately very occasional Inline Skating up and down a hill with wrist guards and a MIPS helmet with a visor

(Soccer, then former middle of the pack Distance Running; then also weight training resistance training in a Weider cage with an 45lb bar and adjustable spotter bars, high pulley, low pulley, leg extension; then Bowflex; and now TotalGym and I prefer it. Lol, you watch the infomercial and you see the testimonials and you think "nobody's that happy with their without ever" and still I really do enjoy this equipment. (I have never been paid to endorse any fitness product or book.))

Calisthenics says that "time under tension" is more relevant than number of reps.

The TotalGym is a decent to good partner stretcher. "Don't slam the stack, and don't waste an opportunity to let it stretch you out"

Dance music has a higher tempo. Various apps will generate workout playlists with AFAIU a BPM ladder

The "high protein foods" part of Keto.

My understanding of Keto: if you eat too much sugar (including starchy carbs) without protein, the body learns to preferentially burn sugar and wastes the protein; so eat protein all day. We do need carbs to efficiently process protein. (And we do need fat for our brains: there is a reference DV daily value for fat for a reason. Ranch, Whole Milk, and Peanut Butter have fat.)

Omega-3s and Omega-6s would be listed under "Polyunsaturated Fats" if it were allowed to list them on the standard Nutrition Facts label instead of elsewhere on the packaging.

Omega 6:3 balance apparently affects endocannabinoid levels. Endocannabinoids help regulate diet and inflammation.

Antioxidants: Vitamins A, C, E,

Electrolytes: Water + Salt + Potassium (H20 + NaCl + K)

There are many lists of foods to eat for inflammation and inflammatory conditions.

Foods rich in anthocyanins tend to be high in nutrients; for example, blueberries, chard, and other dark leafy vegetables and fruits. Blueberry smoothie; premixed, frozen, fresh and washed with sprayed water+vinegar in a clip-on colander.

Pressure cooking is a relatively healthy way to prepare protein.

You can make a dozen hard-boiled or soft-boiled eggs with one instant pot pressure cooker in ~20 minutes and with less water than conventional boiling.

50g/day of Protein is 100% of the DV for a 2000 calorie diet, when you're not trying to gain muscle mass. Bodybuilders consume at least 100g or 150g of protein a day.

Tired of e.g. tuna, eggs, beef; I learned of "The No Meat Athlete Cookbook: Whole Food, Plant-Based Recipes to Fuel Your Workouts—and the Rest of Your Life", which has a bunch of ideas for vegan and vegetarian protein and nutrionally-balanced meals.

FWIU, vegan and vegetarian diets tend to have some common issues like e.g. magnesium deficiency.

I can't be mad at the lion for being omnivorous; but frustrated at the lion for being greedy and selfish in regards to ecology and smell. /? S tool reading infographic

Protein bars (20g: Huel, Aldi), Protein bread (10g/slice), Muscle Milk Pro (50g), Huel, Filtered water: Wide-mouth water bottles, Fish Oil (Omega-3s DHA & EPA), Olive Oil (<~380°F), spray Avocado Oil (Aldi), Peanut Butter, Whole Milk, Multigrain Cheerios over Total (in the 100% DV cereals category),

Supergrains: flax, chia, shelled hemp seed. Super grains mixed into peanut butter = $25 health food store peanut butter.

Healthy Eating Plate: Water, Fruits, Grains, Veggies, Protein. USDA Myplate: people need* Milk/Dairy (which is indeed basically impossible to create a synthetic analogue of, in terms of formula or)

Some greens have little more nutritional content than water and fiber. AFAIU, Chard is as nutritious as Spinach, which has iron (which is what Popeye eats to hopefully eventually woo Olive Oil)

Ice water diminishes appetite. Bread has filling carbs that you can eat with protein* (to stay closer to "ketosis", for example)

HIIT says don't rest for more than 15 seconds / 45 seconds between exercises / sets

My TotalGym workouts now are much more aerobic than when I started getting back to healthy and counted reps. I've put off adding more weight to the carriage bar (that certain TG models lierally support) for like a year and I've rounded-out in areas I mightn't have as a result.

I don't miss free weights, stacks / universal machines. After trying rings with nobody else around in the backyard, the TotalGym wins.

Certain (my parents') Bowflex units can't be upgraded with more or heavier tension rods; though the weighted non-inclined rowing is cool too.

Watched a few "Bodybuilding on a budget" [how to buy protein at at discount grocery store] yt videos. I usually eat cold, but Instant Pot for the win; TIL grill char is carcinogenic. With a second Instant Pot, you can do veggies separately from protein, which takes much longer to cook.


Show HN: DocsGPT, open-source documentation assistant, fully aware of libraries

Hi, This is a very early preview of a new project, I think it could be very useful. Would love to hear some feedback/comments

From :

>> How do the responses compare to auto-summarization in terms of Big E notation and usefulness?

> Automatic summarization:

> "Automatic summarization" GH topic:

Though now archived,

> Microsoft/nlp-recipes lists current NLP tasks that would be helpful for a docs bot:

NLP Tasks: Text Classification, Named Entity Recognition, Text Summarization, Entailment, Question Answering, Sentence Similarity, Embeddings, Sentiment Analysis, Model Explainability, and Auto-Annotatiom

On further review, there are more GitHub projects labeled with than "automatic-summarization"; e.g. awesome-text-summarization: and , which links to what look like relatively current benchmarks for SOTA performance in text summarization from the gh source repo of :


Show HN: I turned my microeconomics textbook into a chatbot with GPT-3

I never really read my micro-econ textbook.

Looking up concepts from the book with Google yields SEO-y results.

So I used GPT-3 to make a custom chatbot I can query at any time.

How do the responses compare to auto-summarization in terms of Big E notation and usefulness?

> How do the responses compare to auto-summarization in terms of Big E notation and usefulness?

Automatic summarization:

"Automatic summarization" GH topic:

Microsoft/nlp-recipes lists current NLP tasks that would be helpful for a docs bot:


ChatGPT is a bullshit generator but it can still be amazingly useful

Prompt engineering:

/? inurl:awesome prompt engineering "llm"

XAI: Explainable Artificial Intelligence & epistomology :

> Explainable AI (XAI), or Interpretable AI, or Explainable Machine Learning (XML), [1] is artificial intelligence (AI) in which humans can understand the decisions or predictions made by the AI. [2] It contrasts with the "black box" concept in machine learning where even its designers cannot explain why an AI arrived at a specific decision. [3][4] By refining the mental models of users of AI-powered systems and dismantling their misconceptions, XAI promises to help users perform more effectively. [5] XAI may be an implementation of the social _ right to explanation _. [6] XAI is relevant even if there is no legal right or regulatory requirement. For example, XAI can improve the user experience of a product or service by helping end users trust that the AI is making good decisions. This way the aim of XAI is to explain what has been done, what is done right now, what will be done next and unveil the information the actions are based on. [7] These characteristics make it possible (i) to confirm existing knowledge (ii) to challenge existing knowledge and (iii) to generate new assumptions. [8]

Right to explanation:

(Edit; all human)

/? awesome "explainable ai"

- (Many other great resources)

- :

> Post model-creation analysis, ML interpretation/explainability

/? awesome "explainable ai" "XAI"


A more logged approach with IDK all previous queries in a notebook and their output over time would be more scientific-like and thus closer to "Engineering":

> Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings.[1] The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application.

"How and why (NN, LLM, AI,) prompt outputs change over time; with different models, and with different training data" {@type=[schema:Review || schema:ScholarlyArticle], schema:dateModified=}

  (@id, "prompt", XML:lang, w3c:prov-enance)

  (@id,, datetime, api_service_uri, "prompt_ouput")
#aiart folks might know


Sh1mmer – An exploit capable of unenrolling enterprise-managed Chromebooks


Chromebooks don't even have a Terminal for the kids. Vim's great, but VScode with Jupyter Notebook support would make the computers we bought for them into great offline calculators, too.

VSCode on a Chromebook requires VMs and Containers which require "Developer Tools" and "Powerwash"; or the APK repack of VSCodium that you can't even sideload and manually update sometimes (because it's not on the 15-30% cut, and must use their payment solution, app store with static analysis and code signing at upload).

AFAIU, Chromebooks with Family Link and Chromebooks for Education do not have a Terminal, bash, git, VMs (KVM), Containers (Docker/Podman/LXC/LXD/gvisor), third-party repos with regular security updates, or even Python; which isn't really Linux (and Windows, Mac, and Linux do already at present support such STEM for Education use cases).

From :

> Is WebVM a potential solution to "JupyterLite doesn't have a bash/zsh shell"? The current pyodide CPython Jupyter kernel takes like ~25s to start at present, and can load Python packages precompiled to WASM or unmodified Python packages with micropip:

There's also MambaLite, which is part of the emscripten-forge project; along with BinderLite. (Edit: Micropip or Mambalite or picomamba or Zig. : "A 116kb WASM of Blink that lets you run x86_64 Linux binaries in the browser" )

It looks like there are now tests for VScode in the default Power washable 'penguin' Debian VM that you get with Chromebook Developer Tools; but still the kids are denied VMs and Containers or local accounts (with kid-safe DoH/DoT at lesat) and so they can't run VScode locally on the Chromebooks that we bought for them.

Why do I need "Developer Tools" access to run VScode and containers on a Chromebook; but not on a Windows, Mac or Linux computer? If containers are good enough for our workloads hosted in the cloud, they should be good enough for local coding and calculating in e.g. Python.


VSCode + containers + the powerwash feature would enable kids to STEM.

Are flatpaks out of the question? Used to be "Gnome and Chrome" on ~Gentoo.

Shouldn't the ChromiumOS host be running SELinux, if the ARC support requires extended filesystem attributes for `ls -alz` and `ps -aufxz` to work?

Chromium and Chrome appear to be running unconfined? AppArmor for Firefox worked years ago? ; chrome_selinux ?

It seems foolish to have SELinux in a guest VM but not the host.

Task: "Reprovision" the default VMs and Containers after "Powerwash" `rm -rf`s everything

`adb shell pm list packages` and `adb install` a list of APKs and CRXs.

Here's chromebook_ansible:

Systemd-homed is portable. Still, "Reprovision" the broken userspace for the user.

Local k8s like microshift that does container-selinux like RH / Fedora, with Gnome and Waydroid would be cool to have for the kids.

Podman-desktop (~Docker Desktop) does k8s now.

K8s defaults to blocking containers that run as root now, and there's no mounting thee --privileged docket socket w/ k8s either. Gitea + DroneCI/ACT/ci_runner w/ rootless containers. Gvisor is considered good enough for shared server workloads.

Repo2docker + caching is probably close to "kid proof" or "reproducible".

VScode has "devcontainer.json". Scipy stacks ( ) and Kaggle/docker-python (Google) take how many GB to run locally for users < 13 who we don't afford cloud shells with SSH (Colab with SSH, JupyterHub (TLJH w/ k8s),) for either.

Task: Learn automated testing, bash, git, and python (for Q12 K12CS STEM)

> It seems foolish to have SELinux in a guest VM but not the host.

- [ ] task manager: optionally show SELinux contexts like `ls -alz`

>> *Is WebVM a potential solution to "JupyterLite doesn't have a bash/zsh shell"?"

"ENH: Terminal and Shell: BusyBox, bash/zsh, git; WebVM,"


Nice. TIL about vim.wasm:

Jupyter Notebook and Jupyter Lab have a web terminal that's good enough to do SSH and Vim. Mosh Mobile Shell is more resilient to internet connection failure.

Again though, Running everything in application-sandboxed WASM all as the current user is a security regression from the workload isolation features built into VMs and Containers (which Windows, Mac, and Linux computers support in the interests of STEM education and portable component reuse).


When Will Fusion Energy Light Our Homes?


We get free EM radiation from the free nuclear fusion reaction at the center of our solar system; and all of the other creatures find that sufficient for survival.


Algae, organic matter, heat, and pressure


Those are "biopolymers", "biocomposites", but like Soy Dream not "bioplastics"?

FWIU, algae, cellulose, and flax or hemp are strong candidates for sustainable eco-friendly products and packaging.


Oh, happy to just drill and frack through the aquifer slash water table. How much water does it take to drill?


Watched the Helion Learn Engineering video, too:

Has that net-positive finding been reproduced yet in any other Tokamoks?

How does this compare to Helion's (non-Tokamok, non-Stellerator fusion plasma confinement reactor) published stats for the Trenta and Polaris products?

Could SYLOS or other CPA Chirped Pulse Amplification lasers be useful for this problem with or without the high heat of a preexisting plasma reaction to laser pulse next to?


Tell HN: GitHub will delete your private repo if you lose access to the original

I was surprised to see this in my email today:

> Your private repository baobabKoodaa/laaketutka-scripts (forked from futurice/how-to-get-healthy) has been deleted because you are no longer a collaborator on futurice/how-to-get-healthy.

That was an MIT-licensed open source project I worked on years ago. We published the source code for everyone to use, so I certainly did not expect to lose access to it just because someone at my previous company has been doing spring cleaning at GitHub! I had a 100% legal fork of the project, and now it's gone... why?

Turns out I don't even have a local copy of it anymore, so this actually caused me data loss. I'm fine with losing access to this particular codebase, I'm not using HN as customer support to regain access. I just wanted everyone to be aware that GitHub does this.


  git clone --mirror
  git clone --bare
  git push --mirror
  git push --all
"Is `git push --mirror` sufficient for backing up my repository?" :

> So it's usually best to use --mirror for one time copies, and just use normal push (maybe with --all) for normal uses.

git push:

git clone:

The Qubit Game (2022)

"World Quantum Day: Meet our researchers and play The Qubit Game" :

> In celebration of World Quantum Day, the Google Quantum AI team wanted to try a different way to introduce people to the world of quantum computing. So we teamed up with Doublespeak Games to make The Qubit Game – a playful journey to building a quantum computer, one qubit at a time, while solving challenges that quantum engineers face in their daily work. If you succeed, you’ll discover new upgrades for your in-game quantum computer, complete big research projects, and hopefully become a little more curious about how we’re building quantum computers.

Additional Q12 (K12 QIS Quantum Information Science) ideas?:

- Exercise: Port QuantumQ quantum puzzle game exercises to a quantum circuit modeling and simulation library like Cirq (SymPy) or qiskit or tequila:

- Exercise: Model fair random coin flips with qubit basis encoding in a quantum circuit simulator in a notebook

- Exercise: Model fair (uniformly distributed) 6-sided die rolls with basis state embedding or amplitude embedding or better (in a quantum circuit simulator in a notebook)

- QIS K-12 Framework (for K12 STEM, HS Computer Science, HS Physics)

- tequilahub/tequila-tutorials:


Calculators now emulated at Internet Archive


"TI-83 Plus Calculator Emulation"

TI-83 series: :

> Symbolic manipulation (differentiation, algebra) is not built into the TI-83 Plus. It can be programmed using a language called TI-BASIC, which is similar to the BASIC computer language. Programming may also be done in TI Assembly, made up of Z80 assembly and a collection of TI provided system calls. Assembly programs run much faster, but are more difficult to write. Thus, the writing of Assembly programs is often done on a computer.

I had a TI-83 Plus in middle school, and then bought a TI-83 Plus Silver edition for high school. The TI-83 Plus was the best calculator allowed for use by the program back then. FWIU these days it's the TI-84 Plus, which has USB but no CAS Computer Algebra System.

The JupyterLite build of JupyterLab - and - include the SymPy CAS Computer Algebra System and a number of other libraries; and there's an `assert` statement in Python; but you'd need to build your own JupyterLab WASM bundle to host as static HTML if you want to include something controversial like pytest-hypothesis.

Better than a TI-83 Plus emulator? Install MambaForge in a container to get the `conda` and `mamba` package managers (and LLVM-optimized CPython on Win, Mac, Lin) and then `mamba install -y jupyterlab tabulate pandas matplotlib sympy`; or login to e.g. Google Colab, Cocalc, or ( ) .

To install packages every time a notebook runs:

  !python -m pip install # or
  %pip install <pkgs> 

  !conda install -y
  !mamba install -y
But, JupyterLite, and Colab, and Kaggle Learn all already have a version of SymPy installed (per their reproducible software version dependency files; requirements.txt, environment.yml (Jupyter REES; repo2docker))

Like MAME, which is the emulator for the TI-83 Plus and other calculators hosted by this new Internet Archive project, Emscripten-forge builds WASM (WebAssembly) that runs in an application-sandboxed browser tab as the same user as other browser tab subprocesses.

TI-83 apps:

ACT Math Section app; /? TI-83 ACT app:

Commodity markets with volatility on your monochrome LCD calculato with no WiFi. SimCity BuildIt has an online commodity marketplace and sims as part of the simulation game. "Category:TI-83&4 series Zilog Z80 games"

Computer Algebra System > Use in education: :

> CAS-equipped calculators are not permitted on the ACT, the PLAN, and in some classrooms[15] though it may be permitted on all of College Board's calculator-permitted tests, including the SAT, some SAT Subject Tests and the AP Calculus, Chemistry, Physics, and Statistics exams.

Also like MAME, if you have the ROM for your e.g. TI-84 or TI-89, you can run it with emulator apps for e.g. iOS and Android.

Other cool math calculation apps for phones and tablets without bash, git, python and conda/mamba: Geogebra, Desmos, QuantumQ, (FDroid Termux + conda, Waydroid,)